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Full text of "Proceedings : Government-Industry Oceanographic Instrumentation Symposium, Washington, D.C., August 16 and 17, 1961"

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Interagency Committee on Oceanography 

of the 

Federal Council for Science and Technology 

United States of America 



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GOVERNMENT-INDUSTRY OCEANOGRAPHIC 
y* INSTRUMENTATION SYMPOSIUM 
AUGUST 16-17, 1961 






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PROCEEDINGS 

GOVERNMENT-INDUSTRY OCEANOGRAPHIC 
INSTRUMENTATION SYMPOSIUM 



WOODS HOLE 
^EAflOGRAPHlC -INST4TU130N 

LABORATORY 
•feOOK COLLECTJOW 

PURCHASE ORDER NO. ' i^f^ 

DEC 21 1962 




JAMES M. SNODGRASS, Head, Special 
Developments, Scripps Institution of 
Oceanography 



FRONTISPIECE 



HON. JAMES H. WAKELIN, Jr., 
Assistant Secretary of the Navy for 
Research and Development and Chairman, 
Interagency Committee on Oceanography. 



REAR ADMIRAL EDWARD C. STEPHAN, 
Oceanographer , The Navy 



DONALD L. McKERNAN, Director, 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 
Chairman, Panel on Facilities, Equip- 
ment, and Instrumentation, ICO, and 
Chairman of Symposium 



PROCEEDINGS 

GOVERNMENT -INDUSTRY OCEANOGRAPHIC 
INSTRUMENTATION SYMPOSIUM 



Washington, D. C. 
August 16 and 17, 1961 



Sponsored by 
INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY 

of the 
FEDERAL COUNCIL FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 



Julius Rockwell, Jr. - Editor 



Miller -Columbian Reporting Service 

931 G Street NW 

Washington 1, D. C. 



INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY, August I96I 

Hon. James H. Wakelin, Jr., Chairman, Defense 

Dr. Randal M. Robertson, National Science Foundation 

RADM Donald McG. Morrison, U. S. Coast Guard, Treasury 

Dr. Homer D. Babbidge, Health, Education, and Welfare 

RADM H. Arnold Karo, Commerce 

Donald L. McKernan, Interior 

Dr. John N. Wolfe, Atomic Energy Commission i 

Robert B. Abel, Secretary, Navy 



Panel on Facilities, Equipment, and Instrumentation 

Donald L. McKernan, Chairman, Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries 

CAPT Charles N. Grant Hendrix, Hydrographic Office 

Feenan D. Jennings, Office of Naval Research 

Anthony J. Goodheart, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 

LCDR Robert P. Dinsmore, U. S. Coast Guard 

Dr. I. Eugene Wallen, Atomic Energy Commission 

Dr. John Lyman, National Science Foiindation 

Gilbert Jaffa, Navy Hydrographic Office 

AUyn C. Vine, National Academy of Sciences Committee 
on Oceanography 



IV 



ABSTRACT 



The proceedings include the 25 papers presented at the Govern- 
ment-Industry Oceanographic Instrumentation Symposium by top 
administrators and scientists, answers by panel members to ques- 
tions received from the floor, lists of the scientific and industrial 
laboratories concerned with oceanographic research and develop- 
ment, lists of instrumentation developments now required for 
oceanographic survey and research, and other miscellaneous 
information. 

It was pointed out in these papers that: Our Nation's lines of 
defense, weather control, new sources of protein, and untold 
mineral wealth lie in the sea, and it is essential that we increase 
our understanding of this important portion of man's realm. 

A major requirement for the necessary growth in oceanography 
is the availability of reliable, precise, and easily-used instruments 
to record the parameters of the oceans. Most of our present-day 
instruments are of primitive design and largely of the "homemade" 
variety. A great movement is now unaerway to introduce new 
devices and modern techniques into this field. The entire ocean 
floor, three quarters of the earth's surface, must be mapped 
in topographic and geological detail. The conditions affecting the 
transfer of sound must be known in general principle and in 
specific local detail. The earth's heat budget and energy transfers 
from the atmosphere to the water must also be defined. The range 
of the animals and plants in the sea and the extent and nature of the 
environment affecting the individual species must be understood 
if they are to be harvested efficiently, and if the farming of the 
sea is to become an accomplished fact. Rock specimens, cores, 
deep drilling, and the strata of the ocean bottom must be plotted 
if we are to use the sea's mineral resources. Many of the instru- 
ments to do these tasks have been invented; many have not yet 
been conceived; some are still in the predevelopment stage'and 
much refinement needs to be done to make them generally appli- 
cable. The instrument needs for the rapidly expanding National 
Oceanographic Program were comprehensively outlined in the 
two-day Symposium. Industry was invited to assume an ever- 
increasing responsibility in this field. 



'Two-thirds of the earth's surface is covered by the waters of 
the seas. The waters themselves greatly affect our lives -- they 
play a major role in governing our climate; they provide inexpen- 
sive transportation; from them we derive important quantities of 
nourishment; they have traditionally provided protection against 
military attack. Beneath the surface a myriad of wonders is 
concealed. There are trenches, the floors of which are as much 
as 7 miles below sea-level. Mountains which approach Mt. Everest 
in height rise up from the ocean floor. Sediments in the ocean deeps 
contain detailed records of earth history -- and, associated with it, 
life history. The more than 300 million cubic miles of water con- 
tain huge assemblages of living matter of fantastic variety. 

"As our technological civilization increases in complexity, as 
human populations grow more and more rapidly, as problems of 
military defense become increasingly difficult, as man pushes 
forwara with his relentless quest for greater understanding of 
himself, his origins and the universe in which he lives --as all 
of these changes take place, detailed knowledge and understanding 
of the oceans and their contents will assume ever greater impor- 
tance. 

'Man's knowledge of the oceans is meager indeed when com- 
pared with their importance to him. 

From "Oceanography 1960-1970" 

National Academy of Sciences -- 

National Research Council 



Vll 



PREFACE 



The Government-Industry Oceanographic Instrumentation 
Symposium, held August 16-17, 1961, in the Interior Auditorium 
in Washington, D. C. , was sponsored by the Interagency Commi- 
ttee on Oceanography (ICO), a permanent committee of the 
Federal Council for Science and Technology. The purpose of 
this meeting was to facilitate communication between Government 
and Industry in the area of instrumentation requirements and deve- 
lopment programs. The National Oceanographic Program was not 
only new to much of Industry, who desired to contribute to its 
progress, but the agencies engaged in oceanography recognized the 
need for industrial technological assistance in these developments. 

However, this diverse program includes activities and pro- 
grams in twenty-three agencies: 

Department of Defense Department of Comnnerce 

Navy Coast and Geodetic Survey 

Maritime Administration 
Bureau of Naval Weapons Weather Bureau 

Bureau of Ships 

Navy Hydrographic Office Department of Health, Education , 

Navy Weather Service and Welfare 

Office of Naval Research 

Office of Education 
Army Public Health Service 

Beach Erosion Board Department of State 

Corps of Engineers 

Special Assistant to Secretary of 
Department of Interior State for Fisheries and Wildlife 

Bureau of Commercial Department of the Treasury 

Fisheries 
Bureau of Mines Coast Guard 

Bureau of Sports Fisheries 

and Wildlife 
Geological Survey 



IX 



Independent Agencies 

Atomic Energy Commission 
National Academy of Sciences 
National Oceanographic Data Center 
National Science Foundation 
Smithsonian Institution 

Groups from various industrial firms have visited many of these 
agencies to present their capabilities and to learn how they might 
serve. Key agency personnel, on the other hand, have been meeting 
with their groups and have been giving guidance independently of 
each other. 

The Symposium was conducted for ICO by its Panel on Facilities, 
Equipment, and Instrumentation to develop a common communication 
channel between Government and Industry and to provide Industry 
with a coherent statement of instrument needs. Top government 
administrators, operating engineers, and scientific experts from 
the Federal agencies and their contractors led the discussions. At 
the meeting were 540 representatives from Industry, 139 represen- 
tatives from Government, 32 from nonprofit institutions, 22 from the 
press, and 4 individuals representing foreign nations --a total of 
737 attendees. 

Because of the interest exhibited during the meetings, the ICO 
decided to publish the Proceedings of the Symposium. vVherever 
possible the material reproduced in the Proceedings has been re- 
viewed by the contributor. During the Symposium several questions 
were submitted on cards to panels which, for several reasons, 
could not then be answered. These have been reviewed and answers 
have been provided where possible in appendix A. The lists of non- 
industrial scientific groups (appendix B) and industries (appendix C) 
are as complete as the data made available to the Panel. If a 
laboratory or firm has not been included, the Panel expresses its 
regrets. It is requested, for future listings, that groups concerned 
submit their names to the chairman of the Panel. 

The full lists of requirements for instruments and instrument 
systems have been included (appendices E, F, G, and H) . The 
sample "Oceanographic Bibliography" (appendix I) has been compiled 
from many sources. Comments on the books were provided princi- 
pally by Jan Hahn, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and 



Paul T. Macy, Bureau of Cjmmercial Fisheries, Seattle, whose 
works are also listed in appendix I. The "Information on contacting 
government contracting agencies" (appendix J) was an interagency 
effort headed by Captain C. N. G. Hendrix. The basic information 
in the personnel biographies was derived from "American Men Of 
Science. "— 



The Panel takes pleasure in thanking the editor and his staff, 
Mr. Donald Ingalls who laia out the illustrations, and the nnany 
members of the ICO, its Panels and all those who made this work 
possible. 



Donald M. McKernan 

Director, Bureau of Commer- 
cial Fisheries and Chairman 
of the Symposivim. 



i/ The Jaques Cattelle Press, Inc., Annex 15, Arizona State Uni- 
versity, Tempe, Arizona. 



XI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 

Frontispiece ii 

Abstract v 

Preface ix 

Table of Contents ^iii 

List of Figures xix 

First day - Wednesday, 16 August 1961 
Morning Session 

1. Opening remarks. 

Donald L. McKernan, Senninar Chairman. . . 1 

2. A welcome to the Government-Industry Oceanographic 
Instrumentation Symposium. 

Hon. James H. Wakelin, Jr., Assistant 
Secretary of the Navy for Research and 
Development 5 

3. Research aspects of the oceanographic program. 

RADM L. D. Coates, USN 10 

4. Survey aspects of the oceanographic program. 

RADM Charles Pierce, USC&GS 17 

5. Navy's role in the field of oceanography- 

RADM Edward C. Stephan, USN 23 

6. Brief historical background in the development of oceano- 
graphic instruments, present state of the art, and some 
new concepts- 
James M. Snodgrass 29 



Xlll 



Page 
Afternoon Session 

7. Aspects of oceanographic instrumentation development as 
related to input into the National Oceanographic Data Center. 

Dr. Woodrow C. Jacobs 57 

8. Operational aspects of oceanographic instrumentation 
For the Hydrographic Office, I. (Operations). 

CAPT Raymond D. Fusselman 66 

For the Hydrographic Office, II. (Engineering). 

Gilbert Jaffe 79 

For the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 

Vernon E. Brock 88 

For Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Anthony J. Goodheart 92 

9- Discussion of worldwide navigational requirements as 
related to the national oceanographic program. 

RADM Donald McG. Morrison, USCG 97 

10. General discussion and question and answer period relating 

to first day's topics 106 

Donald L. McKernan, Director, Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, Chairman, Panel on Facilities, Equipment, 
and Instrumentation, and Chairman. 

H. W. Dubach, Deputy Director, National Oceanographic 
Data Center. 

CAPT Raymond D. Fusselman, Deputy Hydrographer, 
Navy Hydrographic Office. 

CAPT Charles N. Grant Hendrix, Special Projects Officer, 
Navy Hydrographic Office. 

Gilbert Jaffe, Director, Marine Sciences Department, Navy 
Hydrographic Office. 

Dr. Arthur E. Maxwell, Head, Geophysics Branch, Office of 
Naval Research. 



xiv 



Page 



RADM Donald McG. Morrison, USCG, Chief, Office 
of Operations, U. S. Coast Guard. 

RADM Charles Pierce, USC&GS, Deputy Director, U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey (now retired). 

James M. Snodgrass, Head, Special Developments, 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 



Second day - Thiirsday, 17 August 1961 
Morning Session 

11. Opening remarks- 

Donald L. McKernan 128 

12. Applied research instrumentation requirements- 
including ASWEPS. 

For Hydrographic Office. . . John J. Schule, Jr . . . . 1Z9 

For Bureau of Ships B. King Couper 139 

For Bureau of Naval Weapons. Murray H. Schefer. . . 145 

13. Development and maintenance of buoy systems. 

Dr. William S. Richardson 153 

14. Fixed platforms. 

Arthur L, Nelson 158 

15. Submersibles and aircraft platforms. 

Allyn C. Vine 163 

Afternoon Session 

16. Physical and chemical requirements- 

Dr. Hugh J. McLellan 172 

17. Geology and geophysics - 

Dr. J. Lamar Worzel 177 



XV 



Page 

18. Biological instrumentation. 

Charles S. Yentsch 197 

19. Fisheries. 

Dr. J. L. McHugh 211 

20. Radiobiological requirements . 

Dr. I. Eugene Wailen 216 

21. General discussion and question and answer period re- 
lating to all topics 219 

Donald L. McKernan, Director, Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, Chairman, Panel on Facilities, Equipment, 
and Instrumentation, and Chairman of Symposium. 

B. King Couper, Head, Oceanographic Section, Applied 
Sciences Branch, Bureau of Ships and Coordinator for 
TENOC Program. 

Dr. J. L. McHugh, Chief, Division of Biological Research, 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 

Dr. Hugh J. McLellan, Physical Oceanographer , Depart- 
ment of Oceanography and Meteorology, Texas Agricultural 
and Mechanical College. 

Arthur L. Nelson, Supervisory Engineer, Naval Electronics 
Laboratory, San Diego. 

Dr. William S. RicheLrdson, Chemist, Woods Hole Oceano- 
graphic Institution. 

Murray H. Schefer, Oceajiographer , ASW Division, Bureau 
of Naval Weapons. 

John J. Schule, Jr., Director, Oceanographic Prediction 
Division, Navy Hydrographic Office. 

James M. Snodgrass, Head, Special Developments, Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography. 



XVI 



Page 

Allyn C. Vine, Physical Oceanographer, Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution. 

Dr. I. Eugene Wallen, Aquatic Biologist, Division of 
Biology and Medicine, Atomic Energy Commission. 

Dr. J. Lamar Worzel, Assistant Director, Lamont 
Geological Observatory. 

Charles S. Yentsch, P.esearch Associate in Marine 
Biology, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 

22. Summary of oceanographic instrumentation requirennents. 

James M. Snodgrass. . . . 231 

23. Closing remarks Donald L. McKernaji. . . . 234 



Appendix A. Answers to questions submitted at the Symposium, 
but not answered at the Symposium 235 

Appendix B. Non-Industrial marine science laboratories and 
offices of the United States, members of ICO and 
its panels, and other interested persons. . . 265 

Appendix C. Industry list 283 

Appendix D. List of attendees 309 

Appendix E. Required oceanographic instrument suit for 

oceanographic survey vessels. Prepared by a 
Special Working Group of representatives of 
the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, and the U. S. Navy Hydro- 
graphic Office, headed by Captain C. N. G. 
Hendrix, USN 349 



xvii 



Page 

Appendix F. U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office requirements for 
oceanographic instrument suit for ships of 
opportunity 405 

Appendix G. U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office requirements for 
shipboard oceanographic synoptic system for 
regional and mobile observational networks 
(ASWEPS) 409 

Appendix H. Required instruments for fisheries research. . . . 413 

Appendix I. Oceanographic bibliography 441 

Appendix J. Information on contacting Government contracting 

agencies 451 

Appendix K. Biographies of contributors 455 

Appendix L. Some abbreviations and acronyms used in 

oceanography 477 



XVlll 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Page 

Frontispiece ii 

Figure 3. 1 U. S. S. Argo (ARS-27) 12 

Figure 3. 2 Argus Island 13 

Figure 3.3 Bathyscaphe 14 

Figure 3.4 Trieste revised 15 

Figure 4. 1 Ship Pioneer 19 

Figure 4. 2 Ship Surveyor 19 

Figure 6. 1 GuK Stream -- Benjamin Franklin 28 

Figure 6.2 Technician taking "bucket temperature" 31 

Figure 6.3 Bathysphere 33 

Figiire 6.4 BT ^bathythermograph) 36 

Figure 6. 5 Night Secchi disc 37 

Figure 6.6 Integrating plankton collector 37 

Figure 6. 7 Modified Roberts meter in yoke with pressure 

module and electric swivel 39 

Figure 6.8 Glass balls. 40 

Fig\ire 6.9 Ball breaker -- real and plastic 40 

Figure 6. 10 Plastic cast oil-filled photocell 41 

Figure 6.11 Radiant energy recorder 42 

Figure 6.12 Silver voltamineter light integrator 42 

Figure 6. 13 Geothermal gradient recorder 43 



XIX 



Page 

Figiire 6. 14 Geothermal gradient recorder in pressure case. 45 

Figure 6. 15 Straightening probe, geothermal gradient 

recorder 45 

Figure 6. 16 Scripps Institution of Oceanography current 

meter 46 

Figure 6. 17 Chassis -- Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

current meter 46 

Figure 6. 18 Deck readout, Scripps Institution of Oceano- 
graphy current meter 47 

Figure 6. 19 Depth readout meter, Scripps Institution of 

Oceanography current meter 47 

Figure 6. 20 X-Y plot current, Scripps Institution of 

Oceanography current meter 49 

Figure 6. 21 Circuit boards fronn binary switching module. . 50 

Figure 6. 22 Electrical noise in the sea, azimuthal 

variation 50 

Figure 6. 23 Irradiance as function of wave length and depth. 51 

Figure 7. 1 Computer facilities. National Oceanographic 

Data Center 59 

Figure 8.1 U.S. bathymetric holdings (1961) 69 

Figure 8.2 U.S. bathythermograph holdings 70 

Figure 8.3 Research ship 72 

Figure 8.4 Oceanographic survey instruments required. . • 73 

Figure 8.5 Specifications for the three instrument suits. . . 75 

Figure 8. 6 Submarine instrument suit 77 



XX 



Page 

Figure 8.7 Approximate number of instruments required 

for research and survey operations 78 

Figure 8.8 Water samplers 80 

Figure 8.9 Reversing thermometer 80 

Figure 8. 10 A submarine recording unit 82 

Figure 8. 11 Current meter 82 

Figure 8. 12 Instruments needed for ships of opportunity. . . 86 

Figure 8. 13 Instruments needed for synoptic vessels 86 

Figure 8. 14 Instruments needed for survey ships 87 

Figure 12. 1 Synoptic reporting network for ASWEPS 131 

Figure 12.2 Desirable qualities of ASWEPS instrumentation. 133 

Figure 12.3 Requirements of the synoptic survey system. . 133 

Figure 12.4 Modified version of the synoptic system 134 

Figure 12.5 Airborne oceanographic platform 134 

Figure 12.6 Moored telemetering buoy 135 

Figure 12.7 Additional instrumentation requirennents. . . . 137 

Figure 14. 1 Oceanographic research tower 161 

Figure 15.1 Airborne radiation thermometer 165 

Figure 17. 1 Deep sea trawl winch 178 

Figure 17.2 Piston coring device 179 

Figure 17.3 Underwater camera 180 



XXI 



Page 

Figure 17.4 Ocean bottom trawl 181 

Figure 17.5 Precision depth recorder 182 

Figure 17.6 Magnetometer 183 

Figure 17.7 Gravity meter 185 

Figure 17.8 Data generator 185 

Figure 17.9 Seismic refraction 186 

Figure 17. 10 Reflection technique 188 

Figure 17. 11 Sparker record 188 

Figure 17. 12 Puerto Rico Trench 189 

Figure 17. 13 Ocean bottom seismograph 191 

Figure 17. 14 Ray paths in deep-sea sound channel 192 

Figure 17.15 Acoustic position keeper 194 

Figure 17. 16 Thermal probe 195 

Figure 17. 17 Large-volume water sampler 195 

Figure 17. 18 Sound velocities in sediments 196 

Figure 18. 1 Phytoplankton 198 

Figure 18.2 Zooplankton 199 

Figure 18.3 Modified Van Dorn water sampler 201 

Figure 18.4 Submarine photometer 202 

Figure 18.5 Three -qixarter meter quantitative plankton net. 203 

Figure 18.6 High speed plankton sampler 204 



xxii 



Page 

Figure 18.7 Pressure-operated plankton net 205 

Figure 18.8 Midwater net release system 206 

Figure 18.9 Pressure potentiometer 207 

Figure 18. 10 Explosive squib release mechanism 208 

Figure 18.11 Mechanically controlled damper system. • . . 209 



XXlll 



i. OPENING REMARKS 



Donald L. McKernan 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Washington, D. C. 



Welcome to this Government-Industry Symposiuai on 
Oceanogr aphic Instrumentation. Many of you have traveled great 
distances to attend, and your interest and efforts are impressive. 
It is regretted that all of those who wished to attend could not do 
so for limitation of space. 

The President of the United States in his letter of 
March 29, 19^1, to the President of the Senate called for increased 
efforts in the broad field of oceanography to chart and map the 
bottom topography accurately, and to increase our knowledge of 
the physical, chemical, and biological phenomena of the sea. He 
wrote: 'Knowledge of the oceans is more than a matter of curio- 
sity. Our very survival may hang on it. Although an voider standing 
of our nnarine environment and maps of the ocean floor would afford 
our military forces a demonstrable advantage, we have thus far neg- 
lected oceanography. We do not have adequate charts of more than 

one or two percent of the oceans The seas also offer a 

wealth of nutritional resources. They already are a principal 
source of protein. They can provide many times the current food 
supply if we but learn how to garner and husband this self-renewing 
larder. To meet the vast needs of an expanding population, the 
body of the sea must be made more available. Within two decades, 
our own nation will require over a nniliion more tons of seafood 
than we now harvest. " 

Past oceanographic surveys and research have been studied by 
Government and non-Government research agencies, innportant 
Congressional Committees, and private groups to assess the Nation's 
needs in the whole broad field of oceanography during the coming 
years. A ten-year program is being executed which implements 
the President's desire to broaden the scope of research and to in- 
crease our knowledge of the oceans. This program includes new 
ships, new shore facilities, many new instruments, and novel 
structures with which to probe the depths of the ocean. 



Data must be obtained from the oceans and then be reduced 
and analyzed by new types of cumputers on ship and shore. It 
must be gathered in a standard form, compatible with automatic 
handling and processing, so that scientists and engineers in the 
various fields of oceanography can readily utilize these data to 
their fullest extent. To gather this data, new instruments must be 
developed which are precise, reliable, and easy to operate under 
the ambient working conditions. The cost of developing and procur- 
ing the most efficient and reliable equipment is small when com- 
pared to the cost of ship construction and operation. 

The administrators of the Navy, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, and other Government agencies 
which operate large oceanographic progams realized that the need 
for better oceanographic instruments was the most serious obstacle 
and that some way was needed to coordinate the Government's 
effort to develop and procure them. The Symposium was brought 
about to effect a meeting between industry members interested in 
working with Government and non-Government oceanographic agen- 
cies and institutions and the field oceanographer s to discuss prob- 
lems associated with instrument development aind manufacture. By 
such wholesale contact much time and money could be saved, 
because many companies are inquiring of Government and non-Gov- 
ernment oceanographic departments and institutions how they might 
contribute their unique talents to develop new oceanographic instru- 
ments. If the objectives of the oceanographic programs were made 
known, the special knowledge of industrial engineers and scientists 
might provide radically new ideas of instruments and exotic methods 
to observe and measure natural phenomena in the sea. Out of a 
discussion of these ideas the Government-Industry Symposium was 
conceived. It is a somewhat new technique in the field of science 
and may be quite imperfect. We believe, however, that such a 
forum will improve communication between oceanographer s and 
American industry so that the broad experience of the first and the 
great talent and ability of the second can combine to meet one of 
the greatest challenges of our time, the exploration of the sea. 

For the purposes of this Symposium we are considering an 
oceanographic instrument as (1) a device used to measure a 
quantity or quality of the sea, be it physical, chemical, or biolo- 
gical, such as temperature, salinity, density, depth, current, 
wave motion and direction, radiation, water transparency, light 
absorption, ambient light, tides, gravity, geomagnetism, or bot- 



torn structure or form; (Z) an advanced positioning device or a 
device to collect samples of water, marine plankton, marine fishes, 
and the bottom including core samples for scientific purposes; 
or (3) a device for observation and manipulation. Not included 
are operational devices such as commercial fishing devices, 
mining devices such as oil well drilling, and strictly military 
equipment for detection, identification, classification, or des- 
truction of military objectives. On the other hand, it is recog- 
nized that there is a number of kinds of instruments which have 
an indirect bearing at least on the collection of accurate, precise 
oceanographic data. We will be pleased to consider these instru- 
ments also. 

The primary objectives of this Symposium are to focus atten- 
tion on oceanographic instrumentation and to inform representa- 
tives of the industry of the United States about the known oceanog- 
raphic instrumentation requirements of the operational and re- 
search agencies. To fulfill the national objectives in this 
accelerated oceanographic program, we need vast improvement 
in instrumentation, at sea and in the laboratory. 

The presentations and discussions of the next two days are 
unclassified. They reflect the r equirennents of Federal and non- 
Federal activities in military and non-military applications. 
They cover the needs for basic and applied research and for sur- 
veys on research and ocean survey vessels. Discussions will 
involve instruments to be used with ships underway and ships 
stopped on station. The subject matter will cover a number of 
disciplines including physical, chemical, and biological oceanog- 
raphy, marine geology, geomagnetics, gravity, bathymetry, 
radiobiology, special fisheries investigations, and others. You 
have been invited because your companies have indicated an 
interest and capability to develop and produce instruments of the 
kind needed in the Nation's accelerated oceanographic program. 

During the Symposivim, we will indicate those areas where 
the development and production of oceanographic instruments are 
most needed and the extent to which the Government is prepared 
to enter into cooperative agreements in developing and producing 
thenn. Also, our purpose is to indicate the limitations imposed 
on the development in this field in order that a proper balance 
between all aspects of our oceanographic program are achieved 
in view of available funds, manpower, and facilities. 



In addition to Government administrators of oceanographic 
programs, specialists are present to participate formaiiy or 
informally in the discussions. Opportunities will be afforded during 
and between the discussions to permit informal meetings of mem- 
bers of industry and other members of the oceanographic commun- 
ity. In this way we feel that maximum interest will be developed so 
that both industry and the operating oceanographer s will be stimu- 
lated to think and develop new ideas for measuring and observing 
natural phenomena above, on, and in the sea. 

This morning we will hear from a number of Government 
administrators in the oceanographic field headed by the Chairman 
of the Interagency Committee on Oceanography, the Honorable 
Dr. James H. Wakelin, Jr., and other Government and non-Gov- 
ernment officials. This afternoon and tomorrow we will discuss 
in more detail certain phases of the oceanographic program and 
the needs for various systems of oceanographic instruments. 

As a result of this meeting, we hope that your companies will 
learn of the need for the development of more precise, efficient, 
and reliable oceanographic instruments with which to equip our 
oceanographic vessels for work on and in the oceans of the world. 



A WELCOME TO THE GOVERNMENT -INDUSTRY 
OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTATION 
SYMPOSIUM 

Hon. James H. Wakelin, Jr. 

Department of the Navy- 
Washington, D. C. 



I am delighted to see the results of the long efforts in plan- 
ning and progrannming for this particular meeting, which is a 
milestone in the relationships between our industrial laboratory- 
scientists and development people and those in the scientific frater- 
nity and institutions and in the Government doing oceanogr aphic 
research and surveys. 

Let me say this is by no means a casual gathering that you 
are attending and casually planned or appreciated. Dr. Jerome 
B. Wiesner, the President's science advisor, and his staff -- 
Dr. Edward Wenk, Jr. and Dr. Robert N. Kreidler -- Dr. Harold 
Brown, the Director of the Defense Research and Engineering for 
Mr. McNamara and ourselves in the Navy, and I might add also 
the President's personal interest -- has on the executive side, 
together with many committees in the House and the Senate, 
created a national interest in the whole subject of oceanography, 
both for our own welfare and for our security. 

So let me say personally, and in part as the Chairman of the 
Interagency Committee on Oceanography, I hope you will seriously 
consider the problems that are laid in front of you today and 
suggest to us solutions that are real and practical and which we 
can use to get on with our oceanographic work in the national 
effort. 

The reason we have turned our attention more seriously ttan 
previously to the sea is not a result of recent publicity campaigns, 
but because of a coordinated look at our program from a number of 
vantage points, which indicated that during the last thirty years 
we were not in effect giving the proper attention to those areas 
of oceanography which are both economically and militarily impor- 
tant. 



As you know, the oceans hold both a threat and a safeguard 
to our security. There is a large, and for the most part, untapped 
source of protein food in the sea that could be used to feed the 
hungry peoples around the world. Vast mineral treasures may 
lie in the mysterious mountains of the depths -- close and available. 
Also, the earth's weather is determined in large part by the cur- 
rents and movements of the sea. It is in our best interest to hold 
and maintain a position of world leadership in the development of 
the oceans for the benefit of all mankind. And, lastly, is the fac- 
tor which can never be completely denied: Man's quest for know- 
ledge -- the inexorable pull of the unknown. 

All great periods of history have been ushered in by men who 
moved into new areas and opened new territories. They were led 
by this same desire, a thirst for knowledgie. Now, as a bit of 
background, in 1959 the country's attention was drawn very 
sharply to the importance of oceanography when the Committee 
on Oceanography of the National Academy of Sciences published 
their report, "Oceanography I960 - 1970, " which stated that, 
relative to other sciences, progress in the marine sciences in 
the United States was indeed slow. There was agreement that 
our marine environment was not understood to a degree that 
was considered adequate to our security, economy, and welfare. 

In its review of the Nation's progress in oceanography, the 
Federal Coixncil for Science and Technology determined that 
oceanography was, indeed, an area of science which required em- 
phasis and support at the highest level. In January of I960, there- 
fore, the Federal Council established as a permanent Committee 
within the Council, the Interagency Committee on Oceanography. 
The primary purpose of this Committee --or, as it is called, 
the ICO -- is to provide a coordinating mechanism among all 
Government agencies engaged in oceanographic activities for the 
development of a meaningful national program. This Committee, 
as it is now constituted, has representation from the following 
departments and agencies: Defense, Commerce, Interior, Health, 
Education and Welfare, State, Treasury, the Atomic Energy Com- 
mission, and the National Science Foundation. 

You can well imagine the scope of our considerations and sonne 
of the problems we face in ovir deliberations to integrate the many 
diverse aspects of oceanography represented in the vital missions 



of each of these agencies. However, through the ICO, we are 
attempting to achieve balance between the need for basic and 
applied research, the need for new ships and shore facilities, 
and new instrumentation. We have established a number of panels 
to study these special subjects. This meeting on instrumentation 
which has brought us all together this morning was arranged by 
the Panel on Facilities, Equipment, and Instrumentation of the 
ICO. And I must say that I congratulate the Chairman of this 
meeting, together with his conferees in Interior and those in the 
Hydrographic Office of the Navy and the other members of the 
Panel, for such an effective program as has been laid out for 
these two days. 

During its brief history, the ICO has taken several major 
steps toward a coordinated National Oceanographic Program. The 
first of these was the establishment of the National Oceanographic 
Data Center here in Washington. The Data Center, which is 
financed cooperatively by several member agencies of the ICO, 
receives, processes, stores, and distributes many kinds of data 
on the oceans. Its purpose is to make the data available rapidly 
and in proper form for scientific research and operations in ocean- 
ography. The Data Center currently is under the management of 
the Hydrographic Office. It serves the needs of civilian, military, 
and private institutions as they arise. We are proud to state that 
the National Oceanographic Data Center became a reality through 
the efforts of many scientists and members of government work- 
ing and planning together - - and I might say also through our many 
friends who help us in the Congress of the United States. It is an 
example of what can be accomplished through a coordinated 
pooling of effort backed by a strong common interest that we all 
have in these agencies in the field of oceanography. 

The ICO is now intent upon developing greatly improved 
instruments and tools with which to conduct oceanographic research 
and surveys. This will require the cooperation of scientists in and 
outside of Government, and the special knowledge and engineering 
talents of industry which can be brought to bear on these problems. 
Our success in this phase of our National Oceanographic Program 
will, in a large measure, determine the success and cost of the 
many phases of research, surveying, data processing, and anal- 
ysis which lie ahead. Many of the requirements for measurement 
of ocean variables are well known; others are yet to be defined or 
discovered. However, problems in connection with the submarine 



threat, radioactivity disposal and fallout, resource development, 
weather prediction, applied and basic research and survey opera- 
tions have a common denominator: They all require accurate 
measurement of some kind of parameter in the ocean environ- 
ment. 

As I have stated, a large number of Government agencies 
have vital interests in the oceans. Brief sunnmaries cannot 
adequately describe their work, but I believe that some mention 
should be made in terms of their particular interests in the marine 
environment. 

The Departnnent of Defense, with its complex military opera- 
tions above the sea, on the sea, and under the sea, urgently needs 
much more detailed knowledge about the ocean than is presently 
available. Submarine developments during the last few years have 
made this dramatically clear. 

The responsibilities of the Department of the Interior require 
an understanding of physical and biological effects of the marine 
environment on the living resources of the sea. The improvement 
and extension of fishery prediction techniques will help to extend 
and improve domestic and distant sea fisheries, and the know- 
ledge so gained will lead to a more controlled and productive har- 
vest. Fisheries are assuming increasing importance in inter- 
national relations, and particularly through the avenue and the 
vehicle of oceanography. 

Within the Department of Commerce, the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey is nnaking a major contribution to the national effort through 
its participation in oceanwide survey programs. Of equal 
significance are the comprehensive coastal survey operations under- 
taken to acquire knowledge on the characteristics of our near -shore 
environment. At the surface of the seas, the ocean of air and the 
ocean of water exert profound influences upon one another. The 
Weather Bureau is engaged in research to improve our knowledge 
of these conditions, and now has operational automatic monitoring 
stations. I might add also, the whole problem of interchange of 
energy between the atmosphere and the sea is a most important 
area with which we should be seriously concerned in the region of 
instrumentation. 



The Atomic Energy Commission, of course, is interested 
in the effects of radioactive materials on the marine environnnent. 
The ocean is the ultimate destination of a major portion of radio- 
active fallout. The ocean itself may be a potential disposal area 
for atomic wastes. We should make every effort to increase our 
knowledge of the ultimate effect of radioactivity on ail marine life. 

The National Science Foundation is a major supporter of 
oceanographic research at civilian institutions and oceanographic 
laboratories. Further, the President has designated the National 
Science Foundation as the coordinator of the United States activity 
for the Liternational Indian Ocean Expedition, which is now in pro- 
gress and which will go on for the next several years. Data from 
this expedition will add appreciably to our knowledge of this inade- 
quately known area. 

Each problem in oceanography, whether in connection with 
military, scientific, or economic problems, requires information 
that is not now available. During recent months much has been 
said, implied, or surmised about instrumentation and its needs in 
oceanography. One of the purposes of this Symposium is to present 
from a coordinated point of view of the agencies represented in the 
National Oceanographic Program the data requirements for a wide 
variety of applications. These must be translated into instrumen- 
tation requirements which must be satisfied if the National Ocea- 
nographic Program is going to proceed efficiently. We feel that 
through this coordinated expression of requirements you will be 
able to gauge those areas of the future oceanographic instrumen- 
tation program in which your segment of industry may give us the 
assistance that we need. A large share of the work necessary to 
conduct a vigorous instrunnentation program -- and by that I mean 
new ideas, research, development, production, engineering, and 
manufacture of instruments -- must come from private industry. 
We feel that you will be in a much better position to help us in 
meeting this challenge in oceanography if you are infornned of our 
goals and the problems we face. We are in a large part dependent 
upon you for the creative imagination necessary to develop new de- 
vices to increase the effectiveness of our program. 

And now, on behalf of the Interagency Committee on Oceanog- 
raphy, I wish to express our sincere appreciation for your atten- 
dcince at these meetings today and tomorrow. We welcome your 
participation in the National Oceanographic Program. 



RESEARCH ASPECTS OF THE OCEANOGRAPHIC 

PROGRAM 



Rear Admiral L. D. Coates 



Office of Naval Research 
Washington, D. C. 



It is a genuine pleasure for me to be here this morning 
to discuss with you the research aspects of the oceanographic 
program. 

As you may have noted from the agenda, we are making 
a distinction between research and surveys in connection with the 
problem of improving oceanographic instrumentation. I would like 
first to explain why we are making this distinction, and also 
where the two aspects of oceanography overlap and in what ways 
they differ, because these factors have a bearing on Industry's 
approach to assisting us in this instrumentation problem. 

One reason for discussing research separately from sur- 
veys comes about because each function is pursued, to a large 
extent, as the primary mission of different Federal agencies. 
For example, the majority of the survey work is performed by 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the Navy Hydrographic Office. 
You will hear more about the Survey program from the next 
speakers, Rear Admiral Pierce, United States Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, and Rear Admiral Stephan, the Hydrographer . Similarly, 
we find the research program conducted throughout a number of 
agencies such as the National Science Foiuidation, Atomic Energy 
Commission, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, and the Office 
of Naval Research, as well as the Coast and Geodetic Survey and 
Hydrographic Office. In general, much of the research is sup- 
ported at private institutions and laboratories in contrast to the 
nearly complete governmental operation of the survey program. 
This diffusion of research effort adds to the difficulty in provid- 
ing an integrated and coordinated instrumentation development 
program. 



10 



Secondly, the nature of basic research itself is such 
that new ideas, new techniques, and new materials often provide 
the direction in which a continually changing research program 
will proceed. To be efficient in this type of operation, the research 
scientist must be very closely allied with the development of his 
instruments. Again, this is in contrast to the survey situation 
where most of the measurements are of a routine nature, there- 
fore, the instrument requirements can be made known in advance. 

The contrasting situations between research and surveys I 
have just described illustrate why a different approach to their 
respective instrumentation problems is desirable. As I have 
mentioned earlier, however, there are many instances where the 
two aspects overlap, the difference between research and surveys 
being primarily the purpose for which each is being performed. 
For example, a bathymetric survey may entail a description 
of the bottom topography needed for navigational purposes. In 
such a survey, the description or resulting chart is the end pro- 
duct. The same information may be desired by the research 
scientist who is interested in learning about the origin of the 
features of the ocean bottom or to prove his hypothesis on the 
structure of the sea floor. In either case, I am sure you recog- 
nize the same instrument could be used to do both jobs. In fact, 
for the majority of the cases of routine measurements, survey 
and research instruments will not differ. Consequently, the list 
of survey instruments you have received will also provide a guide 
for some of the routine instrumentation needed aboard the new 
research ships (fig. 3.1). Here the instrumentation for research 
and surveys will be handled as a single program. 

In addition to instruments required for research ships, we 
are faced with an increasing need of special platforms from which 
to carry out our research programs. These special platforms 
each have peculiar and often difficult problems, of which you 
will hear in more detail tomorrow. Among the platforms re- 
quired are specially adapted and instrumented buoys, both an- 
chored and drifting, which must be capable of measuring, 
recording, and in many cases, telemetering information over 
large distances. Of a similar, but perhaps simpler nature, are 
the requirements for instrumentation aboard fixed towers (fig. 
3.2) such as the Texas Towers, oil platforms, and other plat- 
forms now being installed by the Coast Guard to replace lightships. 
Deep sea research vehicles are already a reality and the part 



II 



T 











FIGURE O . I 

U. S. S. ARGO (ARS-27) 



'^.i E auxiliary rescue and sal-^ac''e ship, 
has been extensi'vely altered by the 
Puget Sound ^idE;p and Drvdock Ccmpany, 
under contract with the Office of NaTral 
Research, Operated by the Tiniversity of 
California's Scripps Trstitution of 
Oceanot'raphy, the 2,000 ton AKGO is 213 
feet long and their largest. She 
carries a six-ton crane, a 45,COO-foot 
step-down cable, and 25,000 feet of 
half-inch cable, and was the first 
research ship sqiilpped with scanning 
type search sonar, precision depth 
recorder, and a deepwater echo sounder. 



12 



FIGURE 3. 2 
ARGUS ISLAND 



Installed 30 miles 
southwest of Ber- 
mucia on top of an 
extinct underwater 
volcano, thi? tow- 
er is used as a 
relay point for 
hydrophones placed 
on the ocean floor 
and for other 
ocfianographic ob- 
servations. 




they will play in research depends heavily upon the imagination 
that is used in their instrumentation programs (figs. 3.3 and 3.4). 
At the other end of the spectrum we find that aircraft are being 
put to increased use in oceanographic research. The rapid search 
rate of the airplane, if properly instrumented, makes it more 
satisfactory for some purposes than the research ship. It can be 
anticipated that the development of these platformis and their 
associated sensor, recording, and telemetering systems will 
represent a major interest of our research programs. 

Now that I have outlined some of the areas in which Industry 
might participate in oceanographic research, I would like to 
mention how I feel Industry can be of assistance. First, the prob- 
lem of what instrumentation needs to be developed is known best 
by the scientist, not by an administrator sitting in Washington. 
I do not mean by this remark that you should invade the private 
laboratories, for this would hinder rather than help the situation. 
What needs to be done is to develop some mechanism whereby the 
scientist can be made aware of your capabilities and interests and 
also a mechanism! whereby the same scientist can get funds to 
pursue his requirements. In my opinion, neither mechanism now 
exists in an adequately coordinated form. I hope the establishment 
of such a mechanism will be one of the results of this Symposium. 



13 




FIGURE 3.3 
BATHYSCAPHE 



The Navy's Bathyscaphe Triest e 
set an alltime depth record 
off the Island of G'jpih in the 
Pacific on January 23, 1960, 
when it plunged 35,800 feet to 
the bottom of the Marianas 
Trench. This dive, one of a. 
series in the occanographic 
programs of the Office of Naval 
Research and the Navy Electronics 
Laboratory (San Diego), was the 
result of two years of planning. 
The objectives of Project Nekton 
were to gather basic informs tion 
about the penetration of sunlight, 
linderwater visibility, and trans- 
mission of manmade sounds, and to 
conduct marine geological stvdies 
of the trench. 



INSIDE THE OBSERVATION GONDOLA, DR. ANDREAS B. RECHNITZER AND 
LT. DON WALSH CHECK INSTRIM;NTS. 



14 



</= 




3.4 



FIGURE 

TRIESTE REVISED 



When the Navy's deep-diving Bathyscaphe Trieete 
makes its next descent to the ocean floor, it will 
be equipped with a mechanical arm that can reach out 
and pick up samples of material frcm the inysterious 
and little— known depths, some even seven ndles belwr 
the surface, A General '-fl-lls mechanical arm mani- 
pulator adapted to withstand the tremendous pressvrcs 
of 8—9 tons per square inch encountered at the deepest 
parts of the ocean, will provide this unique capabili- 
ty. The Trieste "arm" will be modified by means of 
special oil-filled units designed to equalize pres- 
sures on motors and other critical parts, Ooeanog- 
raphers riding in the steel ball suspended beneath 
the Trieste will control the device by means of a 
compact control box with individual lever action 
switches to provide direction and continuously 
variable speeds for each of six motions. The 
Trieste program is under the joint sponsorship of 
the Bureau of Ships end the Office of Naval Research, 



15 



A second thought concerns the efforts being made throughout 
Industry to develop capabilities and know-how using research 
funds available within Industry. These efforts should be directed, 
whenever possible, along lines which will be most fruitful. This 
can be determined again only by a close alliance of Industry and 
the ultimate users of the instruments. What we do not want to do 
is waste talent and nnoney on things already done, already proved 
useless, or already determined not necessary. 

In closing, I would like to mention briefly a few items for the 
guidance of your efforts. 

I would not like to see anyone led into this instrumentation 
program on false premises. The number of instruments re- 
quired in the oceanographic research program is small comipared 
with a program like outer space. On the other hand, the market 
should be challenging and stable for many of you. 

The marine environment is particularly troublesome for both 
man and his instruments. Neither seenns to work at peak efficiency 
while at sea. Perhaps this has been the greatest single factor 
adversely affecting instrumentation at sea. Please keep it in nnind 
at all times. 

The last point I would like to get across concerns a problem 
which has plagued us in sonar research for many years. This has 
to do with the increased complexity and cost of sophisticated 
instruments. Along with this we have the problem of reliability 
and number of technicians required to keep the equipment operat- 
ing. At this time oceanographic research needs rugged, reliable, 
long-lifed equipment rather than the ultrasophisticated expensive 
item s. 



16 



SURVEY ASPECTS OF THE OCEANOGRAPHIC 

PROGRAM 



Rear Admiral Charles Pierce 

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 
Washington, D. C. 



Since I retired on the first day of this month as Deputy 
Director of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, my remarks re- 
flect my opinions and are also based upon the reports of the Com- 
mittee on Oceanography of the National Academy of Sciences and 
the reports of the various panels of the Interagency Committee on 
Oceanography. 

The greatly increased attention now focused on the marine 
environment has been caused by several factors. Spectacular de- 
velopments in submarine design and use have resulted in an urgent 
requirement for knowledge of the water volume, its density, 
structure, acoustic propagation conditions, subsurface currents, 
bottom materials, as well as its physical dimensions -- depth, 
shoreline configuration, and location. Competitive factors in mer- 
chant shipping have also brought out deficiencies in our knowledge 
of oceanic and coastal conditions. Optimum ship routing and transit 
times require more extensive knowledge of water depths, coastal 
currents, prevalence of limiting sea and swell, etc. Similarly, the 
application of scientific principles to fisheries control and exploita- 
tion has pointed up the necessity for detailed seasonal data on 
water properties, biological productivity, water mass mixing pro- 
cess, etc. We need today, and have for some years, maps, charts, 
and pertinent data of the ocean basins comparable to what we now 
have of the land areas. 

Ocean surveys must obtain data to show the shape of the sea 
bottom, types of sediments, gravitational and magnetic fields, 
distribution of temperature, density, and surface and subsurface 
currents, and must execute such other investigations that will 
least interfere with the primary mission of a ship underway. 
Multiple -ship and buoy operations may provide synoptic 
data on currents, temperature, waves, etc. The program requires 
an extensive collection of data, samples, recording of observations. 



17 



analysis, and distribution of the data. 

The assumption is that the participation of the United States 
in an international program requires the exploration of roughly 30 
percent of the world's oceans. The vastness of the international 
program is apparent from the following figures: The oceans cover 
360 million square kilometers; of these, 36 million comprise the 
continental and insular shelves; nearly 30 million are covered by 
Arctic ice; approximately 300 million square kilometers require 
exploration and investigation. If track lines are run at every 15 
kilometers, survey ships have a task of sounding along some 20 
million linear kilometers of ocean exclusive of development of un- 
usual submarine features and cross check lines. 

For an eight-month operating season, a ship cruising at 12 
knots might theoretically accomplish this task in 200 years. The 
National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Oceanography esti- 
mates for the underway portion (hydrographic, magnetic, gravity, 
etc.) and the anchored or hove to station ships (physical, chemi- 
cal, synoptic, biological, and bottom sampling surveys) will 
require 261 ship-years -- for the United States participation this 
is about seventy-eight ship-years, eighteen ship-years for the sta- 
tion ships, and sixty ship-years for the ocean bottom survey ships. 

The great cost in ships and manpower demands that most 
expeditious and efficient nnethods be used to collect and process 
the data. Thus, many types of data must be collected simultan- 
eously, and all instruments must be generating data of sufficient 
and known accuracy. With a ship cost of several thousand dollars 
per day, failure of a data system simply means failure of the pro- 
gram, as it is doubtful that, with the enormity of the task, reruns 
can be justified. Now this means that each instrument incorporate 
at each critical point in the operational sequence, alarms, or 
indicators of some sort, that alert the shipboard personnel when a 
casualty or a circuit failure occurs which degrades the system. 
Worse than no data is voluminous data of questionable validity. 
This quality control feature has been almost totally ignored in 
instrument design in the past. Frankly, we must accept nothing 
less than good quality control in the future. 

Before completely dropping the topic of philosophy of instru- 
ment design (an area upon which I'm trespassing as it rightfully 
belongs to Mr. Snodgrass, scheduled later this morning) I must 
point to an instrument concept that is also properly a "Survey 



18 




K J 



FIGURE 4. I 
SHIP PIONEER 

AVP conversion for oceani«lde siirveys. 



FIGURE 

SHIP SURVEYOR 



4.2 

EYOf 

Latest design Hydrofraphio Ship, 




Aspect. " 

We can readily give you data on the oceanic environment as it 
affects instrument packaging and ruggedness. The vibrations, 
humidity, voltage fluctuations, etc., which will make your design 
problems interesting are predictable, and we know you will com- 
pensate for them. Keep in mind, also, our management problems 
of personnel. Skilled electronic and mechanical personnel are hard 
enough for you gentlemen to recruit, train, and retain. The pre- 
vailing lower pay rates, long periods away from home, and fre- 
quently crowded living conditions aboard ship are not conducive 
to retaining sea technicians long enough to get their "20-year 
service pins. " Accordingly, your instruments nnust not only 
be rugged but sophisticated, simple but flexible, precise but not 
broad in range, and primarily they must be maintained, essential- 
ly, by personnel with limited training. 

Paramount requirements for an oceanographic survey ship 
assigned to ocean bottom surveys are seakeeping characteristics, 
an accurate and reliable navigational positioning system or sys- 
tems, and a rugged depth sounder. These requirements are funda- 
mental. 

Depth measuring techniques have progressed steadily from the 
hand lead, to the steam and electric sounding machine before World 
War I, to the sonic depth sounder with the visual depth meter, to 
the graphic depth recorder in use just prior to World War II. 
Today we have the shoal and deep water depth recorders with the 
Precision Depth Recorder Auxilliary which can maintain constant 
frequency and from which recorded depths can be scanned to a 
fathom in the deepest water. Uncertainties in water sound velo- 
city, of course, introduce errors in excess of one fathom. 
Developnnent is continuing on narrow beam stabilized oscillators 
to provide vertical depths below the keel to replace the presently 
recorded composite profile of rugged submarine topography de- 
rived from echoes emanating from sources as divergent as 30 
degrees on either side of the vertical. 

Progress has not been nil in the development of electronic 
positioning equipment, but the requirements of ocean surveys 
place a strain on present systems. 

Lioran-A and Decca are examples of pulsed hyperbolic radio 



20 



navigational systems for surface and air navigation which have 
proved invaluable to navigators worldwide. Loran-A does not pro- 
vide sufficient worldwide coverage for ocean surveys; its 750- 
mile daytime range for ground waves is inadequate for the task and 
its accuracy is not substantially superior to a strong astronomical 
fix. Loran-A is found on most survey ships and should be standard 
equipment for standby duty. 

Loran-C is a pulsed hyperbolic radio navigational system 
with five systems presently installed. Its superior accuracy and 
reliability is in part derived fronn its relatively low frequency of 
100 kc . , about l/ZO of Loran-A, and from its phase measuring tech- 
niques within the pulses to provide time differences to a few hun- 
dredths of a microsecond versus one microsecond for Loran-A. 
Loran-C has demonstrated accuracies in the order of one quarter of 
a mile using ground waves out to 1, 200 miles from the stations and 
coverage to 2,100 miles for skywaves. However, the few systems 
installed to date are inadequate for oceanwide coverage and the 
cost of shipboard receivers in the initial stage of manufacture are 
relatively expensive. The Coast and Geodetic Survey has two 
Loran-C receivers aboard ocean survey ships operating in the 
Northeast Pacific. 

Omega is a very low frequency, 10 kc. , hyperbolic naviga- 
tional system which tests indicate will provide accuracies of less 
than one mile over the entire globe, with less than lO shore 
stations. Ranges are possible up to 6,000 miles during day or 
night. This system has been under development by the U. S. Navy 
since 1957. The system provides hyperbolic lines of position, the 
stations transmit sequentially in short bursts, and it utilizes sky- 
waves. Indications are that when receivers are in production 
quantities, the price will be moderate. If and when the Omega sys- 
tem is operational worldwide, it appears to offer one solution to 
the need for an accurate and reliable navigational system. 

The Transit Navigational System is in the research and devel- 
opment stage and until the reliability of the system and the cost 
of shipboard equipments is known, it offers no immediate solution 
for control. 

My last comments concern the platforms we intend to use at 
sea. I favor for ocean survey ships a displacement of about 3, 000 
tons. I have served aboard all sizes of survey ships up to this 



21 



displacement. There have been more occasions than I care to re- 
call, with any degree of pleasure, when all efforts were expended 
in protecting life and property during storm conditions rather than 
executing the primary mission. 

Ocean survey ships will encounter worldwide the gamut of 
sea conditions -- typhoons, hurricanes, short period anticyclonic 
storms, dangerous tide rips, and violent cross seas. They should 
be designed to keep at sea with a margin for all contingencies. 
They should have stabilization since excessive rolling interferes 
with acceptable depth recording, with handling oceanographic 
instruments, with winch operation, and with geophysical measure- 
ments. Further, due to inadequacies in seakeeping qualities and 
laboratory space, it has been the tradition to collect less accessible 
oceanographic data only during "good weather. " 

As the data of oceanography have accumulated and our know- 
ledge of our deficiencies of knowledge becomes more apparent, we 
now know that seasonal variations occur. In some places signifi- 
cant mixing and transport phenomena may be restricted only to 
"bad weather. " Surveys, therefore, must be nnade in bad weather 
if we are to understand our oceans. Some new ideas and new 
approaches are obviously required as the existing techniques are 
up against the "stops" as far as utilization is concerned. 

Larger ships provide for adequate quarters for the author- 
ized complement, for scientists and technicians, for trainees, and 
for visiting staffs. Laboratories, towed magnetometer space, 
deck space for winches, refrigeration space for specimens, and 
adequate storage space for long cruises, all, dictate for the larger 
ship and against the time-honored practice of using conversions, 
and makeshift craft of all descriptions. 

We have not scratched the surface in the development of 
instrumentation for all the tasks confronting the oceanographic 
survey and research ships. The cost of these ships today is 
mounting steadily. A 3, 000-ton ship can cost $3, 000 a day to oper- 
ate at sea. One approach to reducing the unit cost of obtaining 
data is through improvement in instrumentation which will result 
in obtaining more data in less time and with greater accuracy. 

I think I have a couple of minutes left. I haven't made any 
conclusion, I found, after reading this, as to what a ship would 



22 



use for control, right now, if it went to sea on this big program. 
We have one ship exclusively on oceanography in the Northeast 
Pacific. We selected the area because Loran-C which is available 
there has just recently become operational. 

If w^e had to work in the South Pacific or if we had to do work 
in the Southern Atlantic, there is no modern equipment today that 
would give us the accuracy we need, nor the reliability. So we 
would have to go back to using whatever we could, which is going 
back to the sextant and to the astronomical fix. 

We certainly need instrumentation and we need it quickly. I 
have enjoyed talking to you. 



23 



THE NAVY'S ROLE IN THE FIELD 
OF OCEANOGRAPHY 



Rear Admiral E. C. Stephan 
Hydrographer , United States Navy- 
Washington, D. C. 

Because the ocean is the primary environment within which 
the Navy and its weapons must operate, it warrants special con- 
sideration in the Navy's program. Further, the propagation of 
energy within the ocean is more complicated and less understood 
than it is within the atmosphere. In submarine warfare, surface 
ship operations, and in the employment of weapons, the oceans and 
natural phenomena occurring in and over them introduce certain 
factors which must be considered. These factors are often criti- 
cal in operations which involve: 

1. Detection and location of objects below the sea surface; 

2. Subsurface communications; 

3. Maneuvering or nnaintaining a vessel or an object in a 
prescribed position and attitude on the surface or 
bottom or within the ocean; and 

4. Habitability, as determined by temperatures, pressure, 
etc., for men and sensitive devices. 

These oceanographic and geophysical factors and phenomena in- 
clude: 

1. Waves and the related water motion and pressxires; 

2. Variations in the earth's magnetic field; 

3. Tides; 

4. Sound propagation; 

5. Currents; 



24 



6. Reflectivity and transparency of the ocean to electromag- 
netic energy; 

7. Configuration and composition of the ocean bottom; 

8. Habits and distribution of organisins within the sea; 

9. Variations in the chemical and physical properties of sea 
water; and 

10. The gravitational field. 

Basic requirements for oceanographic publications for stra- 
tegic planning and as a source of general information for use in 
developing weapons systems have been met by various studies and 
publications of the Hydrographic Office. These generally deal with 
mean conditions and in some instances, variations from these 
means. The more demanding problem of determining and docu- 
menting more exactly the variations and interrelationships of the 
oceanographic elements will require considerable effort. This is 
particularly true for the subsurface regions of the oceans. More 
sophisticated applications of oceanographic knowledge to the 
development of systems and tactics, as well as more precise 
forecasting of oceanographic changes, are dependent upon this 
work. It cannot be accomplished without a sustained serious 
effort by competent oceanographers. This constitutes one of the 
primary challenges for the Navy during the next decade. It will 
require improvements in our facilities for collecting, processing, 
and analyzing data rapidly. 

At first glance, the task of adequately surveying all of the 
oceans of the world appears overwhelming. However, practical 
bounds can be established by coupling our sixrvey plans to our stu- 
dy of the interrelationships and variability of the oceanographic 
elements. An appraisal must be made of the significance of these 
variations in the employment of naval weapons and tactics. For 
this work, also, a sustained effort is required, supported by ships 
designed, instrumented, and operated for this purpose. 

In addition to publications directly related to military opera- 
tions, the Hydrographic Office, as the primary center of applied 
oceanographic activity in the United States Government, publishes 
general oceanographic information. Variation of oceanographic 



25 



elements, such as, currents, waves, and temperatures, are 
published for use by scientists, mariners, and the general public. 

Future efforts in general atlas production will be keyed in with 
oceanographic data processing. The chief obstacle in the past has 
been that the huge volume of observational data from which such at- 
lases were prepared had to be collected and tabulated by laborious 
and time-consuming hand methods. Reduction of the data to a 
form whereby computations and tabulations can be made automat- 
ically by high speed computers is underway at present. However, 
a considerable backlog of unprocessed data still exists. Once 
these data are processed onto punch cards or nnagnetic tape, a 
much more sophisticated treatment can be applied than has been 
used in the past. More accurate understanding of ranges of varia- 
tion and probabilities of occurrence will be obtained from the 
large volume of data available only when the invalid observations 
can be eliminated and careful analysis performed. 

General atlases are planned for all the major ocean areas of 
the earth. Each atlas will be composed of separate sections devo- 
ted to waves, tennper atur e, currents, tides, bottom materials, sea 
ice, flora and fauna, and special topics. Information will be pro- 
vided for subsurface depths as well as for the surface. 

Despite the seemingly large volume of data on hand, a recent 
review of the data available for the North Atlantic reveals that for 
certain very large areas no data have ever been obtained. For 
ocean areas other than the North Atlantic the shortage is even 
greater. This points out a very definite need for a planned pro- 
gram of basic data collection. Several-Tecent comprehensive 
reports have stressed the need for a much better understanding of 
the interaction of the submarine with its environment. The same 
may be said for all other aspects of naval operations. The first 
step in approaching this problem is to improve our knowledge of 
the oceans. The large gaps in the data must be filled. 

The task of acquiring data in the deficient areas is only a 
part of the problem. Detailed, long-term continuous records are 
required in specific areas to permit a better understanding of the 
dynamic and climatic changes that are always taking place in the 
ocean. The total problem is therefore one of considerable magni- 
tude and will call for a very careful assessment of our present 
holdings and the development of a well-planned and detailed 



26 



schedule. This plan must insure that the program will actively sup- 
port projects of high priority and primary interest. 

The opportunities for collecting useful oceanographic informa- 
tion have often been more limited by the lack of proper instruments 
to sample the environment than by the availability of a vessel 
from which to sample. The initial cost of such a vessel and the 
operating expense greatly surpasses the expenditure required for 
proper instrumentation. Therefore, it is very clear that we must 
provide this instrumentation in order to make better use of these 
ships as information collectors. 

In carrying out our mission over the years we have obtained a 
large nunnber and variety of commercially available oceanographic 
survey instruments. The majority of these are nonstandard, not 
very reliable, and are seriously limited when it comes to rapid 
sampling in a manner compatible with machine processing of 
collected data. During recent years the Hydrographic Office has 
had the problem of supplying survey vessels with modern oceanog- 
raphic instrumentation. This task has been extremely difficult for 
two reasons. One, reliable, sophisticated, and connnnercially 
available oceanographic instrumentation is practically nonexistent, 
and, two, the funds for researching and developing such instru- 
mentation have been extremely limited. Our modern survey pro- 
gram calls for shipboard instrumentation that can be relied upon and 
that can be operated by technician class personnel rather than 
engineers. The funds that are available must be applied to the re- 
search and development of properly designed instruments and to 
the production engineering of these devices for use on a relatively 
large number of ships. The constant upgrading of instrumentation 
of poor basic design is a costly and ineffectual solution to the 
problem. Accuracy of measurement, reliability, ease of opera- 
tion, and difficulty of maintenance are factors to be seriously weigh- 
ed before going from prototype to production. An instrument of 
lesser accuracy and more reliability may often be suitable at con- 
siderably less expense. Similarly a device which is easy to oper- 
ate but requires constant maintenance is impractical. 

Later in the program other speakers will discuss the details 
of our requirements for instruments. The important fact to be kept 
in mind at all times is the urgent need to provide present and future 
ships with reliable tools for collecting oceanographic information. 
Such information is vital to the aims of the worldwide survey 



27 



program as well as the problems of applied and basic research. 




FIGURE 6. I 

GULF STREAM - BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 



28 



6. BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND IN THE DEVELOP- 
MENT OF OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS, PRESENT 
STATE OF THE ART, AND SOME NEW CONCEPTS 



James M. Snodgrass 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
La Jolla, California 



It is rather difficult to know precisely what to say to a group 
of this sort. This is partly due to the tremendous spread of 
knowledge which you represent. Fvirthermore, I see a very large 
number of familiar faces in the audience. Some of the things 
which I am going to say you may well have heard before. Please 
excuse iny repetition, but it is principally for the benefit of those 
who do not have the information you possess. 

Some of the things which I shall choose to say are perhaps 
controversial. If so, I assure you that I have done this on pvirpose. 
I will attempt to give you some idea of the thinking that has gone 
into the development of oceanographic instruments, the nature of 
the background, principally the ocean environment, and the prob- 
lems which the environment poses. Admiral Pierce mentioned the 
enormity of the problem. It is a truly challenging one. 

Some idea of our problem can be gathered by the fact that 80 
percent of the Pacific Ocean is over 3,000 meters deep. This 
corresponds roughly to a pressure of 4, 300 p. s.i. (pounds per 
square inch). Some 27 percent of the Pacific Ocean, for instance, 
has depths in excess of 5, 000 meters, which means that instru- 
ments near the bottom must be designed to withstand pressures in 
excess of 7,000 p. s.i. Further, there is an almost ridiculous con- 
trast between the velocities which our oceanographic instruments 
must measure cind those in the aerospace field. Manned vehicles 
nneasure velocities in Mach numbers; guided missiles and 'slmilaj: 
devices measure them in miles per second; while in the field of 
oceanography it is often necessary to measxire velocities in centi- 
meters per second. 

For the sake of understanding better the scale of the problem, 
I will use an analogy that I credit to Mr. Thomas A. Manar of 



29 



the Scripps Institution of Oceanography; it is this: Imagine, if you 
will, that we shrink the Pacific Ocean down to a lake 10 miles 
across. On this scale, the maximum depth corresponds to 60 feet. 
Further, let us place a toothpick on this lake. This toothpick 
represents the oceanographic vessels which we use. You have 
heard, of course, that the oceanographer uses cables to lower his 
instruments and to sample the bottom. On this same scale, it 
would take a filament finer than the finest spider thread to plumb 
this 60-foot depth. You can understand the apparent futility of 
trying to accomplish useful work with this extremely fine filament. 
This model illustrates the oceanographer 's problem. 

Many of you may be under the impression that the ocean is 
essentially a huge mass of homogeneous fluid. If this were the 
case, the ocean as we know it would not exist; it would be dead and 
without life. The inhomogeneities within the oceaji make it tick, 
and in many cases make it possible for life to exist. These in- 
homogeneities are often small, but, due to the tremendous thermal 
capacity of the ocean, these small differences represent relatively 
large amounts of energy. Hence, the oceanographer often finds it 
necessary to nnake measurements with a precision which surprises 
his land-based colleagues. For instance, a temperatvire difference 
of one one -hundredth of a degree is often highly significant. Very 
small differences of electric conductivity are likewise important. 
Sometimes it is possible to take advantage of the geometry of a 
given system and measure a gradient directly. This is preferable 
to the common case where it is necessary to take differences 
between relatively large numbers. 

Now I would like to turn back the clock about 200 years. 
Benjamin Franklin published a chart of the Gulf Stream in about 
1782 (fig. 6.1). For its time it was a creditable task and well done. 
He discussed the work leading to it in correspondence as early as 
1776. How he came to make this discovery is hypothetical -- pro- 
bably by discussing and learning of variations in ship speeds or by 
talking with ship captains. He was an instrvunental genius and 
proceeded to make measurements. He used two very simple de- 
vices, a bucket, probably a wooden bucket, with which he sampled 
water, and a thermometer, with which he made measurements of 
the water temperature. He was so impressed with his results that 
he developed what he called "thermometrical navigation, " wrote 
considerably on the subject, and recommended it to many of his 
friends. 



30 



Nearly 200 years later marine technicians are still using the 
same tools (fig. 6.Z). Hjwever, here, the bucket is metal, pro- 
bably a retrogression and not as good as Benjamin Franklin's 
wooden bucket for thermal reasons. 

At this point I will give you the other barrel. The oceanogra- 
pher may find himself in the unenviable position of making 
measurements of dubious accuracy at uncertain locations. You 
heard Admiral Pierce mention the matter of navigational problems. 
You heard him say that the North Pacific was selected for the first 
ocean surveys because of the existence of a new Loran C installa- 
tion. A tremendous mass of the Pacific and the South Atlantic 
has no modern electronic navigational aids. Ships operating in the 
equatorial areas often go for a week to ten days with no celestial 
fixes. You can understand why the oceanographer does not always 
know precisely where he is. Admiral Stephan referred to a dearth 
of adequate instruments. You can put two and two together at this 
point. 

I will attempt to classify instruments -- a dangerous thing to 
do -- to give you some frame of reference: First are the pressure- 
protected instruments. These often take the shape of cylinders or 
spheres and are rigid, heavy-walied devices to withstand the 
pressure. Secondly, we have instruments designed to be in pres- 
sure equilibrium. These are often fluid-filled or they nnay con- 
sist of solid materials, modern potting compounds, etc. In these 
the internal components must resist the ambient pressure. It is 
sometimes easier to operate a pressure-equalized instrument 
than the pressure-protected type. Thirdly, there are surface 
or subsurface instrument buoys or instrument skiffs. 



6.2 



FIGURE 
TECHNICIAN TAKING 
"BUCKET TEMPERATURE' 




31 



There are three classes of pressure-protected instruments 
with which you may be reasonably familiar: Man-carrying vehicles, 
unmanned roving vehicles, and unmanned free vertical-moving 
vehicles . 

A man-carrying vehicle may be a so-called free instrunnent 
like the bathyscaphe, Trieste (fig. 3.4 - 3.5), or a cable-connected 
device like the BATHYSPHERE (fig. 6.3) which preceded the bathy- 
scaphe by nearly three decades. 

Unmanned, roving, self-propelled vehicles may take the 
general shape of torpedoes. They may be preprogrammed devices 
which telemeter information to the surface and are controlled by 
acoustic telemetry. 

The free vertical-moving instrunnents are designed to collect 
data as they go down and come back up to the surface without any 
connecting lines or wires. Some stay on the bottom and collect 
data and may be recalled to the surface at will. 

In the pressure-equalized category there are a few manned ve- 
hicles. These include those made for carrying SCUBA divers. 
The cables of the unmanned cable-connected devices may be either 
electric or nonelectric. Some unmanned pressure-equalized devices 
are placed on the bottom. 

Let us examine the effects of pressure on the individual 
connponents: 

Resistors: The so-called composition types of resistors are in rea- 
lity excellent pressure gauges which make them particularly 
treacherous if you haven't had experience. It is necessary to 
resort either to metallized-film resistors or to wire-wound 
resistors. Here, if you are being very critical -- though I don't 
think you need concern yourselves in general with this -- there 
still is a small pressure effect. 

Capacitors: In general, the nonelectrolytic capacitors do not cause 
too much trouble. However, depending upon the type employed, 
one does need to be careful because of the residual space in the 
cases. Sometimes bubbles are left -- this is troublesome -- or the 
packaging is otherwise faulty. We have trouble with electrolytic 
capacitors which we would like to use for coupling transistor 
circuits. I am not referring to the so-called solid electrolytic types 

32 




Diagrari! iif llio B.illi\ -iiliiri- iif ll>:il. .\1ki\<>: ilf\i« for iittiirliinK «iiii|Mirliiii.' r;iM.' to 
>plierf; ;iIxim- Io riiilil. < oTiiimiiiiraliori .ahlr .■ntirins splnT.- throiiitli «tuf1iii).' l.o\. l«o 
(If it^ wire* pa^.-iiie to tlir tt-lepliotif 1ki\. atid t»o Io tin- switch Ihix lli.il .li^lnlml.- 
power to tlie -eanliliiilil and tin- ilniimal tilower. Mlilille st'<lloii of lintliysil"""-. from 
left to riglit. iheiiiiral lilower ap|>aratii«. ovyiteii tank anil >ahe. teleplione liov ami 
nwtrumelil-. temperature liiiiniilil> retoriler. luirometer. einerueniy oxyiren tank ami 
\al>e. anil ^eanliliirlit. Drauinn li> .liilin TeeVaii. 



6.3 



FIGURE 
BATHYSPHERE 



(From New York Zoological Society 
Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 6, P. 172") 



33 



at the moment. The moist types of capacitors may undergo very 
peculiar changes. In this case we find that the leakage begins to go 
up as pressure increases. As the pressure increases further, the 
capacitors begin to get very erratic and often short out. But if we 
just keep with it, increasing the pressure further, we nnay find that 
around 8, 000 p. s. i. the capacitor may begin to improve. In fact, 
some of them have been known to improve up to pressures of 
20,000 p.s.i. Interestingly enough, sometimes a capacitor which 
has succeeded in operating satisfactorily at 20, 000 p. s.i. may for 
all intents and purposes be a better capacitor when it is returned 
to atmospheric pressure than it was before. It is recommended 
that electrolytic capacitors which are to be operated under high 
pressure be substantially derated to operate at about half the 
rated voltage. 

Lights: Often it is necessary to use lights for various purposes. 
Very cheap ones may be adequate. The ordinary flashlight bulb, 
which the industry classifies as a G-3 1/2 envelope, will withstand 
pressures of over 20, 000 p. s. i. However, about 20 percent of the 
commercial supply is defective due to seal failures. 

Electron tubes: The electron tube causes much less trouble than 
you would suspect. The subminiature series, the T-3 1/2 envelope 
of some manufacturers -- not all, for reasons, incidentally, 
which are not too clear -- will withstand pressures as high as 
20, 000 p. s. i. 

Relays and switches: Relays operate perfectly well in fluids at 
high pressure. Microswitches or snap action types are also easily 
used in the fluid environment. Stepping switches operate well, but 
one must be sure to use a fluid with an appreciable lubricity be- 
cause otherwise the stepping switch will fail. 

Clocks: The automotive d.c. types, even using escapement mechan- 
isms, will operate quite well if the viscosity of the fluid enveloping 
thenn is low enough. 

Transistors: If transistors are fluid-filled, they become pressure- 
equalized devices and we have been unable to measure any pressure 
effects whatsoever. I must be very careful when I say "not able to 
measure, " because someone may say we didn't go out far enough 
into the decimal places. By this I simply mean that when the 
transistor was used in an oscillating circuit (sine wave) which 
tests many of its essential parameters and was subjected to 

34 



increasing pressure no change in the oscillator was observed. 

Thermistors : Thermistors, used for measuring temperature, 
should be treated with a great degree of caution at high pressures. 
Here they may be erratic; they may be in error by as much as 
one-half degree centigrade per thousand p. s.i. in a temperature 
bridge. 

Filling fluids : The temperature coefficient of expansion of fil- 
ling fluids is very important. Many of the convenient hydrocar- 
bons which nnay be used have a temperature coefficient of expan- 
sion such that their volume changes about one cubic centimeter 
per liter per degree centigrade. A word of caution here -- these 
instruments should be designed to withstand not only the cold 
ocean environment, but also the hot sunshine of the deck. The 
bulk modulus (the unit volume change with unit pressure) of the 
fluid is very important. Many of the fluids change only about 6 to 8 
percent in volume when the pressure goes from 15 to 20, 000 p. s. i. 
However, silicones, which are quite desirable electronically, 
change about 10 percent under these conditions and should be 
treated with caution or avoided if possible. Also, remember, 
if you are considering silicones, to be careful because many peo- 
ple are allergic to them. Fluid filling has a decided advantage 
with respect to a heat exchange. The fluid makes possible the 
ready conduction of heat by convection from the components 
to the world's best heat sink, the ocean. 

No talk of this sort would be complete without mention of one 
of the early oceanographic instruments. This is the well-known 
BATHYTHERMOGRAPH or BT (fig. 6.4). This instrximent has 
performed very well on the whole. Its record is made on a small 
smoked slide which you can see being stuck into the instrument 
at the side. Benjamin Franklin's thermometer was dumb and 
could not write; the bathythernnograph, we may say, has learned 
to write, albeit it is still dumb. 

The NIGHT SECCHI DISC (fig. 6. 5) is a technique or device 
for measuring the trajisparency of sea water at night. This is not 
normally an easy thing to do, but this technique has proved to be 
quite accurate, very sinnple, and inexpensive, costing, I suspect, 
probably not more than $. 50 including labor and overhead. It is 
a single flashlight cell with a bulb soldered on top. In use it is 



35 







/ 




Q 




<%> 






FIGURE D.T" 

BT (BATHYTHERMOGRAPH) 



36 




6.5 



FIGURE 

NIGHT SECCHI DISC 



6.6 



FIGURE 

INTEGRATING PLANKTON COLLECTOR 





simply pressed together and tossed over the side of the ship. A 
stopwatch is started when it hits the water and stopped when the 
point source of light disappears and the luminescence remains. 
The time obtained is an index of transparency. This is an example 
of the type of expendable instrunnent that we need to develop. 

The INTEGRATING PLANKTON COLLECTOR (fig. 6. 6) is 
a biological sampling device used for long horizontal tows at various 
depths behind ships. The inlet tube, on the left, is in the front 
portion and it fishes --as the term is used -- ahead of the cable. 
It leads into a hollow chamber that is filled with fresh water. A 
free piston is shown approxinnately amidships, with water on both 
sides. A pump is driven by the propeller on the rear, which ex- 
hausts the volume to the right of the free piston, letting in sea wa- 
ter at a predetermined rate on the left side. This can be adjusted 
by gear ratios to fish quantitatively over short distances or long 
distances. 

A modular concept is illustrated by a series of instruments 
plugged together as follows: The MODIFIED ROBERTS CURRENT 
METER (fig. 6. 7) is a fluid-filled instrument and is thus not depth- 
limited; above it, mounted on the yoke, is a small pre s sure - 
protected module which measiires depth. Above it, suspending 
the entire unit, is an electrical swivel. This system is designed 
to operate on a single conductor, sea return type of cable. The 
electric plugs, available from several manufacturers, Cein be used 
very readily to connect and disconnect the modules. These plugs 
are very simple. They will not leak at any depth in the ocean. 
In fact, some may be mated successfully under salt water with no 
trouble for the electronic circuits. 

GLASS SPHERES (fig. 6.8) about three inches in diameter 
are shown partly to exhibit another concept which we need to keep 
in mind. We should not fight the ocean but do our best to use it. 
Hollow glass spheres are used to determine the time at which an 
instrument reaches the bottom. They are used in a device coupled 
in series with an instr\iment (fig. 6. 9). When the instriiment 
reaches the bottom, the heavy weight is released and when the 
weight falls, a sharp point ruptures the sphere. In deep water this 
hollow sphere represents a s\ibstantial amount of potential energy. 
By listening with a hydrophone over the side of the ship or even 
with the ship's fathometer, one can readily hear when the glass 
sjdiere implodes. The velocity of sound in water is roughly a 
mile a second. 

38 



FIGURE 6. T 
MODIFIED ROBERTS 
METER IN YOKE 
WITH PRESSURE 
MODULE AND 
ELECTRIC SWIVEL 




39 




FIGURE 6.8 
GLASS BALLS 

FIGURE O. y 

BALL BREAKER - REAL AND PLASTIC 





FIGURE 6.10 
PLASTIC CAST 
OIL-FILLED 
PHOTOCELL 





Another device which takes advantage of the ocean and the 
environment is the early design of a fluid-filled barrier -layer 
type of photoelectric cell, potted with an epoxy resin with a cable 
connected (fig. 6.10). This can operate at any depth in the ocean 
without additional packaging. 

For biological and other work it is necessary to determine the 
total and the instantaneous amount of solar radiation. The 
PYRHELIOMETER on top of the box (fig. 6.11) would normally be 
mounted on top of the ship's mast and stabilized. The output from 
this is amplified, chopped, etc. , and fed to the current coil of a 
standard watthour meter. The watthour meter does the very 
simple arithmetic of integrating and giving readings in conventional 
units with which the biologist is familiar. The other meter indicates 
the instantaneous values. 

Another device for biologists offers much greater possibility. 
Here the total amount of light reaching a given depth over, say, a 
week or a month, was measured by the AMBIENT LIGHT RE- 
CORDER, a self-generating type of photoelectric cell of the 
barrier -layer type (fig. 6.12). The total dimension of the device is 
about ten inches from top to bottom. It possesses sufficient 
buoyancy in the upper section so that it floats with the light- sensi- 



41 





^ 




FIGURE b. I I 
RADIANT ENERGY 
RECORDER 



FIGURE D. 12 
SILVER VOLTAMMETER 
LIGHT INTEGRATOR 




FIGURE 6. I 3 

GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT RECORDER 



tive end up. The photocell is connected as shown here; two wires 
lead down into a suitable electrolytic solution which makes it a 
silver voltammeter . You may remember that the silver voitam- 
meter is used to determine the standard units of current. By 
weighing on a standard analytical balance in the laboratory the 
amount of silver plated out, we can determine directly the 
amount of light that this instrument received over the period it was 
used. This is a simple instrument. It can be replaced in the field 
by SCUBA divers. The accuracy is very high. In fact, they are 
hard to calibrate with conventional D'Arsonval meters because 
they are based on the national current standard. 

The GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT RECORDER (fig. 6.13) is 
listed in one of the handouts which you have. (It is a very early 
model of I-q, a Sea Floor Geothernnal Probe. See appendix E. ) 
This is a pressure-protected instrument. The strip chart re- 
corder is in the center with the servosystem to the left. The am- 
plifier, which is located toward the front just above the batteries, 
is a modified hearing aid amplifier. The instrument is highly sensi- 
tive, being accurate to less than a thousandth of a degree. The 
temperature range across the chart may be adjusted. It may be 
as great as half a degree Centigrade full scale. A socket is provided 



43 



for plugging in a photoflash bulb which serves as an angle recorder. 
The recorder, when inserted in its case, is attached to a long thin 
probe that goes into the bottonn of the ocean, and it is necessary to 
know the angle with which the probe goes into the bottom. The 
photoflash bulb is coated with a nnixture of beeswax and lampblack 
so that when it flashes, as the stylus of the strip chart recorder 
goes from its reference position out to record, the heat liberated by 
the flash bulb melts the wax and the wax runs down to the lowest 
point on the bulb. This can be readily measured with accuracies of 
the order of plus or minus 3 degrees. It gives all the orientation 
information necessary without much complication. 

In figure 6.14, Dr. Arthur E. Maxwell, ONR, is putting the 
instrument in its case. He is wearing a typical tropical oceanog- 
raphic unifornn. The instrument is then lowered over the side in 
its pressure-protected case with the ball breaker device (fig. 6. 8) 
above it. Sometimes it is necessary to straighten the probe 
(fig. 6. 15) because it can be bent by the drift of the ship. A good 
design will permit reusing the probe a good many tinnes before it 
is permanently damaged. 

More recently we designed a current meter to test certain 
basic principles (fig. 6.16). It is not necessarily a design that we 
would want to repeat or duplicate. It was made to measure a 
velocity profile while it was being raised and lowered. It included 
an electric swivel at the very top, an electrical plug which is 
simple to disconnect, the current sensing rotor on top, the elec- 
tronic case hidden by the plastic fin, and the plastic fin. The 
electronics are principally all in one narrow deck, with the direc- 
tion element below it (fig. 6.17). This instrument telemeters 
depth, current direction, and current magnitude simultaneously. 
We may say that it has learned to talk. It provides an output 
that is suitable for going into magnetic tape recorders. 

If one wishes to make instantaneous readings, the onboard 
readout has four meters (fig. 6.18). The two on the left indicate 
current. The first reads from zero to three knots; the next, a dual 
scale ineter, reads from zero to 0.3 knots, eind from zero to 0.03 
knots. The third dial is a depth meter, which is also a dual range 
instrument. The direction indicator is on the right. The inputs to 
the depth meter dial (fig. 6.19) are linear. The nonlinear 
characteristic is obtained by shaping the magnetic pole pieces. 
The scale is quite open for shallow water. If one wishes to work in 



44 



6.14 



FIGURE 

GEOTHERMAL 

GRADIENT 

RECORDER IN 

PRESSURE 

CASE 





FIGURE 6.15 
STRAIGHTENING PROBE, 
GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT 
RECORDER 



45 



\ 




FIGURE 6.16 
SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF 
OCEANOGRAPHY CURRENT 
METER 



FIGURE 6. I T 

CHASSIS - SCRIPPS INSTITUTION 

OF OCEANOGRAPHY CURRENT 

METER 



S«fe- 




9 

^^ ^^ ^Bf 



i 



LO , HI 






«IIOT« 


d 




DIRECTION 
•PO 




iusmfs TEienETEiimo cumeht meter 




FIGURE 6. 18 

DECK READOUT, SCRIPPS INSTITUTION 

OF OCEANOGRAPHY CURRENT METER 



FIGURE 6. 19 
DEPTH READOUT 
METER, SCRIPPS 
INSTITUTION OF 
OCEANOGRAPHY 
CURRENT METER 




47 



harbors, one can still read with fair accuracy. If we get down be- 
low fifty feet, the smallest scale unit on the dial is five feet. 

It is possible to obtain a current profile when velocity is 
plotted against depth by a function plotter. The direction trace is 
not recorded in figure 6. 20, but does exist on the nnagnetic tape 
original. 

A more recent model used circuit boards (fig. 6.Z1). These 
are assembled in stacks one above the other. The circuit boards 
shown are multiple binary decks with associated telemetering am- 
plifiers and filters. 

There are electrical background problems in the ocean (fig. 
6. 22) of which you should remain cognizant if you are going to tele- 
nneter electrically or make certain types of measurennents. 
Electromagnetic energy exists in the ocean. The electrical spec- 
trum in the audio frequency range from about 0.2 kc. up to around 
20 kc. has been integrated and recorded as a function of azimuth. 
The sensor was towed behind a submarine as the submarine was 
turning at a constant depth. There are directional characteristics 
to this. This is basically generated by what the meteorologists 
call sferics, electromagnetic disturbances that are propagated 
great distances from electromagnetic storms, lightning, and so 
forth. 

Everything isn't quite what we might expect in the ocean. The 
more you work with it, the more you realize this is true. For 
instance, data was taken to measure the cmnoiint of light as a 
function of depth on a moonlight night. One would expect that it 
gets darker as you go deeper. One record shows that such is not 
always the case (fig. 6.23). Down to about 100 meters, the light 
intensity does decrease. However, at about 100 meters the light 
intensity stops decreasing and may increase. In this case the 
record only goes down to about 300 meters. The light is essential- 
ly due to the presence of luminescent organisms existing within the 
ocean in this region. 

Power sources, of course, are extrennely important to the 
oceanographer . Here we can only scratch the surface, and I shan't 
attempt to make anything like an all-inclusive coverage. Primary 
batteries represented by the Leclanchg' cell, the common dry cell, 
are quite reliable in the ocean. They have to be protected, of 



48 




0' 



.5 .6 

KNOTS 



SP I09A 
_BuSHIPS CURRENT MET ER- CURRENT PROFILE REC0RD,23 AUGUST 1957, TIME. 1603. 

FIGURE O.^U 
X - Y PLOT CURRENT, SCRIPPS 
INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY 
CURRENT METER 

49 




6.21 



FIGURE 

CIRCUIT BOARDS FROM BINARY SWITCHING MODULE 



FIGURE D.22 

ELECTRICAL NOISE IN THE SEA, AZIMUTHAL 

VARIATION 

db 



-30 
-2 8 

-2 6 
-24 
-2 2 




1 



50 



220° 040° 220° 

AZIMUTHAL VARIATION 
lOCT 53 BAYA, REEL #4 



REF=lxlO VOLT 



IRRADIANCE IN pWATTS/cm^ 
-J 



en 

a: 



S 



I 
I- 



100 



FIGURE 6.2o 
IRRADIANCE AS 
FUNCTION OF 
WAVE LENGTH 
AND DEPTH 




150- 



«0%T 



200- 



250- 



4 00"<y 



300L 



course, from salt water. Pressure effects are minor, particularly 
if one gets new batteries before some of the moisture has evapo- 
rated from the mix within the case. However, at the ocean bottom 
where tennperatures may approach C. , one should expect to 
lose something like 20 percent of the capacity which batteries have 
at 23 C. Mercury cells are so complex that I think a word of 
warning should be given to test each and every batch because chan- 
ges in construction and things of this sort make them either suitable 
or not suitable. Many of them will utterly refuse to perform at 
temperatures much below room temperature and become very erra- 
tic. In fact, we had a rather sad experience that cost us a good 



51 



many thousands of dollars because of a minor design change in the 
battery which was unknown to us; the catalog number or anything of 
that sort had not been changed. What had been a previously useful 
battery became useless with a small temperature drop. 

The introduction of unannounced changes is one of our prob- 
lems. I referred to the problems of the electrolytic capacitor 
earlier. One may find a type of battery that is acceptable for high 
pressure operations. You attempt to replace it by ordering a new 
lot. For some reason, the new batch simply will not perform. 
Small changes have been made in manufacturing techniques which 
ruin it for high pressure use, but which probably make it better 
for other people. 

Storage batteries are probably one of the brightest lights 
that we have as far as useful power supplies are concerned. The 
ordinary, homely, lead-acid automobile battery works very well. 
All you have to do is to protect the terminals from salt water, fill 
the cells clear up with acid of the proper gravity, and provide a 
small expansion chamber. They will operate very happily at any 
depth. The low gravity, low self-discharge types may actually 
give you the order of 80 percent of their capacity after being on the 
bottom for times as long as one year. Silver cells which are a 
more sophisticated storage battery have been tested up to pressures 
of 80, 000 p. s. i. These, too, show a very satisfactory performance. 

There are air-breathing types of power supplies, sonne 
undergoing very rapid development at present, particularly those 
classified as the propane -fueled thermoelectric cells. These, at 
present, are essentially low wattage devices; they apparently 
possess high reliability. However, the reliability in the marine 
environment has not yet been, as far as I know, thoroughly estab- 
lished and needs to have a great deal more work done. For example, 
it would appear that something like 200 grams of salt would have to 
pass through a modestly small burner in the course of a year's 
operation in a buoy at sea. What is to be the fate of this salt, what 
reaction it will have on the burner, its materials, and so forth, I 
do not know. Mr. Allyn C. Vine of Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution is very partial to the concept of another air-breathing 
device, namely, the diesel electric generating system. This has 
high reliability, and, if one needs substantial amounts of power, 
they should not be overlooked. 

Of course for certain specialized applications, for example, 
52 



permanent bottom -mounted installations, where it is not possible 
to get air, the thermonuclear, thermoelectric unit represented by 
the SNAP series and their successors are obviously very promising. 
I won't argue on the economics of these because factors other than 
simple econonnics will determine their use. 

Environmentals have been referred to earlier. Here may be 
the place that requires our greatest attention and the nnost work in 
the future; we need to approach this ocean environment with a great 
deal of caution. For instance, the failure of subnnarine telegraph 
cables at depths approaching one mile caused by entangled sperm 
whales is well documented. Their skeletons have often been hauled 
back up with the cables. The general problenns of marine fouling 
varies as a function of depth, location, and season. It takes a long 
time to check out an instrument's ability to withstand this type of 
environmental hazard. 

Dr. William S. Richardson of Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution encountered a little-understood corrosion at the junction 
between nylon line and stainless steel thimbles. We now avoid 
this combination. Cables jacketed with neoprene, one of the fami- 
lies of plastics used for cable insulation, must also be used with 
great care. Some marine organisms flourish on this cable. They 
attach themselves at points where there has been a small abrasion 
or scratch and proceed to grow and spread, just like a root growing 
in a rock. They may ultimately cause insulation failure. Optical 
windows foul quite readily, depending on the environnnent. 

The hazards of environment are well illustrated by an account 
of "mine-eating" bacteria. A number of experimental mines were 
shipped from the east to the west coast for testing in a given 
environment. These mines had a design life of six years. They 
were planted at various locations in sufficient quantity so that they 
could be sampled from time to time to determine the effects of the 
environment. Imagine the chagrin of the experimenters when they 
picked up their first sample at the end of six months and found 
that vital parts of the exploder mechanism had disappeared. This 
was critical. The mine could not have operated, and it probably 
didn't work very long after it was planted. A substantial amount 
of metal had simply disappeared. In the particular environment 
tested there dwell a species of sulfate -reducing marine bacteria, 
anaerobic in their action. They form their own little electrolytic 
cell and corrode the metal. They work fast. Our Navy colleagues, 



53 



acquainted with the problems of mothbalied ships, are well aware 
of these troublesome organisms. These things happen and I urge 
you to exercise all kinds of caution in this regard. Plastics, too, 
often fail due to the presence of sulfur in the bottom environment. 
Many of the sediments have a high sulfur content, and many of the 
plastics are adversely affected under these circumstances. 

We have negligible data on the combination of high hydrostatic 
pressures and marine organisms. Yet we know this is a very potent 
combination. We need more work here. Accelerating such environ- 
mental tests is difficult. For instance, plastic changes its proper- 
ties under pressure. Can we accelerate these effects by simply 
increasing the pressure still further? Under this greater pressure 
it is not the same kind of material that it was before. 

Also, you in industry, and the Navy, are becoming cautiously 
aware that synthetic salt spray tests simply do not represent the 
normal environnnent. 

I am sure of only two safe materials in the plastics or near- 
plastics: gutta-percha and polyethylene. The first is very old, 
selected by Lord Kelvin, who did better than he may have realized 
in selecting it for the insulation of the marine telegraph cable. This 
has stood up over many, many years. The other, a much more 
modern material, polyethylene, has been used a much shorter time 
but shows promise. However, it would be very dangerous to assume 
that because polyethylene stands the environment, that polypropylene 
will also. Maybe it will, but I do know that there could be some lit- 
tle marine organism sitting around that would just love to work on 
this molecular modification. This is something we may learn more 
about, but we must be very careful in extrapolating our experience. 

You have heard references made to telemetry. The oceanog- 
rapher must collect data over a very large area. Radio, of .course, 
appears to be the answer. But here again the oceanographer runs 
into problems, partly because the space in the electromagnetic 
spectrum is already overcrowded, and interference is tremendous, 
particularly in that part of the spectrxim he prefers, mainly the 
high frequency bands. These wave lengths are both the most 
crowded and the most advantageous. The VHF and UHF portions 
of the spectrum are line-of-sight at ordinary power. Thus, two 
alternatives are being proposed: First, the use of aircraft for 
highflying interrogation and recording devices may sound relatively 



54 



expensive but per bit of information it is not; second, communica- 
tion satellites appear to be particularly promising as interrogators 
because low flying types, such as the Courier, which operates at 
altitudes of between 300 and 400 miles, has recording equipment 
on board, and can receive RF that buoys can transmit. Lower 
power requirements improve reliability. As Admiral Stephan 
mentioned, high reliability is vital. This should be underscored 
and underscored again. An installed telemetering buoy represents 
a substantial investment. If sonne little component fails, the whole 
thing is useless! This puts the same kind of reliability concept on 
components that we face in our space program. My ideas represent 
only a small sample of new concepts and needs. 

We need various types of recorders, say magnetic tape, punch 
paper -- you name it -- for use in instrument buoys and at remote 
stations. These must stand very severe conditions. There are 
angular accelerations to be encountered, vertical accelerations 
and long-time operations in an adverse environnnent. We cannot 
hope to telemeter all information so we must have suitable and 
reliable recorders. 

Then, of course, this matter of getting data in the first place, 
the matter of data acquisition. This, if we may focus on it, is our 
greatest weakness -- the lack of adequate transducers or sensors 
for use in the marine environment. I have no pat answer or 
suggestions. The requirements of high reliability, long life, and 
accuracy make this truly a real challenge. I can think of few 
transducers that satisfy these requirements. This whole field 
needs a great deal of work, partly because it has not been 
emphasized in the past. Most of the present work in sensors has 
gone to fields unrelated to this environment. We have tried to 
convert instruments to oceanography and use them, but this has 
not been satisfactory. 

I mentioned earlier the use of an expendable optical device for 
measuring water transparency. The principle of expendability 
should be extended. I think you have design and inspiration capa- 
bility within your own companies, within your own minds -- ideas 
that can be very useful. The value of any expendable device should 
be based on its ability to get more and better data, at less cost. 
This doesn't necessarily meaun the instrument system itself need 
be so cheap, providing it gets the data. Reliability and size are 
important. We can't hope to make something very large if it is 
going to be expended in quantity; logistics is a factor of cost. 



55 



Of course, if someone comes up with a satisfactory solution, they 
can use the truly high-production techniques which Annerican 
industry possesses. Using modern methods that are just getting 
underway, such as moletronics, they can turn out very large quanti- 
ties at reasonable prices. There are obviously a lot of gaps in this, 
but I think these are some of the things that we do need to examine. 

Finally, no nnatter what you read, no matter what I tell you or 
someone else tells you, there is no substitute for a first hand feel 
for the ocean. I have talked about this with some of my colleagues, 
and it is safe to say that the research institutions are glad to extend 
an invitation to serious -minded engineers to take you to sea, to give 
you some sea experience, if you demonstrate that you are sufficient- 
ly well motivated in this regard, because I think this will pay real 
dividends to you and you will better understand the problenns. I 
could talk all day. I could show you more pictures. It won't do any 
good until you can get a first hand feel and understanding of this. 



56 



7. ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTATION 
DEVELOPMENT AS RELATED TO IN-PUT INTO THE 
NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA CENTER 



Dr. Woodrow C. Jacobs 

National Oceanographic Data Center 
Washington, D. C. 



At the time I was invited to participate in this Symposium I 
had just been appointed Director of the National Oceanographic 
Data Center. In fact, I had been Director for exactly two days. 
Even in this age of extreme acceleration of things scientific, I 
doubt that this constitutes sufficient experience for me to pose as 
an authority on oceanographic data centers. I have had, however, 
a number of years of experience in matters pertaining to the 
acquisition, storage, retrieval, and processing of geophysical 
data -- particularly meteorological data. If it is true that one 
learns primarily from the mistakes one makes, I am enninently 
qualified to pose as a world authority on matters of this sort. 
I think that I have made them all, and should have no further ones 
to propose to oceanography -- either for action or for research 
and development. 

Though my statements so far can hardly be said to constitute 
the "positive approach, " caution is not without merit. The 
charter for the National Oceanographic Data Center is indeed 
positive. The NODC is a "National Oceanographic Data Center, 
organized for the purpose of acquiring, compiling, processing, 
and preserving oceanographic data for ready retrieval. " If we 
took these objectives literally and gathered data indiscriminately, 
particularly those that are most available and that produce the 
most impressive production figures, and from these produce even 
more impressive stacks of punched cards, computer tapes, data 
summaries, etc. , then we could sit back and wait for some 
oceanographer to be smart enough to guess what we had on hand 
and allow him to ask for it. It would be mainly coincidence if the 
materials available would specifically meet his requirements- 
Such a story is not farfetched. Many data centers, information 
centers, and libraries, are operated, in effect, on just such 
principles. 



57 



The farsighted individuals who are responsible for the 
creation of NODC had an entirely different kind of center in mind. 
The single objective of the Center is that it become "the primary 
source of ocean data required by the research oceanographer , by 
the scientists in related fields, and by the maritime operational 
interests." Any other statement in the charter simply describes 
one of the means for achieving such an objective. I hope that in 
a small way I can make you appreciate the magnitude of this 
objective, and I also hope that I can impress upon the instrument 
people the importance of the role they must play in the creation of 
a successful long term operation. 

I want to point out with all the emphasis that I can muster that 
the instrument designer and fabricator have it within their power 
to completely swaoip the scientist with data beyond all hope of his 
recovery. The constant addition of improved mathematical techni- 
ques and powerful computing equipnnent can only serve to keep him 
afloat for a short time longer but will never allow him to compete 
on a "bit-for-bit" basis. 

A good example of the competition you afford us in this area is 
provided by the common TV set in your living room. You may ask, 
"What has this to do with oceanography? " A TV, as you know it 
may not be an oceanographic instrument, but a TV scanning system 
is and it has already had highly successful application in ocean sur- 
vey work. If you have not already heard about the development, 
I am not about to let you in on it. After all, we are going to have a 
hard enough time keeping two junnps ahead of you fellows. 

But to get back to this TV set. It takes 4 x 10^ "bits" of 
transmitted information per second to produce the black and white 
picture on your screen with its customary resolution, and this 
resolution is not nearly as high as it could be and it can be in color. 
Now to store in digital form, let us say, the total information con- 
tained in a two-minute commercial from an "I Love Lucy" show, 
approximately 5, 000, 000 punched cards would be required. In fact, 
it would be beyond our present capability in NODC to store meiny 
such commercials in this form. Obviously, it would be foolish to 
store this type of information on cards. A tape is the obvious 
storage medium. But this reminds me of the Soviet experience 
with last year's moon shot. I understand that the coded magnetic 
and ionospheric data telemetered back from that flight are contained 
on a tape which is of the order of 400 miles in length and packed 
with digital information. Furthermore, it seems that the Soviets 

58 



FIGURE f . I 

COMPUTER 

FACILITIES, 

NATIONAL 

OCEANOGRAPHIC 

DATA CENTER 




have found it necessary to edit manually the entire tape -- centi- 
nneter by centimeter. And mind you, these are data from only one 
space "expedition" and one which had rather limited scientific 
objectives. 

However, I don't want to give the impression that all things are 
black as far as data centers are concerned; the "shoe is as frequent- 
ly on the other foot" as not. I recall an incident of several years 
ago when several individuals approached our organization for some 
computing and tabulation assistance on a research project. Since 
there were only three individuals assigned to the project, they want- 
ed their work facilitated by having data from a large number of 
weather stations collated in a particular nnanner and the results to 
appear as a series of individual machine listings. We raised some 
questions as to the magnitude of the proposed job but their reaction 
was one of impatience more than anything else. They were not 
interested in our excuses, they simply wanted to know "could we or 
could we not undertake the project? " We allowed that we could do 
the job but we felt we were obliged to point out that even if they 
could read the tab sheets at the rate of one line per minute and they 
would do this 24 hours per day, seven days per week, 365 days per 
year, the three of them couldn't possibly live long enough to complete 
the reading task, let alone analyze the contents or do anything else 
with them. 

I have already had some experience with the impact that some 
of the new and uncoordinated observational programs can have on an 
unsuspecting data center. I was for a time associated with one data 
center whose relative efficiency over the years appeared to decrease 
almost in geometric proportion to the amount of data it had acquired. 
This occurred in spite of the addition of the most modern analytical 
techniques and computing equipment that served to increase total 
production tremendously. 

There are many concrete examples that can be cited as illus- 
trations of developments that have had staggering impact on data^ cen- 
ters and research institutions. One example is the meteorological 
satellite developed by NASA. A single Tiros- or Nimbus-type 
satellite can acquire, in a few orbital passes, more atmospheric 
data than can be analyzed by all of the U. S. meteorologists working 
together as a team for a year. Then add to this, the constant supply 
of data from some 100, 000 surface weather stations, some 3, 500 
or nnore ships at sea, the pilot reports from covintless aircraft, the 



60 



autographic records from reconaissance aircraft, rocket probes, 
automatic weather stations, constant level balloons, and hundreds 
of pilot balloon and radiosonde stations, and then add to these the 
three-dimensional radar scope depictions of cloud and precipita- 
tion systems from a multitude of radar installations and the atmo- 
spheric-electric data from sferics stations over the globe, and 
you may begin to have some idea of what I mean when I say you have 
it within your power to swamp us beyond all hope of recovery. 

The only long term solution to this big problem is to begin to 
take some steps that are long overdue. In our own particular case 
these steps include the bringing together of -the instrument design- 
er, the oceanographer , the data custodian, and the processing 
equipment expert for the purpose of developing an economical and 
efficient data system. A bit of data is really of no consequence un- 
til it has contributed to some bit of oceanographic research or has 
been used in reaching an operational decision. The instrument 
designer and manufacturer nnay pride themselves on the fact that 
they have been able to produce an instrument that can be sold for 
$100 and that the operating costs are only $1 per observation. 
However, if one followed the course of the data it produces, from 
the instrument to the point where it has contributed to oceanogra- 
phic knowledge, we might well find that the instrument is far more 
expensive than we can afford. It is essential that an observational 
systenn be produced which is economical and efficient in the total 
sense. 

Before beconning specific it might be worthwhile to outline 
several very broad instrumentation objectives as far as a data 
center is concerned. 

In the first place, it is our feeling that in the future design of 
instrunnentation a great deal more obeisance should be paid to the 
concepts involved in "information theory. " It will be mandatory 
that the final observational record present the maximum amount 
of information with the smallest possible number of "bits. " It 
may be necessary to pay some attention to instrumentation that 
does not record or transmit all the information possible but only 
that information which departs in some way from what has already 
been recorded or departs from what oceanographer s already know. 
Information that is redundant— or irrelevant should be filtered 

1/ As I note the word redxindant here I recall that when my secretary 

61 



out wherever possible. In some cases, internal data processing 
may be required such that the final record is of the parameters 
dBsired rather than those which are actually sensed by the instru- 
ment. There should be no loss of useful information in this pro- 
cess, however. 

In the second place it is my feeling that the final material 
records of all instruments should be "modular" in nature as far 
as is possible. I realize that I am using a meaningful word in a 
rather unusual sense but I am unable at the moment to find another 
one that expresses the rather elusive thought. What I am trying 
to say is that the economy of storage, transcribing, and processing 
cannot stand too great a variety of final record. We camot afford 
a special curve tracer or transcriber for each instrument nor can 
we afford to employ an excessive variety of storage and handling 
equipment. Moreover, the collation of records demands that the 
utmost in uniformity of record be achieved. 

So much for broad objectives. Now perhaps a word is in 
order as to how the NODC fits into this picture. 

Many technical and commercial fields have provided adequate- 
ly for a centralized data processing facility and a d ecentralized 
operational and research activity. They most commonly fail, 
however, to provide the function that serves to knit the two together 
into a unified operating system. This function is obviously 
COMMUNICATION. NODC intends to do its part to provide this 
function. Communication is obviously a two-way proposition. In 
the first instance it means that adequate provision must be made to 
disseminate to the research or operational individual the materials 
he requires in a rapid and economical fashion and in the form most 
suitable for his use. In the second instance it means that adequate 
provision must be made for the communication oi requirements 
between the research and operational interests and the data center. 
This must be accomplished in both the short and long term senses. 



1/ (Continuation from page 61) 

first transcribed the word from her notes it came out reluctant . 
I don't think she realizes how appropriate the mistake actually was. 
In fact, the term was so apropos of the discussion I was almost 
tempted to add a section on "reluctant data. " Certainly we have 
numerous data in our files that are aptly described as "reluctant" 
and I have no doubt but that some of you could have offered sug- 
gestions as to how we might cope with some of this "reluctance. " 



62 



It is necessary that the data center keep itself informed of develop- 
ing techniques (and instrumentation) and requirements as far in 
advance as is possible in order that it can gear itself to meet these 
new requirements and technical capabilities when they arise. This 
the NODC expects to accomplish. 

In the matter of communication I have discussed only two 
functional interests. One has been the researcher or operational 
oceanographer himself; the other has been the supporting data 
center. There exists a third interest that occupies equal stature 
to the other two. This is the interest that designs and provides the 
instruments, recorders, and sensing devices that produce the bulk 
of the data that form the background for our entire discussion. In 
the final analysis it is also the function that justifies a data center 
in the first place. I might add that the factor of communication 
is just as important here as in the other areas and, as a matter 
of fact, this is the function I am attempting to perform at this 
moment. 

It has not been traditional for close liaison to exist between the 
instrument and equipment designer and the individuals concerned 
with the longer term aspects of the use of the observational pro- 
duct of these instruments. This statement is, fortunately, not as 
true in oceanography as it has been true in most sciences. Oceanog- 
rapher s in the past have constituted a small, closely knit group 
and most of them, almost by definition, have had a large personal 
interest and competence in instrumentation. Unfortunately, this 
happy circumstance will probably end. Many a research oceanog- 
rapher of the future will have no firsthand familiarity with the 
instrumentation that provides his research data. It is quite pro- 
bable that he will have to rely on the Data Center for aji instru- 
mental evaluation of the record because the Center will be the 
only organization in position to exercise quality control in the 
broad sense. 

The Data Center expects to develop this function to the best 
of its ability and to offer its assistance to both groups as an 
aggressive and continuing activity. 

Now let us consider some of the specific detail that is of 
immediate concern in this Symposium. An examination of the 
observational programs maintained in the earth sciences makes 
it appear that they serve three separate and distinct purposes: 



63 



(1) Provide data for support of research; 

(2) Provide data used for survey purposes; and 

(3) Provide current data for operational uses. 

The relative weights given each class of use varies considerably. 
In oceanography the first two have been predominant and I believe 
that this has been fortunate. In the field of meteoroiogy the reverse 
has been true. Here, almost the entire emphasis has been placed 
on the current use of data for weather forecasting and particularly 
for aircraft operations. Instrumentation and the more sophisticated 
observation networks have been created primarily to satisfy these 
needs. The individuals engaged in atmospheric research and in 
climatology have had to be satisfied to use data which were largely 
designed to serve exclusively an entirely different purpose. It is 
my opinion that the science of meteorology has suffered immeasvir- 
ably because of this course of evolution. I mentioned previously 
that it has been fortunate for oceanography that instrumentation and 
observation practices have been designed primarily to meet the 
needs of oceanographic research and ocean survey work. We in the 
Data Center, however, have some reason to be concerned that, 
under the impetus of newly-developed environmental prediction 
systems, the emphasis might be changed to the extent that the spec- 
ifications of the operational interests may be met at the expense 
of those of the oceanographer. 

It is possible to design instruments to satisfy both classes of 
requirements. This is done by being certain that the final record 
is in standard physical units and not in some operational unit that 
has more than one physical interpretation. 

An example of a device that does not fit this principle is one 
of the meteorological instruments called a transmissometer which 
is actually a visibility (or extinction) meter for use at airports. 
The aircraft pilot is interested in visibility but is not concerned 
particularly with what meteorological phenomenon it is thg.t reduces 
the visibility. Since the transmissometer records visibility only, 
when its record is the only one telemetered from a remote loca- 
tion, it is n-jeteorologically meaningless to the scientist. There 
are many opportunities for such types of operational instrumenta- 
tion in oceanography and these we should avoid except where we 
can maintain oceanographic integrity through the use of economi- 
cal and efficient supplemental instrumentation. 

In closing I would like to list very briefly a few other features 
in instrumentation that would be highly desirable from the stand- 

64 



point of NODC and the interests it is dedicated to support*. 

1. Where telemetry is involved, there should be no loss of data 
through failure in electrical transmission or through failure of 
some raw data processing facility. 

2. Data should be in format which is either immediately compatible 
with the most advanced data processing system or it must be in a 
form rapidly and economically convertible to compatible format 
without manual steps . 

3. In cases of sequential data, the format of the data record should 
not irrevocably determine the sequence and order of data storage. 

4. Provision should be made for the permanent retention of semi- 
processed as well as raw data. 

5. Whenever possible, the records from two or more related instru- 
ments should be such that adequate quality control through cross- 
checking is facilitated. 



65 



8. OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHIC 
INSTRUMENTATION 

PART I. FOR THE HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE (OPERATIONS) 

Captain R. D. Fusselman 

Navy Department 
Washington, D. C. 



I would like to elaborate on the background which has shaped 
both our requirements and approach for the instrumentation aspect 
of oceanographic surveying. The military, scientific, and commer- 
cial demands for a national effort to execute a broad ocean survey 
program have been well established by the preceding speakers. 
We are prepared now to concentrate on the tools or hardware with 
which to do the job. 

My remarks are aimed at supplying background material sup- 
plementary to the handouts which you have received. (See appen- 
dices E, F, and G. ) I would like to pay tribute to the many people 
who have participated in this effort on the Panel on Equipnnent, 
Facilities, and Instrumentation of the Interagency Committee on 
Oceanography -- and particularly to Captain C. N. G. Hendrix -- 
whose dedication to this project has resulted in a clear-cut ex- 
pression of our needs for instrumentation for oceanwide sxirveys. 

Our present, coordinated national effort to obtain better 
instrumentation came about in the following manner: Last Novein- 
ber, the Office of Naval Research and the Hydrographic Office 
conducted an oceanographic instrumentation conference at which 
some 45 specialists in the field were assembled to help determine 
what oceanographic data was to be collected and to what accuracies. 
In view of the many and diversified interests in all areas of oceanog- 
raphy, the early phases of the conference were chaotic with little 
agreennent. From this conference, however, working groups were 
formed and patterns of requirements began to take shape. It was 
an encouraging and significant sign of recognition of the problem 
when Assistant-Secretary James H. Wakelin established the 
above-mentioned ICO Panel to extend and coordinate the national 
oceanographic instrumentation effort. Intensive liaison has been 
carried out for 10 months to resolve the general ajid specific 



66 



interests of all government agencies and private institutions con- 
tributing data to the ocean siirvey program. 

In the light of this backgroiind I will discuss survey instru- 
mentation and its use by 20 or more government agencies. My ex- 
amples are primarily Navy requirements and Navy applications 
but the instrumentation involved has been determined applicable to 
the needs of other members of the ICO. 

The instruments, instrument "suits, " and instrument "sys- 
tems " of the oceanographic survey agencies must be standard and 
the data collected must be in standard or compatible fornn to facili- 
tate the gathering and exchange of data for immediate application. 
This will insure a contribution to the storehouse of readily available 
and useful knowledge for scientific and commercial purposes. 

Our handouts emphasize the desire for "suits" and "systems" 
of instruments which are compatible and which can be developed 
ajid produced soon. The oceanographic agencies need miaterial 
improvement in the reliability and accuracy of their instruments 
and the speed at which oceanographic measurements can be made. 
For example, it now takes one ship 24 hours to complete what we 
refer to as an oceanographic station. This means measuring and 
observing possibly two dozen physical, chemical, and biological 
characteristics at a specific location at sea. Our objective is to 
reduce this time to two hours because one survey ship would then 
be able to cover approxinnately twice the area in the sanne amount 
of time. We may not be able to achieve our objective of two hours 
but any reduction in this time will aid the total effort materially. 
Referring back to the remarks of Dr. Woodrow C. Jacobs, we will 
gain even more time when the data gathered is compatible with data 
processing and electronic computing equipment in the NODC. 

I ann sure that this highly selected audience is familiar with 
Navy's principal problems in instrumentation. Many points were 
brought out in detail at the NSIA mieeting in May, the Mil- £- Con 
meeting in June, and several subsequent articles that have appeared 
in various professional periodicals. Although the Navy has a wide 
variety of military applications for all known variables of oceanog- 
raphic data, I ann pvirposely limiting nnyself to the paramount 
problem of sonar and its reliance upon accurate and comprehen- 
sive bathymetric and temperature data. 

Unfortvinately the terms -- detect, identify, classify, and 

67 



destroy are thrown about so iooseiy, with understandable empha- 
sis on ''destroy, " that I'm afraid many of us are inclined to over- 
look the fact that we are still wrestling with "detect. " Detection, 
of course, is done with sonar. To use sonar effectively we must 
understand the environment. There has been a substantial increase 
in the range of detection by sonar and this has been due in large 
part to our greater knowledge of the ocean environment through 
oceanography. 

How much do we know about the oceans? A typical example is 
portrayed by figure 8. 1 which reveals the present inadequate cover- 
age of bathymetry on a worldwide basis. Practically all oceanog- 
raphic factors affect sonar performance. 

Bathythermograph data holdings are similarly scanty. Figure 
8. 2 illustrates large oceanic areas of strategic importance for 
which we lack sufficient temperature data. 

Acquisition of adequate bottom and temperature data will 
assist us to furnish sonar operators with charts, tables, and 
special publications with which they may predict various environ- 
mental conditions affecting sonar performance in specific operat- 
ing areas. 

We estimate that we have adequate coverage for about 3 per- 
cent of the oceanic areas involved. It is fairly obvious that exist- 
ing or even planned survey ships are inadequate for completion of 
the task within any reasonable length of time. This then leads to 
the conclusion that we must get the maximum use from each plat- 
form at sea in order to collect all of the oceanographic data re- 
quired by the numerous agencies involved. Within limitations posed 
by operations and dollar considerations, the Navy intends to assist 
to the maximum extent possible. Occasionally, oceanographic 
data collection can be consistent with the primarymission of a 
combatant unit but it now appears that the best application in the 
Navy can be achieved with service forces and combatant units dur- 
ing rotation voyages. 

FIGURE O . I 

U. S. BATHYMETRIC HOLDINGS (1961) . 



68 



'fr . 1^: 






y 



''•K-.:/^^ 






V 



'Vrtn 






:-^- 










^'^^ikrt'^ 



^ 










'. 










/"•- 











■.L> 





,»:-- 
A 











































/ 



/ 



J m 


1 








'flHral^ 










■ 

L-.. 


^^^^^^^^Hb' 



The Navy is but one of the sources from which platforms 
might be obtained. An analysis of all ships available and their 
characteristics has led to the establishment of three general 
categories: (1) ships of opportunity , (2) synoptic ships, and (3) 
survey ships . Ships of opportunity may be tankers, freighters, 
fleet units, fishing vessels, etc. 

Considering a few aspects of applied oceanography, we have 
refined stornn and ice prediction techniques to the point where 
millions of dollars are saved each year in cutting transocean 
crossing time and minimizing damage to ships and cargo. The 
merchant marine has been contributing information for years 
but more emphasis and better instruments are required. The 
fishing industry is intensely interested in temperature, the 
presence of plankton, and the location of sea mounts. Navy 
is also vitally interested in all three. 

The next category, synoptic ships, is directed toward en- 
vironmental prediction surveys -- such as ASWEPS -- Anti- 
submarine Warfare Environmental Prediction System. Synoptic 
ships might be called ocean station ships which maintain the 
same position at sea over long periods of time. They are stopped 
or underway at very slow speeds. The best examples of these 
are: (1) Weather ships, (2) picket ships, (3) missile tracking 
and recovery ships, etc. 

The third category comprises research and survey ships of 
government agencies as well as those of private laboratories and 
some educational institutions. Examples are the Bowditch , San 
Pablo, and Rehoboth . 

Our existing survey ships are conversions. Six ships now 
under construction were specifically designed for research and 
survey purposes. 

In addition to characteristics, nnissions, and schedules, a 
major contributing factor to the categorization of these various 
ships has been the type and numbers of instruments that it would 
be practicable to install. 

FIGURE 0.2 

U. S. BATHYTHERMOGRAPH HOLDINGS 



71 




FIGURE O . O 
RESEARCH SHIP 

Figure 8. 3 gives some appreciation for the instrumentation 
now carried by a research or survey ship. Merchant or commer- 
cial ships on tight schedules cannot be expected to instrument m 
this manner nor can fleet units acconnmodate installations such as 
these. 

For example, there is a hull-mounted surface wave sensor 
and a surface temperature probe. Separate measurements to vary- 
ing depths are taken on such items as radioactivity, light trans- 
mission, and Carbon i4. 

Separate installations for current meters, a geothermai 
probe, a dredge, and a bottom sampler are deep, brute force 
equipments. Many separate hoists and many separate instrunnent 
trips are necessary to measure the variables involved. 



72 



In the center of figure 8. 3 and still under development is what 
we refer to as the basic system. This is the one -- at this mo- 
ment -- that appears to have best possibilities for early and wide- 
spread application in all three instrument suits. The objective 
is to include in a single housing, as many sensors as feasible to 
measure electronically various oceanographic variables. 

We have mentioned suits and systems of instruments and I 
think it would be helpful to spend a little more time on each of these 
terms. When we speak of "suits" of instruments, we are speaking 
of the vertical columns in figure 8. 4. There is a suit contemplated 
for each major category of platforms, survey ships, synoptic ships, 
and ships of opportunity. 



BASIC 
SYSTEM 



DATA 
MEASUREMENT 



SHIPBOARD SYNOPTIC SHIP OF 

SURVEY ASWEPS OPPORTUNITY 



TEMPERATURE 

SOUND VaOCITY 

SALINITY 

DEPTH . 

POSITION NAVIGATION . 
DENSITY 




EXPANDED 
SYSTEM 



INDIVIDUAL 
INSTRUMENTS 



BATHYMETRY 

WAVES 

MAGNETICS 

GRAVITY 

CURRENTS 

LIGHT 

GEOTHERMAL PROBE ._. 

ACOUSTIC 

DYE DETECTOR 

RADIO AaiVITY 



PLANKTON 

CAMERA 

TELEVISION - 

DREDGE 

SEAFLOOR PROBE 

BOnOM SAMPLERS 

WATER SAMPLER 

METEOROLOGY 

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS __ 



'//liX 



SLOW SPEED 



I Unc/erwoy 



I Stopped 



FIGURE 0» T" 

OCEANOGRAPHIC SURVEY INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED 



73 



"Systems" refers to groups of instruments where possible com- 
binations of sensors in common housings appear feasible. The "data 
measurement" column represents the oceanographic variables in 
which we are interested and their relationship to the various instru- 
ment suits is indicated. 

The basic system offers the biggest early potential market as 
the appearance of most of the variables across the board indicates. 

From an engineering standpoint, the expanded system appears 
to be a logical and feasible extension of the basic suit. Automatic 
data processing is extremely significant for these variables. Here, 
there is immediate need for the application of data processing to 
the survey product. 

The last system, individual instruments, takes us back to some 
of the measurenrients that I noted previously where ponderous or 
extremely complex equipment is involved. At this time, there 
appears little possibility of incorporating these in compact sensor 
housings. 

Although we have analyzed and broken down this problem by 
general groupings of platforms and suits and systems of instruments, 
I'm sure that everyone understands that this is just a nnethod of 
organizing our approach. These various lines and boxes are by no 
means fixed but simply represent planning assignments. Because 
of the present unsatisfactory state of instrumentation generally, 
breakthroughs should occur and we nnay well wind up with many 
changes in this graph. Such improvements would point toward a 
greater capacity to carry out survey work. It is not practicable to 
discuss each of the oceanographic variables involved. They are 
fully covered in the handout. 

Closely related to each platform are the major required opera- 
tional characteristics of these three suits of survey instrumenta- 
tion. (The engineering aspects of these three suits will be des- 
cribed later by Mr. Gilbert Jaffe, Director of the Instrumentation 
Division at the Hydrographic Office.) 

Certain aspects based on the mode of operation for each of the 
three types of ships are better understood by a better under steind- 
ing of the operation itself (fig. 8. 5): (a) Ship of Opportunity . This 
type ship must remain underway in order to maintain tight operat- 
ing schedules. It is a straight dollar loss if he is required to slow 

74 



SHIP OF OPPORTUNITY 




ACCURACY 


MEDIUM 


MEDIUM 


HIGH 


MODE OF 
OPERATION 


U 


U/S 


U/S 


DATA 
PROCESSING 


NONE 


LIMITED 


EXTENSIVE 


DATA 
VOLUME 


MEDIUM 


LARGE 


LARGE 


DATA 
VARIETY 


LIMITED 


LIMITED 


EXTENSIVE 


PORTABILITY 


EXTREME 


LIMITED 


NONE 


TELEMETRY 


OPTIONAL 


MANDATORY 


MANDATORY 


DEPTH 


MODERATE 


MODERATE 


EXTENSIVE 



(Ruggedneis and 
Low Moinlenonce are Critical) 



U - Underway S - Stopped 



FIGURE O . O 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE THREE 

INSTRUMENTS SUITS 

or stop to collect oceanographic data, (b) Synoptic Ship . The 
present early developmental phases of instrumenting these ships 
have been limited to preparing them for making observations when 
stopped. As the program develops, similar instruments for the 
synoptic ship will include concepts for handling instruments when 
underway. This system will be described in some detail during 
tomorrow's session, (c) Survey Ship . Underway and stopped 
operations are necessary in order to cope with the large variety 
of oceanographic observations made by this type of vessel. 

Another factor bearing on the design of required instruments 
is the amount of portability required: (a) Portability is a very crit- 
ical aspect for instruments used on ships of opportunity. Here we 
are talking about many varied types of platforms which require 
shifting of instrumentation installations from one vessel to another, 
(b) For the synoptic ship, portability is less of a problem, in view 
of a heavier and larger shipboard installation, (c) For survey 
vessels it is visualized that practically all instrumentation will be 
more or less of a permanent nature. 



75 



Depth requirements and the design problems connected with 
them are different for different types of service: (a) For the ship 
of opportunity and the synoptic ship, oceanographic instrumenta- 
tion will work at varying depths down to 2, 500 feet, (b) The sur- 
vey vessel by comparison operates over a much deeper range 
going generally to 4,000 fathoms. It is clear that winch size, 
cable strength, and toughness of sensor housing are all related 
to the depth factor. 

The onboard readout also varies for the kind of ship in use: 
(a) Ships of opportunity which work on a worldwide basis will have 
a punched tape type readout from their sensors. These tapes will 
be mailed in to the NODC for normal processing or will use dis- 
patches for priority messages, (b) The synoptic ship might be com- 
pared to rapid handling requirements of Weather Bureau data 
collections. Oceanographic data received on board will utilize 
radio telemetry, forwarding information to the Task Force Cominan- 
der and to shore-based plotting centers in order to expedite ocea- 
nographic synoptic charting, (c) The survey vessel would, of 
course, have the most modern data handling and processing tech- 
niques which would include computer facilities onboard. Telemetry 
of oceanographic data might be a requirement in some instances. 

I would like to point to one bright spot in the overall instru- 
mentation program. It is the submarine instrumentation suit which 
we have on display here today (fig. 8. 6). This suit approaches 
what we are looking for in the way of modern sensors and automatic 
data processing. Admittedly, there are only a few variables in- 
volved, but this approach and this system of rapid data handling 
is a big step forward and indicates that we are on the right track 
in ovir general approach to other types of platforms. 

By way of summary I know that all of you are interested in 
the practical aspects of hardware production and specifically the 
numbers and value of these individual instruments and instrument 
systenns. 

Figures on the Navy's planned "Ten Years of Oceanography" 
program have been published earlier. We have coupled these esti- 
mates with the presently known plans of other government agencies 
ajid have summarized requirements as follows. I cannot empha- 
size too strongly the planning natvire of these figures and the lack 
of sufficient data to make more reliable estimates. Allowing for 



76 




8.6 



FIGURE 

SUBMARINE INSTRUMENT SUIT 



77 





APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED 


FOR RESEARCH AND SURVEY OPERATIONS 


BASIC SYSTEMS 




ASWEPS 


45 


SHIP OF OPPORTUNITY 


56-163 


SURVEY/RESEARCH 


42-69 


EXPANDED SYSTEMS 




SURVEY RESEARCH 


50-100 


INDIVIDUAL INSTRUMENTS 




SURVEY/ RESEARCH 




PLANKTON 


_ 41-52 


CAMERA .__ . _ 


42-88 


TELEVISION 


25-60 


DREDGE 


41 -52 


SEAFLOOR PROBE 


40-65 


BOTTOM SAMPLERS 


41 -52 


WATER SAMPLER 


62- 130 


METEOROLOGY 


52-93 



FIGURE 



8.7 



budgetary changes, it appears that over a ten-year period there 
will be three to five new ships a year that will require a complete 
set of survey instruments. This, coupled with hull-mounted equip- 
ment such as a precision fathometer, easily totals 10 percent of 
the value of the ship. 

Of lesser significance individually will be the ships of oppor- 
tunity and synoptic ship suit requirements, but lower individual 
expenditures are offset by the volume involved. 

The broad estinnates given on figure 8. 7 are intended to give 
you ball park figures for planning purposes. 

In conclusion, it is hoped that this brief review will give you 
a better appreciation of our oceanographic survey instrumentation 
requirements. It is also hoped that industry, exploiting the 
latest techniques in sensors, sensor housings, and data collection 
and processing will take this phase of the oceanographic program 
forward at the pace required. 



78 



8. OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHIC 

INSTRUMENTATION 

PART U. FOR THE HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE (ENGINEERING) 



Gilbert Jaffe 



Hydrographic Office 
Washington, D. C. 



The improvement of oceanographic instrumentation is an 
engineering problem and so I will make a few remarks about some 
of the engineering aspects. Our organization at the Hydrographic 
Office has been the bridge between the survey instrument user -- 
the survey scientist, if you will -- and Industry. It is from this 
experience that my remarks will be drawn. 

The activity of our Instrumentation Division, the constant flow 
of survey instruments in and out of our facilities over the past ten 
years, has given us an objective, firsthand picture of sonne of the 
shortconnings of our present-day oceanographic instrumentation. 

Essentially, what we have to work with now is divided into 
three categories. 

Some instruments that are relatively off-the-shelf devices of 
a rather ancient vintage are shown in figure 8. 8. This is a group 
of WATER SAMPLERS, relatively simple mechanical bottles. 
They do a very fine job, but, of course, they do not lend them- 
selves to automatic machine processing of the data collected. 
The most famous of these is the Ncinsen bottle on the extreme right. 
Paired with the Nansen bottle are the traditional REVERSING 
THERMOMETERS (fig. 8.9) which go back many, many years. 
They ctre essentially mercury in glass thermometers and measure 
the temperature of the sea in situ. The BATHYTHERMOGRAPH 
{fig. 6.4), the reversing thermomieter , and the Nansen bottle have 
collected the largest amounts of oceanographic data to date, and, 
in fact, most of the data in the National Oceanographic Data Center 
today, has been collected with one of these three instruments. 

The second group of instruments consists of commercially 
available devices that have been put together in a single system, 

79 



\ 





8.8 



FIGURE 

WATER SAMPLERS 



8.9 



FIGURE 

REVERSING THERMOMETER 




or a group of systems, to serve a specific requirement. For exam- 
ple, our SUBMARINE RECORDING UNIT (fig. 8.10) is a consolida- 
tion of commercial electronic counters, commercial converting 
units, and connmercial flexi-writer s. The sensing elements that 
are attached to these devices for temperature, for depth, and for 
sovuid velocity are either not specifically engineered for the pur- 
pose, or if they have been engineered, they have not been sufficient- 
ly tested in the field to assure us that information being collected 
on a continuous basis is valid. 

The third group of instruments with which we are concerned 
are experimental devices. For instance, there was no adequate 
recording system for the CURRENT METER' shown in figure 8.11. 
The previous recorder for this instrument did not lend itself to 
automatic machine processing of its data output. Shown in the 
illustration is an experimental \init which takes the data from the 
current meter and applies it to an ordinary electric typewriter 
which can also be utilized with punched paper tape. The idea here 
is to use relatively standard instrumentation with some modifica- 
tions and some conversions. This, by and large, constitutes the 
engineering state of the art --a good bit of our present-day infor- 
mation is obtained from these instruments. 

Most of the newer oceanographic instruments have come 
essentially from research prototypes that have been developed by 
various laboratories in and out of the Government. They have 
been developed in support of oceanographic research. These de- 
vices are usually excellent for their original purpose, but there 
is where the development stops. 

An urgent requirement for survey instrumentation is to 
engineer the research tools into rugged, reliable instruments 
that can be used aboard the classes of vessels that Captain 
Fusselman has just described. Industry can play a major role 
in the conversion of the research tool into the sxirvey instru- 
ment. 

The Hydrographic Office probably has one of the largest 
collections of oceanographic instruments. However, in spite of 
this, our total investment amounts to only about three million 
dollars. I^owever, the rate of this expenditure has been increasing 
markedly during the last few years, and, according to the pro- 
posed, instriiment program, this trend is likely to continue. 



81 




FIGURE O. I O 

A SUBMARINE RECORDING 

UNIT 



FIGURE O. 
CURRENT METER 




Now, I would like to review a few of the engineering require- 
ments and if I repeat some of the things that have been said before, 
it is because these points need emphasis. 

Basically, oceanographic instruments must be durable. These 
devices, in most cases, will be used for long periods and will be 
used under relatively severe shipboard conditions so that durabil- 
ity is an absolute must, for this is one of the most serious short- 
comings of what we have available now. 

Throughout the design and manufacture of oceanographic 
instrumentation components, inter changeability is a primary con- 
cern because of the difficult logistical problems at sea. We have a 
problem of having sensors and components which are not stan- 
dardized and are not interchangeable. Each time we go out, 
we need a whole new bag of devices rather than a relatively few 
standard ones. In line with the requirements for present-day 
oceanographic instruments, I would like to refer back to figure 
8. 5 to re-emphasize some things that Captain Fusselman has 
already said. 

The instrument suits of the Ships of Opportunity, the Synoptic 
Ships, and the Survey Ships are relatively different. 

Accuracy: The Ships of Opportunity with their underway measure- 
ments and the Synoptic Ships with their large number of measure- 
ments require instruments of medium accuracy. The Survey 
Ship, which carries a very high degree of specialized instrumenta- 
tion, requires instruments of high accuracy. 

Mode of Operation: The Ship of Opportunity makes observations 
only when underway; the Synoptic Ship and the Survey Ship can 
be both underway and in a stopped position. 

Data Processing : There is no data processing on the Ship of 
Opportunity; some is done on the Synoptic Ship; on the Survey 
Ship data processing is extensive and is performed by computing 
facilities . 

Data Volume: The Ships of Opportunity, because of their nature, 
collect a moderate amount of information; the Synoptic Ship 
requires large quantities of synoptic data; the Survey Ship 
collects large quantities of information on station for long per- 
iods of time. 

83 



Data Variety: Both Ships of Opportunity and Synoptic Ships collect 
rather limited types of data; a few measurennents can be taken 
on a continuous basis. On our Survey Ship, of course, we have 
the very extensive collection of measurements of a great number 
of variables . 

Portability: Ships of Opportunity carry very portable devices which 
can be put on any ship at any time. This is less so for the Synoptic 
Vessels. On the Survey Ship, of course, we have fixed installations. 

Telemetry: On the Ships of Opportunity telemetry is really optional 
but when this ship serves as a part of the Synoptic net, telemetry 
should be aboard. However, on many occasions this is not necessary. 
In the Synoptic Ship, we must have telemetry to get the information 
back, and the Surve y Ship must have equipment for telemetering 
back to base stations to carry out its mission. 

Depth Requirements: The Ships of Opportunity and Synoptic Ships 
make observations at moderate depths; the Survey Ship, at these 
and at greater depths. 

A critical factor in the success of our oceanographic program 
would be the number of ships which can be instrumented; this 
depends on how difficult it is to operate and maintain these instru- 
ments. Since the shortage of qualified technicians is acute in the 
oceanographic field, it is very important that the operation and 
maintenance of instruments for this purpose be simplified to the 
greatest extent possible. This is especially true of our Synoptic 
Ships and their instrument suits. 

Another important engineering area is the design of self- 
calibration and/or calibrating circuitry, which allows shipboard 
checks from sensor to recorder. There is, by and large, a ten- 
dency on the part of engineers at sea to take the measurements 
of the operating instruments at face value. The quantity of data 
flowing in and out of our National Oceanographic Data Center 
demands upgrading our quality control. This can be done through 
instrument calibration. 

Along with calibration, we have the test and evaluation prob- 
lem, and we find that most of our oceanographic instruments are 
reluctant to go to sea. We have seen many instruments perform 
beautifully in the laboratory, only to fail miserably under actual 
sea conditions. There is the need for field testing and evaluation 



84 



of newly-developed, production-engineered instruments under 
actual field conditions. They must be subjected to the same envir- 
onmental factors as they will be during regular usage. 

Next, I would like to say a word about the method by which 
our specifications are drawn. There are the usual two types: 
The performance specification and the engineering specifications. 
The handouts that you have received on survey instrument re- 
quirements contain a combination of both. Any requests for quota- 
tion would probably contain one or the other, depending on the 
state of the art. 

In summary, while we have some sort of prototypes for most 
of the measurements desired, they are, for the most part, a long 
way from being the well-engineered, durable, reliable devices 
required for shipboard survey operations, and they lack inter - 
changeability of components and systems. They do not generally 
collect information in a manner amenable to rapid machine pro- 
cessing, and they do not lend themselves to quantity production at 
relatively low cost. 

At present, the need to define requirements, the analysis of 
available data, and the solution of vast numbers of oceanographic 
problems can keep every available oceanographer busy full time. 
The qualified oceanographer should not have to be additionally 
burdened with developing and manufacturing his own instruments 
to collect data. Here again, is where industry, with its extensive 
background and facilities, can play a m ijor role to relieve the 
situation. Volume-wise, the survey requirement probably 
represents the largest market in the oceanographic instrument 
field. 

Reviewing the market, the SHIPS OF OPPORTUNITY (fig. 8.12) 
require navigation equipment, temperature equipment, and depth 
equipment. Again, we have prototypes of all of these, but at 
present they are either not in production or they are not reliable 
and compatible with our present data processing capability. 
Each system is composed of many individual components such as 
sensors, sensor housing, cable, winch, monitor, recorder, power 
supply, and telemetering equipment. 

For the SYNOPTIC SHIPS (fig. 8.13) we need instruments to 
measure position, temperature, sound velocity, salinity, and depth; 
we need a wave -measuring device in the expanded system, and 

85 







SHIP OF OPPORTUNITY 










BASIC 








SYSTEM 


1 1 1 




InAVIGATION I temperature I DEPTH 


EXPANDED 






SYSTEM 




1 1 




MAGNETOMETER | BATHYMETRY 


INDIVIDUAL 








1 


INSTRUMENTS 


1 METEOROLOGY 



SENSORS • SENSOR HOUSING • CABLE • WINCH • MONITOR • RECORDER • POWER SUPPLY • TELEMETRY 
FIGURE O. I 2 

INSTRUMENTS NEEDED FOR SHIPS OF OPPORTUNITY 







^YNOPTir fA^WFP^ 


\ CVCTCAA 








^ll^\^rll^ ^/A^VVCrw/ •« I ^ I bf Ti 




BASIC 








SYSTEM 


1 


1 


1 




1 NAVIGATION 


1 TEMPERATURE 


1 SOUND VELOCITY 
















1 SALINITY 1 DEPTH 


EXPANDED 






SYSTEM 




1 WAVES 




INDIVIDUAL 








SISTRUMENTS 






1 METEOROLOGY 



SENSORS • SENSOR HOUSING • CABLE • WINCH • MONITOR • RECORDER • POWER SUPPLY • TELEMETRY 

FIGURE O. I 3 

INSTRUMENTS NEEDED FOR SYNOPTIC VESSELS 



86 



BASIC 
SYSTEM 



EXPANDED 
SYSTEM 



INDIVIDUAL 
INSTRUMENTS 



■ \ SHIPBOARD SURVEY SYSTEM 



NAVIGATION 



X 



TEMPERATURE 



SOUND VELOCITY 



SALINITY DEPTH DENSITY 



1 



3! 



CURRENT 



ACOUSTIC 



GEOTHERMAL 



-C 



MAGNETIC GRAVITY 



3_ 



BATHYMETRY 



RADIOACTIVITY 



WAVES 



DYE DETECTOR 



3_ 



LIGHT 



X 



PLANKTON 



X 



CAMERA 



BOTTOM SAMPLER 



X 



SEAFLOOR PROBE 



X 



TELEVISION 



3_ 



DREDGE 



WATER SAMPLER 



3_ 



METEOROLOGY 



CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 



SENSORS • SENSOR HOUSING • CABLE • WINCH • MONITOR • RECORDER • POWER SUPPLY • TELEMETRY 
FIGURE O. I 4 

INSTRUMENTS NEEDED FOR SURVEY SHIPS 



meteorological instruments. 

The most difficult system concep*^ is that for SURVEY SHIPS 
(fig. 8.14). Again, I would like to repeat, because it is extremely 
important, that we have a semblance of a prototype for each of 
these devices mentioned here, but they do not really fulfill our 
present-day survey requirement. 

If we can reduce the time required to conduct oceanographic 
surveys by properly instrumenting vessels, and at the same time, 
increase the accuracy and flexibility of those data, we will have 
more than paid for the cost of developing and manufacturing the 
instrunnents . At the same time, we will have added immensely 
to our national oceanographic effort. 



87 



8. OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHIC 

INSTRUMENTATION 

PART III. FOR THE BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 

(BIOLOGICAL) 



Vernon E. Brock 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Washington, D. C. 



The instrumentation requirements for the investigation and 
charting of the biological parameters are less easily defined than 
the physical and chemical ones. The measurement of biological 
parameters are of lower accuracy and the things measured are 
frequently connplex, making measurements difficult to compare 
and to define accurately. 

The measurements that physical and chemical oceanographer s 
take have value for their own sake; these measurements can be em- 
ployed very usefully without reference to the biological parameters. 
Measurements of biological features are of less value and are more 
difficult to interpret if taken alone; they are most useful when they 
are taken in conjunction with physical measurements. 

Biological measurements should be quantitative and reproduce - 
able. It should be possible to define precisely the quantity mea- 
sured. This is easier said than done. In figure 8. 3 was a PLANK- 
TON SAMPLER, a device to collect organisms from the sea. This 
was a towed conical net. The catch of organisms can be estimated 
in a variety of ways, such as by volume, weight, or species com- 
position. However, the character and volume of catch may" be dif- 
ferent in various places and it is often quite a problem to determine 
what these differences reallv mean. The problem of the qualita- 
tive differences may be attacked by considering perhaps the quan- 
tity of bound nitrogen in the catch as a measure of protein, but 
even here the differences in average sizes of the organisms in 
various parts of the ocean may occasionally introduce an unknown 
error in the results. In addition, even the simple matter of 
estimating how big a change in the catch can be considered as 
representing a significant change in the density of organisms in 



88 



the sea itself has not been satisfactorily solved. This is essen- 
tially a sampling problem and is inherent in all observational data. 
These problems are not restricted to survey observations, but are 
of greater concern in surveys since the comparability of data taken 
by standardized procedures over the oceans of the earth is an im- 
portant goal. 

Oceanographic instruments can be grouped into two general 
categories: Sensing instruments and capturing instruments. 
SENSING INSTRUMENTS are used to obtain measurements by 
light or sound or some other attribute of the thing measured; a 
CAPTURING INSTRUMENT is used to capture the thing to be mea- 
sured, and the measuring generally follows capture. 

Examples of visual sensing systems are submerged autonnatic 
photographic or television cameras. Variations in the light absorp- 
tion of the water itself has biological qonnotation, especially when 
taken well off shore on the high seas. Also, such a simple thing 
as an experienced man with a good pair of binoculars on his ves- 
sel's bridge sweeping the sea for evidence of surface schools of 
fish, can provide quantitative data. We used two divers to count 
fish observed along a line laid on the sea floor in Hawaii to esti- 
mate quantatively the abundance of inshore fishes by species and 
size. The object here was to compute the weight of the fish stocks 
per unit area of sea floor. This is, perhaps, a specialized tech- 
nique but biologists have complicated problems, and tend to 
develop special ways to get the infornnation they want. 

In addition to visual sensing systems, there are sonic systems. 
Passive listening devices, such as the hydrophone, may be useful; 
active devices employ echo ranging equipment. 

The other group is the capturing instruments. The simplest 
is the Nansen bottle or others of this type which collect a sample 
of water at a preselected depth. The Nansen bottle takes water 
for physical measurements such as temperature, or chemical 
measurements such as salinity or oxygen. Included with the water 
samples are animals or plants that happen to be in it. 

Next is the plankton net which has been generally used for a 
long time by biologists as a standard instrument. It is generally 
used with a flow meter in the mouth. In some cases it is modified 
so that it can be opened and closed at various depths. A clever 
development of the plankton net is the continuous plankton recorder 



89 



which has been used for many years in Great Britain. In it, a 
strip of silk is pulled over an orifice through which water is passed. 
This silk is rolled up in a little chamber along with some formal- 
dehyde to preserve the catch and thus provide a continuous record 
of the life that is captured at a given depth along the path of the 
ve s s e 1 . 

In addition to these small nets, there are the large nets such 
as mid-water trawls which are useful for sampling the larger ani- 
mals of the open sea. There are many kinds and sizes, built for 
a variety of purposes. They are in active development; some may 
be modifications of commercial gear and others special designs. 
Stationary gill nets take in animals by entangling them and are 
quite selective. All nets are selective, in fact, which renders 
interpretation of results difficult. 

The old-fashioned way of catching fish by a baited hook is still 
a method of capturing biological samples. Japanese longline gear 
and modifications thereof can be used to obtain quantitative est- 
imates of the predators in the open sea. This gear is composed of 
a horizontal buoyed line which in commercial applications may be 
upwards of 60 miles in length. Baited hooks on droppers are hung 
from this, usually about 30 fathoms apart. This gear takes sharks, 
large tunas, marlins, and other sizable carnivorous fishes. 

I have listed a nunnber of means by which biological observa- 
tions of the ocean may be taken. The sensing instruments are like- 
ly to prove more compatible with survey requirements in that they 
may permit continuous observations while underway or simultan- 
eous observations with physical measurements while on station. 
Certain of the instruments that depend upon the capture of organ- 
isms require, in effect, a full scale fishing operation and would 
be difficult to coordinate adequately with the other aspects of a 
survey. This means that the equipment for measuring certain 
biological parameters, or certain trophic levels -- especially 
those at the peak of the food pyramid -- will not be included 
within the ordinary survey ship suit of instruments, but nnust be 
used on special vessels. The means of estimating these biological 
parameters are not perhaps adequately developed or standardized 
enough to justify their inclusion in the ocean survey suit of instru- 
ments at this time; they are better left as missions for research 
ships. 



90 



Ocean surveys will serve to give us maps of the seas in terms 
of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. The usefulness 
of these maps will depend in part on the kinds of parameters we 
measure and the accuracy of measurement. The problems of 
measurement are more acute for the biological parameters than 
for the others since some of the measurements to be taken have 
not yet become generally accepted or standardized. Without care- 
ful inter calibration, changes in measurement techniques will make 
comparisons of data taken prior to such changes difficult. Also, 
the problems involved in qualitative differences of some biological 
parameters even when measured by the same instrument have not 
yet been satisfactorily solved. However, in spite of such problems, 
the survey maps of the oceans will serve as a very useful basis of 
planning fisheries research programs and as a landmark in man's 
understanding of this planet. 



91 



8. OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF OCEANOGRAPHIC 
INSTRUMENTATION 

PART IV. FOR THE COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY 



Anthony J. Goodheart 

Coast and Geodetic Survey 
Washington, D. C. 



The Coast and Geodetic Survey is a pioneer of nnore than one 
hundred fifty years in the field of ocean surveying. The original 
purpose for which the Bureau collected data from the oceans was 
a basic requirement to further its scientific study in aids to navi- 
gation. Gradually, over the years, new techniques for refining 
its aids to navigation have demanded expansion of studies of phy- 
sical oceanography. In most recent years, the Survey's improved 
ship facilities for collection of marine data and a desire to cooper- 
ate with intergovernmental agencies, institutions, and industry 
have dictated participation in biological studies of the ocean. 

At long last, oceanography in both physical and biological 
aspects is recognized as one of the most important of the earth 
sciences. In addition to influencing our climate and weather, the 
oceans contain the greatest unexploited supply of minerals and 
organic food on earth. It is, also, the greatest potential medium 
for transportation, such as underwater cargo. Two-thirds of the 
earth's surface lies beneath three hundred twenty-seven million 
cubic miles of sea water. Of immediate importance to the nation- 
al defense and economy is information hidden under the water -- 
information about the topography of the ocean floor, direction and 
rate of the current flow, the location of oil and mineral deposits, 
and the vast revenue of foodstuffs for a growing population. We 
cannot escape the influence of the oceans nor our dependence 
thereon. Despite this fact, development of techniques for system- 
atic studies of the oceans is in its infancy. 

Although some of the work of the Coast and Geodetic Survey 
at sea is motivated by specific research problems in which the 
Bureau is engaged, the greatest portion is of an exploratory type 
aimed at, first, description of the physical and chemical charac- 
teristics of the oceans and, second, acquisition of oceanographic 

92 



research data for the Bureau and for others working in the field of 
oceanography. The Coast Survey is undertaking comprehensive 
oceanographic investigations in cooperation with scientists from 
other agencies. Currently a program is being carried out by the 
USC&GS ship, Pioneer, in the North Pacific, referred to this 
morning by Admiral Pierce in regard to navigational problems, 
wherein information is being compiled on many phases of ocea- 
nography, i.e., bathymetry, gravity, magnetics, temperature, sa- 
linity, dissolved oxygen, plankton, currents, bottom sediments, 
and meteorological measurements. In addition to the work of the 
Pioneer, other USC&GS ships are adding increasing amounts of 
oceanographic work to their charting activities and the working 
season of the four major ships is being extended. However, at the 
present, our knowledge is limited largely to waters one hundred 
miles fromi shore and even here it is inadequate for present and 
future needs. 

Marine science, with the support of the United States govern- 
ment, is being expanded at an accelerated rate. In the long run the 
rate of progress in the basic marine sciences will determine pro- 
gress in the applied marine sciences, the success of which depends 
upon the size of our reservior of fundamental knowledge. Military 
defense, marine resources, and marine radioactivity are areas of 
paramount importance for oceanwide, ocean-deep study. The 
Committee on Oceanography of the National Academy of Sciences -- 
National Research Council has recommended that either the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey or the Public Health Service should be made 
responsible for engineering studies in and near disposal sites of 
radioactive materials in the oceans, for routine monitoring of 
disposal areas and their surroundings, and for a continuing assess- 
ment of the effects on the environments of added radioactive mater- 
ials. 

Since the Coast and Geodetic Survey is primarily a survey 
organization, it is felt that the expansion of this urgently needed 
data collection program, during the interim period while research 
vessels are being constructed, can most economically be effected 
through long-period monitoring of stabilized platforms and buoys. 
An oceanwide buoy system has already been recommended for 
operation by the Survey. Such a system could economically be 
assimilated into the Bureau's normal work, with the ships acting 
as tenders while pursuing their usual duties. 

Development of such a buoy system can best be categorized 

93 



into three problem areas: First, buoys designed for use in incor- 
porated systems; second, sensors for each parameter to be mea- 
sured; and third, ultimate data recording. 

Although considerable work and study have been expended to- 
ward developing various buoy applications, very little has been 
done toward implementing a system capable of operating at pre- 
determined intervals for long periods of time. Dr. William S. 
Richardson, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, is presently 
engaged in such a program and has much information on the prob- 
lems involved. In addition to solving the problems of environmen- 
tal deterioration resulting from the marine biology, stress, etc., 
encountered, planting and recovery methods must be improved and 
greater insurance provided for the overall system to withstand ex- 
treme sea states. Recent developments by industry of new alloys 
and plastics which have considerable resistivity to environmental 
deterioration and greatly improved strength-weight ratios surely 
will aid in this instrumentation problem. 

The second category is the development of sensors. Most 
sensors used today for procuring oceanographic data have been 
developed by industry for other applications and, through modifi- 
cations, have been adapted to serve our purpose. As a result, the 
attendant problems of preventing deterioration by corrosion, of 
being able to withstand severe ocean pressures, of remaining 
stable at different depths for long periods of time, and of possess- 
ing the required resolution have resulted in the incorporation of 
complex electronics in an attempt to approach our requirements. 

Present sensors leave much to be desired. A discussion of 
them often results in controversy as to the best approach. Basi- 
cally, sensors can be characterized as mechanical or electro- 
mechanical. The mechanical type utilizes delicate parts to ob- 
tain the required resolution, and, therefore, is not practical for 
buoy or rough weather usage. The electromechanical type can 
be subdivided into three classes: Analog, digital, and variable 
frequency (FM). Although the digital and variable frequency sys- 
tems may be analog in origin, for comparison they will be dis- 
cussed separately. Analog systenns, by their very nature, require 
environments which permit extremely stable operation since any 
degree of allowed instability results in error in the ultimate data. 
Generally the dynamic range of an analog system is restricted. 
Any improvement can only be accomplished by the use of very com- 



94 



plex and expensive electronics, with an expected decrease in the 
system's reliability. Digital and variable frequency systems are 
somewhat similar in that the data signal can be transferred rea- 
sonably undistorted over long distances, but each requires a trans- 
ponder which is highly sensitive to temperature effect. Digital 
systems readily available are presently restricted because of the 
encoder size and complexness and because of their excessive power 
requirement. The variable frequency system, in addition to pre- 
senting a difficult tracking problem due to center frequency devia- 
tion, also becomes complex and costly because of required filter- 
ing, frequency counters and converters or printers to record the 
data in a usable form. Mention of many attractive features has 
been intentionally avoided and troublesome features stressed in 
the hope that from this vast assembly of talent may come the 
development of a simplified, reliable, and economical sensor 
principle. If sensors are developed to operate from buoys and 
stable platforms, it is logical to assume that they can be economi- 
cally adapted for underway operations. 

Data recording, the third problem area, is not considered to 
be as difficult to solve. Certainly from the vast number of tech- 
niques in current use, adaptions can be made which can operate 
from the limited power supply of a buoy to record sensor outputs. 
Perhaps the most stringent requirement is that the record be 
compatible with automated techniques employed at the National 
Oceanographic Data Center. 

As has been mentioned in previous talks, use of sound offers 
another means for measuring the ocean's physical characteristics. 
The Coast and Geodetic Survey program for utilizing sound to probe 
the oceans' mysteries requires the development of a narrow beam 
stabilized transducer for better bottom delineation in deep water, as 
well as a bottom scanner to define more clearly the shape and con- 
tour of the bottom. Further instrumentation is needed to make pos- 
sible deeper penetration of the sea and to reveal the geological 
structure beneath the ocean floor. Development of instrumentation 
is needed, for both underway and stopped operations to measure 
bottom sound absorption and sound velocity useful in under seas war- 
fare. Improved instrumentation using sound could nnake possible 
measurement of the little -known internal ocean wave motion so that 
the wave characteristics could be quickly and accurately determined. 
Sound could be used more effectively to study the structure of water 
density for a better understanding of changes due to temper atvire 



95 



or biological factors. Further refinement of methods of studying 
the deep sea scattering layer could provide knowledge of the ocean 
food potential and of circulatory studies important in radiation 
contamination. 

Other important instrumentation needed for development are 
accurate electronic measuring devices for geodetic distance 
measurements, offshore water level measuring equipment with 
recording and telemetering links to remove the uncertainty of the 
tidal gradient between the survey vessel and the tide gauge ashore, 
means for studying seismic sea waves, and an early warning system 
for destructive seismic waves. 

Time does not pernnit a detailed discussion of all the ways in 
which industry can contribute to man's knowledge of the oceans, 
therefore, only nnajor areas for profitable research development 
have been mentioned. 



96 



DISCUSSION OF WORLDWIDE NAVIGATIONAL 

REQUIREMENTS AS RELATED TO THE 
NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC PROGRAM 



Rear Admiral Donald McG. Morrison 



U. S. Coast Guard 
Washington, D. C. 



One of the primary duties of the United States Coast Guard is 
the development, establishment, maintenance, and operation, with 
due regard to the requiremients of national defense, of aids to 
maritime navigation for the promotion of safety on and over the 
high seas. Thus, the Coast Guard is vitally concerned with the 
navigational requirements of the National Oceanographic Program. 

Loran, which is a long-range aid to navigation operated by the 
Coast Guard, may be installed anywhere in the world to meet the 
needs of the Armed Services or the commerce of the United States. 
This system, which I will describe in detail later, will be useful 
to the National Oceanographic Program. Coast Guard interest is 
not confined to the navigational aspects of the program. In past 
years, we have conducted a limited amount of oceanographic study 
in connection with the International Ice Patrol, aboard our vessels 
assigned to ocean station duty, on lightships, and at fixed struc- 
tures. Legislation is now pending before Congress which will 
enable the Coast Guard to increase its effort in this field. 

In any planned, systematic, oceanwide survey program a 
paramount requisite is accurate navigational control. The other 
speakers today have emphasized this particular point. It is of 
questionable value to collect and report voluminous environmental 
data unless it is accompanied by reliable positioning data. Without 
quality control in navigation, the collected data cannot be intelli- 
gently and effectively correlated in our National Oceanographic 
Data Center, or serve a useful purpose in exchange situations with 
other nations. In the U. S. National Oceanographic Program, the 
Survey Task will be one of the most time consuming and difficult 
to accomplish. Many existing systems of navigation, visual or 
electronic, are capable of providing precise navigational data in 
areas adjacent to inhabited coastlines. Conversely, relatively 
few systems are capable of providing this information over the 

97 



broad ocean expanses of the world. Coverage of some of these 
areas, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere, will be extremely 
expensive and difficult. Existing navigational systems and those now 
being developed which show promise, must be reviewed to deter- 
mine their capability to meet the requirements of the oceanwide 
survey. 

All phases of the National Oceanographic Program will require 
accurate positioning information. Certain of these phases require 
the maximum possible precision. An accuracy of 1 nautical mile 
or less over all water areas of the world would be desirable. 
However, economic considerations will undoubtedly dictate accep- 
tance of a lesser accxoracy for the overall program. Because the 
surveys will be conducted by ships of different classes with vary- 
ing primary missions and majined by personnel with varying de- 
grees of technical skill, certain other criteria have been estab- 
lished. Basically, for any navigational system to be capable of 
fully meeting the requirements of the National Oceanographic 
Program it should be founded on four cornerstones: 

First, continuous navigational information, day and night, 
regardless of weather conditions, over all ocean areas of the world; 

Second, an accuracy of at least 3 nautical miles, with 1 nau- 
tical mile desirable; 

Third, reliability, ruggedness -- and here we get that word 
ruggedness again -- and ease of operation and maintenance. For 
certain classes of vessels, volume and weight of shipboard com- 
ponents are important and these must not be restrictive. Ship- 
board equipment must be such that it can be dismantled and re- 
located to other ships with minimvim effort, expense, and inter- 
ruption of ship schedules. 

Finally, shipboard and shore -based components must not be 
prohibitively expensive. 

I can state categorically that no existing system is capable of 
meeting all of these ideal characteristics. The requirements of 
other users of navigational information, air, surface, and subsur- 
face, are similar to those of the oceanwide survey program. 'AH 
require extended coverage , reliable service , accurate information , 
and economic operation . Because of the costs involved in implement- 
ing shore-based systems, any such method chosen for the National 
Oceanographic Program should also serve other users. 

There are two general types of aids capable of providing navi- 
gational information over broad ocean expanses. These are self - 

98 



contained systems and shore-based systenns. Under each of these 
general types there are existing aids and those undergoing research 
and development. All have certain advantages and disadvantages. 
Let us consider the aids under these two categories. The first are 
the self-contained systems, which are not dependent upon any sig- 
nal from the shore. 

The most primitive method of celestial navigation is the time- 
honored use of a HAND-HELD SEXTANT. Although an experienced 
navigator can obtain fixed accuracies of about two miles, the use 
of the sextant is limited to periods when both the real horizon and 
the celestial body are clearly discernible. 

The usefulness of celestial navigation could be extended by 
increased telescope power and inertial techniques to determine 
either horizontal or vertical references. The OPTICAL STAR 
TRACKER embodies these features. Essentially, it is an optical 
telescope used in conjunction with a stabilized platfornn and a com- 
puter. Despite these improvements, the benefits of optical data 
will continue to be limited to periods when the celestial body is 
visible. This limitation, coupled with the complexity and cost of 
the equipment, makes the optical star tracker of questionable va- 
lue for widespread use in the oceanographic program. 

Because of solar microwave radiation, a method of foul- 
weather celestial navigation is possible. The RADIO SEXTANT 
combines the best features of radio, celestial, and inertial 
techniques. This instrument tracks the sun or moon by sensing 
the direction of thermal microwave radiation from these bodies. 
Current evaluation of this system indicates an average accuracy 
of about two miles. Principal disadvantages of the system are the 
weakness of radiation from the solar bodies and the restriction to 
only two sources. Despite these two disadvantages, the radio 
sextant comes close to attaining the ideal characteristics. It is 
less expensive than the optical star tracker, on the order of 
$150, 000 as compared to $600, 000 per unit, and is capable of 
providing nearly worldwide coverage. Coupled with inertial com- 
ponents for dead reckoning functions, it could provide almost 
continuous data. So, although the radio sextant does have limita- 
tions, it may be the only aid available which will provide coverage 
in the immediate future over the large ocean areas of the Southern 
Hemisphere. It should be considered for this area of operation. 



99 



It is evident that improved service could be obtained if more 
sources were available and if their angular rates were appreciably 
higher than sidereal rates. Better coverage would be obtained and 
the dependence on dead reckoning would be reduced. 

The TRANSIT NAVIGATIONAL SATELLITE SYSTEM, which is 
now being developed by the U. S. Navy, has these features. Briefly, 
navigation by a transit satellite is expected to be accomplished in 
the following manner. Once the satellite is placed in orbit, tracking 
stations on the surface of the earth will measure the doppler shift of 
one or more radio signals transmitted by the satellite. From these 
measurements the future orbit of the satellite can be predicted. 
Corrected orbital data and accurate time signals will be transmitted 
from a master computing and injection station to the satellite where 
they are recorded for rebroadcasting to the mariner. The naviga- 
tor's receiving equipment will measure the doppler shift of the 
radio signals transmitted by the satellite for a finite period of time 
while the satellite is above his radio horizon. From the observed 
doppler data, the time signals, and orbital information transmitted 
by the satellite, the navigator can compute his latitude and longi- 
tude. The frequency of reception of the navigational data will de- 
pend upon the number of satellites in orbit. It has been stated that 
four satellites in circular polar orbits would provide fixes every 
one and one-half hours over most of the earth's surface. Thus, 
the entire transit system, as presently envisioned, will consist 
of four orbiting satellites, 10 tracking stations, a master com- 
puting and injection station, and the shipboard receiving equip- 
ment. It has been estimated that this system will be operational 
in 1963 and will be capable of providing worldwide, all-weather 
fixing information with an accuracy to one-half mile. Present tests 
utilize complex receiving equipment, including a computer, to 
realize the full accuracy of the system. However, it is estimated 
that by 1965, there will be available relatively inexpensive porta- 
ble shipboard receivers which will provide 1- to 3 -mile accuracy. 
There are many technical problems in the transit system. 
However, the potential to the national defense effort for this sys- 
tem is obvious and its continued development is mandatory. If its 
technical problems can be resolved, it may provide the ultimate 
solution to the navigational requirements of the National Oceanog- 
raphic Program. 

DEAD RECKONING is another of the self-contained systems. 
By adding course and speed inputs to a previously known position 
the present position of the vessel can be determined. When 

100 



accomplished manually this is referred to as a dead reckoning 
track. The dead reckoning analog indicator does the computation 
mechanically and the present position can be read from instrument 
dials or determined by the position of a "bug" on a chart. In 
order for either plot to be accurate, the ship's speed over the 
ground and true reading must be precisely known. Neither DRT 
or DRAI is sufficiently accurate for the oceanographic program. 

The "SINS", SHIPS INTERNAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM, is a 
more precise dead reckoning method which establishes the navi- 
gation coordinates through measurements made by its gyroscopes 
and accelerometer s . SINS uses two accelerometer s, one oriented 
north-south and the other east-west, to determine ship travel 
over the earth. The effects of gravity accelerations and ships 
roll and pitch are eliminated by use of three gyroscopes. By 
integration, present latitude and longitude, velocity and heading 
can be determined. SINS would be an ideal navigator if it could 
maintain accuracy for indefinite periods of time. However, due 
to imperfections in these inertial sensors, SINS develops errors 
that increase with time. Therefore, the system must be periodi- 
cally corrected by navigation data from independent sources. 
This limitation, coupled with the cost, size, and conriplexity of 
SINS, will probably preclude its widespread use in the Survey 
Program. 

Now, let us consider the shore-based electronic systems. 
There are a number of such systems in operational use today. 
However, most are designed for short-range or limited accuracy. 
Consequently, I will confine my comments to those systems having 
potential to the National Oceanographic Program. 

Prior to the outbreak of World War II, a need for aji all- 
weather, high-accuracy, long-range aid to navigation was evident, 
since before that time the radio beacon system, with its limited 
range and accuracy, was the only electronic aid to navigation. 
LORAN, which is an abbreviation of LOng RAnge Navigation, 
was developed to meet this wartime requirement. The system 
has been used extensively by both surface and aircraft since that 
time; to differentiate it from newer loran systems, this is now 
called loran-A. 

LORAN-A is a radio navigation system in which the trans- 
mitting stations operate in pairs to provide the navigator a line 
of position. The operation of a loran system can be summarized 

101 



as follows: A master ground station transnnits signals consisting 
of short pulses of radio frequency energy on a channel in the 1, 800 
to 2,000 kc. band. A slave station receives these pulses and uses 
them to synchronize its transmitter, which in turn transmits simi- 
lar short pulses of radio frequency energy. The two signals are 
received aboard a ship or aircraft on a specially designed radio 
receiver. The difference in time of arrival between the master 
and slave signals, measured in microseconds, is shown on the 
receiver. This time difference determines a unique hyperbolic 
line of position on the earth's surface. The same procedure with 
another pair of signals provides an additional line of position 
which is crossed with the first line to obtain a Loran fix. 

Loran-A is useable twenty-four hours a day and is not liinited 
by weather conditions. Its accuracy is comparable to celestial 
navigation and is approximately one percent of the distance from 
the transmitting stations. The limit of groundwave reception is 
about 700 nautical miles during the day; at night, skywave signals 
can be obtained up to 1, 400 nautical miles from the stations. 

The U. S. Coast Guard maintains fifty of the sixty-eight Loran- 
A stations in operational use; eleven more stations are now under 
construction. Present and proposed Loran-A coverage is confined 
to the Northern Hemisphere, and groundwave fixing information will 
soon be available in 30 percent of its water areas; skywave fix and 
line-of-position information will be available in much of the rest of 
that area. 

Additional stations could be constructed. Although the receivers 
are relatively inexpensive, $1,500 - $6,000, the transmitting sta- 
tions are not. Most of the complexity of the system is incorporated 
in the shore component, and the average cost per transmitting 
station is about 1. 3 million dollars. 

Although Loran-A will never fvilly meet the requirement of the 
oceanwide survey program due to its short range, particularly 
during daylight hours, it has certain advantages. These are pri- 
marily that extensive coverage is now available, and that Loran-A 
receivers are relatively inexpensive, reliable, and require little 
or no training in their operation. 

Another of the operational Loran systems is called LORAN-C. 
Like Loran-A, it is a pulsed, hyperbolic, electronic system employ- 
ing shore-based transmitting stations and specially designed 

102 



receivers aboard vessels or aircraft. Basically, a Loran-C fix 
is determined just as in Loran-A. The significant features of 
Loran-C are its high degree of accuracy and extended range. It is 
useable twenty-four hours a day during all weather conditions. Its 
precision is obtained by matching the Loran-C pulses for a rough 
measurennent and matching the phases of the carrier frequency 
within the pulse for fine measiirement. While Loran-A master 
and slave stations maintain synchronization of one or two micro- 
seconds, in Loran-C it is maintained to two-tenths of a micro- 
second. The extended range of Loran-C results from a lower 
transmission frequency of 100 kc. Loran-C will provide positional 
information of one -quarter -mile accuracy within the limit of 
groundwave coverage, approximately 1,200 nautical miles. Sky- 
wave information, which is available both day and night, has an 
accuracy of two miles at ranges up to about 2, 000 nautical miles. 

Loran-C receivers presently cost from $30,000 to $60,000. 
These receivers weigh approximately 75 pounds and are about two 
cubic feet in size. A production cost of approximately $10, 000 per 
receiver is believed possible on quantity orders. These costs are 
for instruments capable of realizing the full accuracy of the Loran- 
C system. Receivers using modified techniques and supplying 
accuracies of one to two miles can be produced at reduced costs. 

Present Loran-C coverage is confined to the Northern Hemi- 
sphere, and all five of the operational chains in use today are 
maintained by the Coast Guard. These chains, comprised of 
seventeen transmitting stations, provide extensive coverage over 
the Mediterranean Sea, Norwegian Sea, east coast of the United 
States, and the Hawaiian and Aleutian Island areas. The latter 
coverage is presently being used by the Coast and Geodetic Survey 
Vessel Pioneer for oceanographic survey work. Preliminary 
results have been very favorable. Additional chains could be 
constructed at a cost of about ten million dollars per triad. 

Of all the aids discussed thus far, Loran-C appears to more 
closely meet the ideal characteristics. However, because of its 
range, it does not have the capability to provide suitable coverage 
to some of the vast ocean areas of the Southern Hemisphere. 

There is, however, a shore-based electronic system which 
may have the potential to provide this coverage. The OMEGA 
System has been under active development for many years. 



103 



Omega, like Loran, is a hyperbolic navigational system em- 
ploying synchronized master and slave stations. It differs from 
Loran in that only phase difference between two transmitted signals 
is measured rather than phase and envelope differences. Because 
the Omega systenn utilizes radio frequencies in the 10-14 kc. band, 
ranges up to 6,000 miles are possible during day and night. The 
baselines between stations will be much longer than those of either 
of the Loran systems. This will greatly reduce the geometrical 
errors of the system. Three experimental Omega stations are pre- 
sently in operation. For worldwide coverage the shore component 
of the Omega systenn would consist of a synchronized chain of 
approximately 10 stations, each costing about 12 million dollars. 
Tests conducted to date indicate that line-of-position accuracies of 
about 1 to 3 miles may be available on a baseline in the daytime. 
This error will be slightly greater at night as the distance off the 
baseline increases. Due to the long range of Omega, a correction 
factor for the 4 to 5 hours duration of sixnset and sunrise on the 
baselines will have to be determined if the system is to be useable 
during these periods. It is estimated that an operational receiver in 
quantity orders should cost about $10, 000 to $20, 000 each. The 
receiver should not weigh more than 200 pounds nor be larger than 
4 cubic feet. Receivers, which do not incorporate all the precise 
accuracy features, may cost less. 



The Omega system has an ambiguity problem. Identical phase 
comparison readings are obtained at locations a given distance 
apart. With the 10.2 kc. equipment planned, these ambiguous 
zones of operation occur approximately every 8 nautical miles. 
Some other means must be available to position the vessel within 
the correct 8-mile zone if synchronization is lost. Also, the re- 
maining research and development required in Omega is the deter- 
mination of whether or not propagation characteristics can be 
accurately predicted over large areas. 

It is obvious that existing navigational systenn s do not fully 
meet the requirements of the National Oceanographic Program. 
No single navigational technique presently employed has all of the 
ideal characteristics. Nevertheless, this does not mean that the 
National Oceanographic Program must await development of a 
single such aid. Rather, it appears likely that the required navi- 
gational control can be achieved more reliably and economically 
with a combination of techniques. Large areas of the Northern 
Hemisphere are covered by precise Lorain-C signals. Loran-A, 
with a lower acciiracy, fills in much of the remaining areas of 

104 



the Northern Hemisphere. These existing aids should be used to 
their fullest extent in the immediate future. Additional implementa- 
tion of these aids, although costly and time consuming, would in- 
crease the area available for survey. The radio sextant, coupled 
with a dead reckoning device, may be feasible for operation in the 
Southern Hemisphere. Either Omega or Transit may be found 
technically feasible and operationally useable. Research and 
development of these systems continues and may well result in 
the ultimate answer to precise navigational data necessary for the 
successful conduct of the National Oceanographic Program. 



105 



10. GENERAL DISCUSSION AND QUESTION AND ANSWER 
PERIOD RELATING TO THE FIRST DAY'S TOPICS 



2/ 
Donald L. McKernan, Chairmaji, and Panel— 



MR. GLENN R. CARLEY (Naval Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena): 
What type of acoustic measurements are planned for the expanded 
system for survey ships? Will they include measurement of the 
absorption or reflection properties at the bottom? 

CAPTAIN R. D. FUSSELMAN (HO): The subject will be discussed 
tomorrow by Mr. John J. Schule, Jr. , in the ASWEPS program. 
A rather active project is under consideration to try and resolve 
this absorption and reflection problem, but again. Jack Schule will 
touch on this in a little nnore detail tomorrow. 



DR. RALPH L. ELY, JR. (Research Triangle Institute): Is the 
free submarine vehicle pictured in the lobby operational or pro- 
posed? 

CAPTAIN R. D. FUSSELMAN (HO): This is an unclassified pro- 
ject, and as I mentioned earlier, one of the products that we point 
to with pride. We were up to New London recently, and the suits 
of instruments shown are in use in the nuclear boats. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Can you tell us the speed and going power of the 
free submarine vehicle pictured in the lobby? 

CAPTAIN R. D. FUSSELMAN (HO): I am sorry. I got off on the 
wrong track. I had reference earlier to the submarine instrumen- 
tation equipnnent which we have in the lobby. I think this directs 
itself to the free vehicle. 

This is a torpedo- size vehicle, hopefully being able to program 
itself over a distance of about 20 to 25 miles, taking a series of 
successive dives to some 1, 000 or 1, 200 feet, recording the varia- 
bles in which we are interested to smoke out the oceanographic 
features between ourselves and the suspected target. It is a joint 
contract between ONR and HYDRO, and it is barely underway. 

^/ The addresses of panel members and of those asking questions 
may be found in the List of Attendees . (See appendix D. ) 

106 



DR. JAMES W. FORD (Cornell Aeronautic Laboratory, Inc.): The 
Radiomarine Sextant was mentioned. Will someone identify the 
instrument by AN/Systemi number and say at what microwave fre- 
quency it operates? 

ADMIRAL D. McG. MORRISON (USCG): The Radiomarine Sextant 
recently evaluated by the U. S. Navy is designated as an AN/SRN-4. 
It was used to investigate solar radiation and lunar radiation in the 
8.7 mm. and 1.9 cm. region. 



MR. L. S. CHURCHILL (Lockheed Electronics Company): What 
periodicals publish articles on ocean instruments? What other 
publications are available? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): Well, there is the Journal of 
Marine Research, which is just getting a new lease on life, and is 
publishing a section, I believe, on oceanographic tools. There are 
some trade publications being passed out here that carry a few 
papers. Underwater Technology , I believe, is the title of one. 
Then, there is the new series beginning in the August issue of the 
Journal of the Instrument Society of America which would be a 
whole series on oceanography and marine instrumentation. I 
think one has to look a bit through the literature to find these. 
There are also some in the publications of the American Geophy- 
sical Union. I think that about covers it at the moment. 



MR. ANGELO J. CAMPANELLA (HRB-Singer, Inc.): Correct me 
if I am wrong: '62 budget for oceanography is about $92 million. 
About half is for research vessels. About 40 percent or more is 
for research institutes. The remaining 10 percent, about $10 
million, goes for hardware. Perhaps 500 companies are repre- 
sented here. That comes out to $20,000 apiece. How much do 
you expect them to invest in research -- 

(Laughter Applause) 

-- to justify this gross business for one year? We have spent more 
than that already with no return. Do you expect Industry to continue 
to invest in this sort of market? 

THE CHAIRMAN: I am sure a number of you, as indicated by the 
canvass of members given, are interested in this matter, but I 
do not think that the answer is difficult. We have only begun to 
consider the development and procurement of these instruments. 



107 



and most of us in the development of this National Oceanogr aphic 
Program believe that a great deal more is going to be needed, both 
for development and procurement, than we are spending now. We 
do not know much about this yet. This particular meeting is really 
the first step in informing not only Industry but ourselves of what 
our job is ahead. 

So I think the amount we will budget will partly be determined 
by improved communication between you people and those of us in 
Government who are budgeting for the National Oceanographic 
Program. 

I would also like to point out, however, that there is other 
money in Government in various classified projects that are not 
shown in the National Oceanographic Program. A considerable 
sum of funds -- I have no idea how much -- will be spent for both 
the development and procurement of such instruments. 

In summary, even though the sum for fiscal year 1962 is very 
small, we have called this meeting together because we are planning 
this important program. The more we get into it, the more it may 
cost but exactly how much more will depend a little bit upon coop- 
eration and communication and ideas from you people. It is diffi- 
cult to say exactly how much it is going to cost or how nnuch the 
Government is going to spend in this particular area, until we do 
get some response as a result of this meeting from you as to the 
cost of some of these items we are requesting. This is our first 
step. 



MR. STERLING FISHER (Electro-Mechanical Research, Inc.): 
Can you give me any concrete indication of the amount of money 
which will be spent in oceanographic instrumentation in 1962 and 
1963 or in successive years? 

THE CHAIRMAN: I believe that in 1962, the amount that will be 
spent in development and procurement will be several million 
dollars. In 1963, this will jump substantially and in 1964, I am 
sure, it will jump again in perhaps some geometric ratio. 

I am not, of course, at liberty to discuss the fiscal 1963 
budgets, but an examination of the TENOC Program of the Navy 
and a knowledge of the developing of 10-year programs in the rest 
of the Government Departments indicates that a considerable 
portion of the Oceajiographic Budget, in the early phases of develop- 
ing ships and laboratory facilities, will have to be spent in the 
development of oceanographic instruments. 



108 



MR. THOMAS W. ROGERS (Maxson Electronics Corporation): 
Have guidelines been established for vmiformity of data storage 
which would control, to some degree, instrument design? If so, 
where ? 

MR. H. W. DUBACH (NODC): We have established guides for 
physical and chemical types of data. By and large, our general 
idea is that we conform to some type of standard units. We are 
not so concerned at this time with the format as we are with the 
units. A considerable portion of our time is now spent in reducing 
these to common unit denominators. This does not hold for geo- 
logical and biological and other types of data. 

We are just now embarking on a research effort to try to 
establish standard units in these other areas. 



MR. STERLING FISHER (Electro- Mechanical Research, Inc.): 
Can we get infornnation about the prototypes, of the sensors you have 
mentioned? 

MR. G. JAFFE (HO): I think you are talking about the sensors that 
we intend to use for the measurement program. If so, there are a 
number of publications that will describe these. One that comes to 
mind is one that we published at the Hydrographic Office called 
Special Publication No. 41 which went into a great deal of detail 
on the sensor requirements. 

In addition, I think you will find that the handouts which you 
receive today (appendices E, F, G, and H) will cover the sensors 
in quite a bit of detail. 



MR. ENDEL PEEDO (Electro-Chemical Corporation): Will any 
agency or organization prepare and publish Standard Test Pro- 
cedures and Equipment Description for Oceanographic Measure- 
ments ? 

MR. G. JAFFE (HO): The entire subject of tests, calibration, 
and evaluation of oceanographic instruments has been under very 
careful consideration for some time. 

We need a center to handle this problem and while I prefer 
not to get into the details of such a center at this time, we ought 
to remember that national standards for physical measurements 
are set by the National Bureau of Standards, and that basic physi- 



109 



cal measurements will be compared through that Bureau. 

However, I think it is quite reasonable to expect that most 
industrial firms carrying on a development program or production 
program should have test and calibration facilities at their disposal 
for quality control if for no other reason. 

Also, the Instrument Society of America has a Reference 
Standards Group and they are actively considering the problenn of 
oceanographic instrumentation. I think eventually they will publish 
this and it nnay eventually be part of the ASTM Standards. 



MR. P. F. WHITAKER, JR. (Orbit Industries, Inc.): Please 
express "short-range" and "extended-range" (vessels) in terms of 
miles of cruising or miles to station. 

CAPTAIN R. D. FUSSELMAN (HO): I think there are two general 
categories. One was explained by Rear Admiral Charles Pierce 
this morning. One is the heavy duty oceanwide survey vessel of 
some 3, 000 tons with an operational range of about 12, 000 miles. 
The other type is almost a research vessel, down to about half 
that size, and it is used more or less for specific coastal oceanog- 
raphic research and survey projects. So you have two types of 
ships: The little fellow, roughly about 1,500 and the oceanwide sur- 
vey vessel of about 3, 000 tons. 



MR. STERLING FISHER (Electro- Mechanical Research, Inc.): 
The leaflet (Appendix F) describing the requirements for the mete- 
orological suitcase on the ship of opportunity specifies an air 
temperature sensor with an accuracy of plus or minus 0.01 degrees 
centigrade. Is this a typographical error? If not, wouldn't consi- 
deration of Rear Admiral Edward C. Stephan's comment on the 
need for realistic compromise between accuracy and reliability 
conflict with this? 

CAPTAIN C. N. G. HENDRIX (HO): The figures as stated in that 
handout, if you are referring to that, are correct, and they have 
been coordinated for about ten months across the country with the 
scientific community, with the U. S. Weather Bureau, and with 
Navy's aerologists. It is time that we tried to obtain data with the 
accuracy that we need, not only for general purposes, but for de- 
tail as well. The figures stand as they are and we should strive to 
reach that goal. 



110 



THE CHAIRMAN: I take it then, Captain, that you believe it is 
possible to get both a reliable and an accurate instrument in that 
range of accuracy? 

CAPTAIN C. N. G. HENDRIX (HO): Yes, sir. 



MR. WILLIAM R. DILLEN (Lockheed Aircraft); Is the program 
being described here contingent upon the passage of the Marine 
Sciences Bill, Senate Bill 901? 

THE CHAIRMAN: The program is not necessarily contingent upon 
the passage of this Marine Sciences Bill. This is the Bill which 
is also known as the Magnuson Bill, although it has much broader 
support than Senator Warren G. Magnuson, himself. The Bill 
would set up certain mechanisms within the Governnnent for hand- 
ling the enlarged Oceanographic Program. It provides Congres- 
sional recognition for this program and specifies both agencies 
and general sums of money to be authorized for expenditures on 
oceanography. It certainly is a progressive step in recognition 
of the needs in this general field. 

On the other hand, the Government itself, with existing 
legislation, is proceeding in funding the National Oceanographic 
Program . 

I think that all of us in Government would agree that with 
the passage of this Bill and its increased funding, the Oceanogra- 
phic Program would be accelerated. I believe that this is one of 
the reasons that some Senators and Congressmen are so interested 
in the passage of this Bill. 



MR. WILLIAM R. DILLEN (Lockheed Aircraft) : Is it expected 
that the Bill will be passed in this session of Congress? 

THE CHAIRMAN: I would not be in any better position than anyone 
else to indicate the status of this legislation in this particular 
session of Congress. 



MR. WILLIAM R. DILLEN (Lockheed Aircraft): Will future 
budgeting for this program be by individual department and agency 
budgets, or done so separately, under a "lead" department with 
ICO coordination? 



Ill 



THE CHAIRMAN: This is a good question. I might take just a 
moment to explain what the Government has done to coordinate the 
budgeting for oceanography. 

Essentially, the Departments will budget for oceanography 
separately. In a sense, we can consider this a vertical kind of 
budgeting that has gone on for years with the Defense Department, 
for example, not only funding for oceanography but for all their 
other activities, oceanography being one of these. 

The Departnnent of the Interior, the Department where I work, 
also will fund for oceanography, along with other funds for our 
Bureau and for the several other Bureaus of this Department. 

On the other hand, the Federal Council for Science and Tech- 
nology, which is made up of secretarial level people, has set up 
this Interagency Committee on Oceanography as a body to function 
under the Federal Council. This particular Committee, composed 
of largely senior career officers from the various departments, is 
headed by Assistant-Secretary James H. Wakelin, Jr., whom you 
heard this morning. This takes a look at the whole oceanographic 
picture through Government, prepares a budget for oceanography 
across Departmental lines, and discusses this budget with the 
Federal Council. 

Remember again, that the Federal Council is made up of 
secretarial level officers from each of the interested Departments, 
including, by the way, the Bureau of the Budget, and is chaired by 
the President's Science Advisor, Dr. Jeronne B. Wiesner. 

Thus, budgetary proposals pass from the Departments to the 
Bureau of the Budget and the President's office, and also from the 
Interagency Committee on Oceanography through the Federal Coun- 
cil and into the Bureau of the Budget, wherein these two views are 
coordinated. We have already seen, in the last three years of ex- 
tensive study of this program, that sometimes the Departmental 
budgets do not coincide exactly with the budgets that are recom- 
mended by the Interagency Committee on Oceanography and the 
Federal Council. 

Then there is, in a sense, negotiation between these head 
career officers, members of ICO and the Federal Council, menn- 
bers of the Departments, and secretaries of the Departments to 
bring about a well-balanced program not only within the individual 
agency but also in the National Oceanographic Program of which 
the agency program is a part. 

This is the way it works at the present time and as a partici- 
pant, it appears to me to be a very satisfactory way for insuring 
special emphasis in certain areas of the science. 

I might add that this particular mechanism of looking hori- 



112 



zontally across Government, in special science programs, is being 
studied for other essential areas. We have gone further in ocea- 
nography than in some other areas of science. 

Essentially, the budgets will be provided through the Depart- 
ment, but they are coordinated on a Government-wide basis in 
oceanography. 



MR. PAUL D. FRELICH (General Instrument Corporation): What 
is reliability? What do you mean when we are talking about relia- 
bility? Can you discuss this in a general way and a quantitative 
way? 

MR. G. JAFFE (HO): "Reliability, " for those of us who have 
struggled with instruments for a number of years aboard ships and 
on test programs and in laboratories, is simply the ability of the 
instrument to perform over a reasonable period of time. The 
durability and reliability problem in the oceanographic field is 
slightly different than in the missile field in that the time scale is 
significantly different. We would like our instruments to operate 
over long periods of tinne, at sea, under relatively adverse 
conditions, and this is contrary, of course, to the very short time 
that nnost nnissiles are in flight. 

Generally speaking, I would define reliability in this case as 
the ability of the instrument to operate under its environment for 
a reasonable period of time, and with a certain amount of accuracy. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Adding to that just a little bit, Mr. Jaffe, would 
you not agree, in a sense your reliability means reproducibility 
within some kind of measurable linnits? These linnits might be 
fairly broad, providing they can be measured; that is, a certain 
accuracy with a standing measurement of error, which we can 
compute. 

MR. G. JAFFE (HO): True. We may all be guilty of not seeing the 
forest for the trees when we talk about the terms, reliability, 
durability, and reproducibility. These are all part of the same 
problem, the ability to have a device which will perform as the 
specifications say they shall perform. This is really a package 
problem. I do not think you can speak about reliability without 
thinking of accuracy and without thinking of reproducibility and 
long-term stability. 



113 



DR. WILLIAM L. DAVIDSON (Food Machinery and Chemical 
Corporation): How can "new" firms acquire familiarity with pre- 
sent "prototype" instruments in order to use this knowledge as a 
"jumping off place" toward the objective of greatly improved 
devices ? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): In one of the letters of invitation 
that were sent was a reference to the starting of an Encyclopedia 
of Oceanographic Instruments . Apparently, there is sufficient 
momentum behind this, and it begins to look as if this will 
actually come to be. I think this will be a proper place to refer 
to it at the moment. Also, the Instrument Society of America has 
a Marine Science Division which is scheduling two meetings in 
September. They run concurrently. One is in Los Angeles; the 
other is at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in cooperation with 
the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. 

This will be a good opportunity to get acquainted with some of 
the instrumentation and thought in the field. I urge you to look 
these up if you are interested. 

I think the program reprints will appear again in the August 
issue of the ISA Journal. Also, proceedings of these nneetings will 
be available. 



MR. MORRIS PLOTKIN (Auerbach Electronics): What computer- 
type equipment does the National Oceanographic Data Center now 
have, and what are its expansion plans? 

MR. H. W. DUBACH (NODC): The present equipment we have now 
is all of the IBM type. We use on a rental basis the 7070, which is 
located in the Hydrographic Office. 

As far as expansion plans are concerned, this depends on the 
needs of the oceanographic community. As we obtain more and 
more oceanographic data, I am sure we will require more and 
more computer time to process these data. As the analysts and 
researchers require more and more statistical service, we will 
require additional time to process the data in the manner requested. 
It depends on the survey requirements of the next ten years as well 
as the research requirements. 



MR. HORACE E. R. JONES (Electro-Chemical Corporation): 
Have inertial navigational systems been used in oceanographic 
survey work? 



114 



MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): To my knowledge, they have not. 

REAR ADMIRAL D. McG. MORRISON (USCG); Not to my know- 
ledge . 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): There is one other point I would 
like to mention in connection with this. I think Admiral Morrison 
implied, though he did not exactly ennphasize, that the shipboard 
navigational systems, as we know them today, have some serious 
problems in the small ships that are presently used for oceanog- 
raphic survey work. 



MR. ROBERT LAKARI (Sylvania Electric Products, Inc.): In 
any specific case, where can Industry obtain detailed information 
on the most optimum format for data recorded by the instrument? 

MR. H. W. DUBACH (NODC): We do have a format for physical 
and chemical data. We are mostly interested in units of measure- 
ments and compatibility here. In the meteorological area, we use 
the WMO Code as our standard. In other areas, standards have 
not been established. We encourage the instrument people and 
the researchers to develop standard dimensions. By and large, 
we adhere to the metric system, insofar as possible. We may 
deviate from it, however. 

Geological and biological data for units of measurement are 
under study at this moment. 

In data on ice and icing, we have an appreciable unknown, 
because here again, we plan to code or record picture-type data 
reported from aircraft and satellites, as well as coded data 
obtained from ship and coastal stations. 



MR. ROBERT LAKARI (Sylvania Electric Products, Inc.): Is 
there a Government publication that describes details of the input 
facilities of the National Oceanographic Data Center? 

CAPTAIN R. D. FUSSELMAN (HO): Yes. We have a whole series 
of manuals. May I suggest that you write to the Data Center and 
ask for it. We will send you a copy. We have a provisional one 
for the Physical and Chemical Data. You can receive these rou- 
tinely as they are issued. 



115 



MR. ROBERT LAKARI (Sylvania Electric Products, Inc.): Corre- 
lation of all various data must be important. What methods are 
presently used in various recording instruments to provide a time 
sequence? In other words, how is time cranked into our recording 
methods ? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): If you are recording the data that 
goes into the Data Center, of course, this is primarily hand- 
annotated. In talking about some of the newer instrumentation that 
is available, there are a number of techniques, such as real time 
generators and markers. And of course, still, some hand-annota- 
tions go along with script type recorders, but generally speaking, 
these are the main ways in which we annotate our information. 



THE CHAIRMAN: A question from an unknown party: "What is the 
normal attrition rate due to loss of instruments from line parting, 
winch failures, and so on. And what is the tolerable cost loss of 
overboard equipment? This data has a significant impact on cost 
of sensor vs. reliability of recovery vs. tolerable loss rates. " 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): I thmk a variety of us would like 
to talk on this. This is a rather difficult one to answer. Even 
so-called primitive instruments, such as a string of Nansen bot- 
tles used for taking so-called deep casts, are lost too frequently, 
unfortunately. The loss, cost-wise, on these, I suspect, gets up 
to just under $10, 000, but since this instrument is very simple, 
you would not consider the loss very great. There is an itenn on 
the book (appendix E, Urm I-cl) fairly high in the priority list, 
namely, a constant tension winch. This is desired just to help 
avoid this problem that you are talking about, because most of 
the existing winches do not give us any real degree of safety in 
this connection, and the oceanographer is habitually working his 
cables up to six-tenths of the ultinnate. The standard commercial 
practice in elevators is, I think, something like one -twentieth. 
The oceanographer uses less of a safety factor to work very deep 
with materials available. With the kind of winches we have, as a 
consequence, we sometimes loose a string and this we have to 
accept. These accidents should become less and less frequent, 
and, with proper winches, should approach a fairly tolerable level. 



PROFESSOR BRUCE B. BENSON, Ph. D, (Amherst College): 



116 



Is anyone now working on the developnnent of gas chromatography 
for quantitative analysis of gases dissolved in sea water -- espe- 
cially oxygen and nitrogen? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): I cannot give you any really satis- 
factory answer on this. I know some of the marine biologists at 
Scripps are looking into this, and have gotten so far as to dis- 
cussing it with some of the commercial manufacturers. Unfortun- 
ately, I did not anticipate this question would be asked, and I do 
not know the current status. I think it is alive, but 1 do not know 
how far it has gone. 



MR. HARVEY L. HOWELL (Avien, Inc.): What are Government 
and private oceanographic organizations doing to make Industry 
aware of specific needs? 

THE CHAIRMAN: This Symposium, and the material included in 
the report of the Symiposium, are the first steps that Government 
is doing, in a concerted manner, to inform Industry of its needs 
in this area of oceanography. 

If this works out well, we may wish to communicate on this 
particular matter further with industry as a group, in the hope, 
of course, of stimulating interest in the industry, and providing 
communication both ways. 



MR. ROBERT S. BOWDITCH (Northrop Corporation): What is 
the present status and relationship of the various proposed 
Oceanographic Programs; i.e., NASCO, TENOC, ICO, Magnuson 
Bill , Miller Bill ? 

THE CHAIRMAN: These things are somewhat related to one 
another. The NASCO is the National Academy of Sciences Commit- 
tee on Oceanography. This Committee of the National Academy of 
Sciences was formed at the request of a number of Government 
Agencies, and it has been financed by those agencies. The Navy, 
Department of Interior, Department of Commerce, the Atomic 
Energy Commission, the National Science Foundation -- and there 
may be one or two others -- asked the National Academy of 
Sciences about four or five years ago to study the needs of the 
nation in the field of oceanography. 

As a result of this study by leading oceanographers from 



117 



various universities and institutions eleven chapters of the Nation- 
al Academy's report on oceanography have been published. To 
coordinate the Government activity necessary to execute this pro- 
gram), the ICO, or the Interagency Comimittee on Oceanography, 
was developed. This Committee has reviewed the reports of the 
National Academy of Science and has incorporated in a sense, 
input from Government programs, and our ability to produce these 
particular programs. The ICO still uses the National Academy's 
Committee in an advisory capacity. In fact, these non-Governnnent 
oceanographer s attend and participate in meetings of both the ICO 
itself and of its panels. For example, Mr. J, M. Snodgrass and 
others who will follow are here today. These are non-Government 
scientists who are working in various fields of oceanography. 
That, then, ties together these two things, the ICO and NASCO. 

TENOC (of the Navy) was developed to be incorporated into 
the National Oceanographic Program of the ICO. The Navy hopes 
that TENOC will become a part of the National Oceanographic 
Program of the Federal Government. 

The Magnuson Bill of the Senate was an outgrowth of a feeling 
that some impetus was needed to get this program started. After 
NASCO had made its recommendations and the Government 
agencies had come through and reviewed them and in a sense, 
adopted the Magnuson reports -- with some slight modifications -- 
then. Senator Magnuson and other very able staff miembers on the 
Senate Committee dealing with these affairs came out with the 
Magnuson Bill which would give Congressional sanction and auth- 
orization to proceed in this particular matter. 

The Miller Bill is named after Congressman George Miller 
of California, the Chairman of the Subcommittee of Oceanography 
of the Merchant Marine Fishery Comnnittee of the House. This 
subcommittee is set up on a permanent basis within the legislative 
branch of the Government, a committee similar to the ICO in the 
executive branch. 

The ICO is of a less permanent nature than the one the Miller 
Bill would establish, composed of senior officers of the various 
departments interested in the field of oceanography. 

The two Congressional Bills, then, reflect the interest of 
Congress in this field. This Congressional interest stems, of 
course, from the National Academy of Science's report and the 
various reports that have been produced by Government Depart- 
ments interested in oceanography. 

DR. A. E. MAXWELL (ONR): I would like to emphasize that this 



118 



whole program of expansion in oceanography is in its infancy. 
Just as this meeting is really a first attempt to get Industry into 
the instrumentation part, the same is true for the organization 
of the whole program of oceanography throughout the Federal Gov- 
ernment. 

The TENOC program of the Navy which was originally signed 
about two years ago was only a program for basic research. It 
proved to be inadequate to meet the total Navy needs in this area. 
It has since been reviewed and a new TENOC program covering 
all of the oceanographic efforts of the Navy has been put out and 
signed by Admiral Burke. 

As a result of these efforts, Assistant-Secretary Wakelin has 
asked all of the other Federal Agencies interested in oceanography 
to prepare similar long-range programs in oceanography. 

Once these programs are available, they can be put together 
through the mechanism of this Interagency Committee. We can 
begin to have some good overall planning in the Oceanographic 
Program. But the main thing I wanted to emphasize is that the 
whole program is really just getting started. 



MR. LEE HELSER (Fairchild Camera and Instrument Company): 
It was nnentioned by Mr. Snodgrass that optical windows "fouled. " 
What is the nature of window degradation suffered and are any 
particular glasses -- for example, fused, quartz, crown, flint, 
etc., better for undersea work? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): No. Ey.ensive studies have been 
made with various glasses from this standpoint. The problem is 
due to marine organisms which attach themselves to practically 
any surface you want to create. It is a physical attachment of the 
organism, slimy excretions and things of that sort, that cause the 
failure in the window. Sometimes, there may be structural 
damage but this is minor. 

THE CHAIRMAN: In connection with this, we have been doing some 
work on specific toxins for oyster culture in some parts of the 
country and have found that certain chemicals reduce fouling on 
oyster cultch, the old oyster shell that is put out to collect the 
spat. Some of these chemicals seem to hang on to this old cultch 
for many months and keep away the fouling organisms very satis- 
factorily. Some research in this area might show the same thing 
for optical windows. 



119 



MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): In fact, there are some very simple 
brute force methods. One of the simplest is to use a mixture of 
white vaseline and solid aerosol. It is ground up very finely and 
put on in a thin coat. It will discourage organisms for a period, 
depending on exposure and environment, from three weeks to six 
weeks . 



MR. C. E. BRADY (General Electric): Is there presently or in the 
future, any change in the Navy's apparent philosophy to fund edu- 
cational institutions to a greater degree than Industry for research 
and development and yield new instruments or systems? 

DR. A. E. MAXWELL (ONR): I think there is no change of 
philosophy here. The philosophy is, as it has been in the past and 
probably will remain, that the majority of the basic research will 
probably be funded at the universities and research institutions. 

On the other hand, the Navy is already supporting an extensive 
applied research program, both at universities and within Industry. 
I see no trend to show any change in this, with perhaps the excep- 
tion that if some applied program becomes of an urgent nature, and 
if this can be funded more logically through Industry rather than 
through universities, you might have a rapid expansion in this 
field. Of course, this could go either way. 



MR. JOHN A. ACS (Product Development Engineering Company): 
If a private research laboratory presents a radically new and 
different type of survey ship, would it be given ample consideration 
by the ICO? 

THE CHAIRMAN: The answer is yes. They are looking for some 
radically new ideas and a number of us have been thinking in terms 
of research submarines of various radical designs. In fact, some 
of us connected with the use of the resources of the sea have been 
thinking in terms of programs on underwater fishing devices, both 
manned and unmanned, which would in a sense search out the 
fish and take them electronically or even mechanically, rather 
than by use of traditional surface ships. 

So I believe I speak for all of us that have served the Inter- 
agency Committee on Oceanography for a number of years. 
This is one of the reasons we brought in you people to provide 



120 



some new ideas on this particular project. If we could get new 
ideas for platforms or for data collecting at sea, we would wel- 
come them, no matter how radical they might be. I believe we 
would even be intrigued by anything that was different from our 
standard means. 



MR. E. J. HITT (Vought Range Systems): Will copies of the 
Encyclopedia of Oceanographic Instruments be made available to 
Industry? 

THE CHAIRIvdAN: This is a general question. I think the answer 
to this is yes. It will be a large job to edit and compile it. What 
you see in the back of the roomi is only a sample. Whether it is 
published or not, of course, will depend to some extent on your 
interest. 

DR. A. E, MAXWELL (ONR): I think you should be warned that 
this encyclopedia is about two feet thick already. 



MR. RAYMOND CANTWELL (The Gems Company): Where is the 
point of contact for new ideas or products that could solve the 
various problems as presented at this meeting? 

THE CHAIRMAN: The point of contact, I believe, should be the 
ICO Panel on Facilities, Equipment, and Instrumentation; if you 
would care to write to me or any member who has spoken to you 
concerning a particular problem, it would get to the proper group 
in the Interagency Committee on Oceanography and be considered 
by us. 

We are intending to set up a standing group who will consider 
proposals from Industry in this regard. 



IVLR. WILLARD H. BRANCH (Consolidated Net and Twine Company, 
Inc.): If nylon and stainless steel corrode at point of joining,' would 
the use of a plastic or metal link be of advantage? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): Yes. This is routine. One of the 
materials that has been quite successful is the Westinghouse 
micarta. 



121 



MR. E. G. ANDREWS (Sanders Associates, Inc.): Is data pub- 
lished on the behavior of electronic equipment under environmen- 
tal conditions as discussed by you this morning? If so, where will 
we have access to that data? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): Some very small amount, rather 
sketchy, has been reported in some of the progress reports in the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 

There is also some, I think, in the November and December 
(I960) issues of the progress reports of the Naval Research Lab- 
oratory in Anacostia. 

Two papers, I believe on this same subject, by the same 
authors that wrote the articles appearing in the Naval Research 
reports will be given at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 
I think, on September 14 at the ISA meeting. (ISA Journal, Novem- 
ber 1961, Buchman and Flato. ) 



DR. ALFRED A. WOLF (Emertron, Inc.): Would the measure- 
ment of attenuation and phase characteristics of large volumes 
of sea water automatically be of any value? 

CAPTAIN C. N. G. HENDRIX (HO): Yes, it would be very appli- 
cable to and necessary to the propagation of sound particularly in 
this oceanographic area, as it applies to the various sonar prob- 
lems. 

CAPTAIN R. D. FUSSELMAN (HO): In the general evaluation of 
some of our sonar equipments, it is now generally accepted, 
through all our Navy agencies, we will have some pretty good 
oceanographic teams to try to deternnine how some of these per- 
fornnance factors of new equipnnents correlate with general 
oceanographic conditions. 

We think that there is a tremendous appreciation of this whole 
problem. We hope we are going to be able to tell why this thing 
is doing as it is. 



MR. HARVEY WEISS (Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corpora- 
tion): Concerning instrumentation component deviations as a result 
of pressure increases, do you know of any work going on concern- 
ing the variation of mass movement of inertia of uniform shapes as 
a function of pressure? 



122 



MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): I do not know of any but I can make 
some estimates for some materials. In some plastics in which you 
have different strength ratios depending on the axis, I would ex- 
pect variations, but I do not know of any. 



MR. LEE HELiSER (Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation): 
What are the bandwidth limitations for: Data transmission via 
hard wire in instrumentation tow cables for cables that have been 
proven suitable for \indersea oceainographic work? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): I do not know precisely. This 
question was a little confusing as stated. I will answer, assuming 
he is thinking of either acoustical transmission of the signal along 
the cable or electrical transmission. In this case, I am assuming 
the cable has no electrical insulation on it. I know relatively 
little about acoustical transmission. There are some background 
noise problems that enter into this one because simply the nnotion 
of cable through the water generates a wide noise spectrum. The 
other, the matter of transmission of electrical energy along un- 
insulated cable, can be done to a certain extent but is not very 
economical of power. 



MR. LEE HELSER (Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation): 
Is there a "Sonar Telemetry System" and if so, what are its 
practical bandwidth limits? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): There are some very good ones. 
Some of you may have read the reports of the bathyscaphe, 
Trieste, in the Mindinao Trench which had voice commvmications 
with the surface at all times. This was an acoustical channel that 
could well be used for telemetry, a single sideband- suppressed 
carrier transmission. 



MAJOR GENERAL K. P. McNAUGHTON (Fairchild Camera and 
Instrument Corporation): To what accuracy will shipboard gravity 
meters measure the force of gravity? 

DR. A. E. MAXWELL (ONR): I am not quite sure of the accuracy 
that can be measvired now. This depends, of course, a great deal 
upon the ship, if the gravity meter is on a large ship, and a stable 
platform, it could measvire as accurately as plus or minus one or 

123 



two milligals. K, on the other hand, you are on a very small ship, 
without a stable platform, the error could be aji order of magnitude 
larger. Navigational accuracy also plays an important role in the 
measurement of gravity. This accuracy is good enough. We are 
very happy to have anything we can get from a surface ship at sea, 
now, with this accuracy. We would appreciate more acciiracy be- 
cause then we could get more information out of the measurements. 



MAJOR GENERAL K. P. McNAUGHTON (Fairchild Camera and 
Instrument Corporation): What accuracy is required for Polaris 
launchings? Is this classified? 

CAPTAIN R. D. FUSSELMAN (HO): I think this information is 
classified. 



MR. ENDEL PEEDO (Electro-Chemical Corporation): Do you 
anticipate an early need for underwater transmission of broadband 
radio frequency signals, where a transmission cable with waveguide 
electrical characteristics may be required? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): There are some places, for instance, 
the University of Florida's Marine Laboratory, in which it is im- 
possible to telemeter the data. They had to resort to a high quality 
co-axial cable. I do not think this really answers the question. 
This is cable I do not know too much about. It is obvious there are 
many places in which broad-bandwidth co-axial cables will be a 
distinct advantage. 



MR. F. I. OWEN (Texaco, Inc.): When vessels of the Merchant 
Marine participate in this program, will the ship officers be able 
to handle the instrumentation and data recording, or will special 
technicians be aboard? 

CAPTAIN R. D. FUSSELMAN (HO): We have had some experience 
in the Merchant fleet, recording data on the military sea trajisport 
ships; we trained young technicians on board, or young sailors 
if you will. They turned in very good information, using the stan- 
dard equipments like bathythermographs, and so forth. 

Here again, though, we feel that if instruments ajre not too 
complicated and too complex, we can get the young men on board 



124 



to handle them and probably not even go to the officer level. 



MR. HERBERT W. BOMZER (Autometric Corporation): Research 
and survey were discussed by Admiral Coates and Admiral Pierce, 
respectively. What agencies have the funds and authority to con- 
tract with Industry to do the jobs? Much of the work appears to be 
Government "in house" effort. How much of the task is Industry 
expected to undertake? For example, in surveys, in building 
equipment, in installing and testing equipment, in gathering ex- 
perimental data, and in analyzing the data and bringing it up to 
date. 

REAR ADMIRAL C. PIERCE (USC&GS): From the present plans, 
most of the data which were discussed today are going to be handled 
by the Government. We have a National Oceanographic Data Center 
in Washington, D. C. They are going to process this data. Ocean 
survey ships are very expensive to build. I cannot see where the 
average company would make much of a profit out of running a 
survey ship, particularly at the rate of pay you would have to pay 
your men today. The actual construction of winches and the instal- 
lation of equipment, and so forth, will be done in shipyards or by 
private industry, wherever you can get it done. I do not believe 
there is any way you can estimate what proportion of this work is 
going to be done by private enterprise. 

MR. H. W. DUBACH (NODC): We have just completed the second 
revision of the oceanwide survey report for ICO. That report 
roughly says, in line with the National Academy's report on nation- 
wide surveys, that many ship dealers will be required to conduct 
comprehensively and systematically the oceanwide survey. 

The National Academy has to make 280 to 300 ship units, 
total. We came up with a figure of a total of 230 shipping units. 
This means then, with the few oceanographic survey ships available 
right now, I say if we assume the four we could put on station now, 
it would take 60 years to do the job. One of the basic items in 
the National Oceanographic Program is ocean knowledge, or, gross 
survey of the ocean. We have to get adequate numibers of ships 
surveying -- more than four. Naturally, you have to improve the 
instrumentation. 

So any way you look at the problem, if we are going to get the 
job done in a reasonable length of time, keeping in mind the nation- 
al requirements in which national security or national defense has 
priority, you have to increase the numbers of survey ships and re- 



125 



search ships or you have to get something else out there that will 
get this data rapidly -- aiot in 60 years --in order for us to be 
able to do with it what we need. Whether Government does it or 
whether Industry does it, there has to be a solution. It is for our 
national welfare. 



DR. JAMES W. FORD (Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc.): 
In Captain Fusselman's discussions there was only passing men- 
tion of wave height measurement. Will someone touch on the 
reason for the absence of concern in this particular problem? 

CAPTAIN R. D. FUSSELMAN (HO): Mr. John Schule, Jr., will 
cover this item in his presentation tomorrow. 



MR. HUGH PRUSS (Telemetering Corporation of America): Will 
your schedules make allowances for interdevelopmental phases of 
oceanographic instrumentation and along with this, will workable 
standards be developed? 

MR. G. JAFFE (HO): Those are two questions. For the first, we 
are using interim measures at the moment. We will have to con- 
tinue to use these nneasures until the standardized instrunnentation 
is available. 

With regard to the standards, the calibration, testing, and 
standards for testing are being considered, and statements will be 
made on that either through professional societies, such as the 
Instrument Society of America, or through a Governmental Center 
which will handle this for us. 



MR. W. J. GREER (Welex Electronics Corporation): Is there any 
consideration being given to the Decca navigational system for 
oceanographic fixes? 

REAR ADMIRAL, C. PIERCE (USC&GS): There are numerous 
systems that exist today, all employing substantially the same 
principle. As far as Decca is concerned, it has not proved itself 
superior to Loran. The United States has a big investment in Loran. 
What is the point of using Decca? We would not expect England to 
switch to Loran. That is about as simple as you can make it. 



126 



MR. CLIFF BORDEN (Curtiss-Wright Corporation): May we have 
a registration list mailed later? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Yes. It will be mailed later to all attendees, 
and in addition, it will be included in the proceedings of the 
Symposium (appendix D), 



DR. F. E. ELLIOTT (General Electric): Who are the cognizant 
people in the Bureau of Ships and the Bureau of Naval Weapons 
on oceanographic instruments? 

THE CHAIRMAN: I believe that if inquiries are simply sent to 
these particular bureaus, they will get to the proper people. 

If, on the other hand. Dr. Elliott would like specific names, 
he can, I am sure, contact Navy representatives here; we will be 
glad to give him specific names in this regard and answers to any 
general questions concerning the oceanographic instrumentation 
program. I repeat, it might be well to address letters of inquiry 
to either Assistant-Secretary Wakelin or to myself. In this way, 
it will be incorporated into the ICO's Panel on Facilities, Equip- 
ment, and Instrumentation and will be considered by a member 
of different Government departments. 



THE CHAIRMAN: There are several more questions to be 
answered that were not reached. They will be incorporated in the 
proceedings (appendix A). 



127 



11. OPENING REMARKS ON THE SECOND DAY OF THE 
GOVERNMENT -INDUSTRY OCEANOGRAPHIC 
INSTRUMENTATION SYMPOSIUM 



Donald L. McKernan 
Chairman of the Symposium 



Yesterday we heard from a number of Government and non- 
Government scientists and science administrators who drew for 
us a broad picture of the plans of the Government to expand the 
Nation's effort in the field of oceanography. I believe it is fair to 
conclude from the papers presented yesterday that (1) there will 
be a great increase in the demand for the development and manu- 
facture of alnnost all observational and measxiring devices used on 
oceanographic survey and research vessels; (2) there is a desire 
on the part of all oceanographer s to improve the accuracy, relia- 
bility, and durability of instruments on the new vessels now under 
construction and on the drawing board; (3) Government and non- 
Government oceanographer 3 believe that Industry can contribute 
substantially to more effective oceajiographic instrumentation; 
(4) from the questions submitted to our panel in the afternoon 
and discussions aside with individual representatives of Industry, 
I conclude that the Industry representatives here have a deep 
interest in this problem and believe they can contribute substan- 
tially to better instruments. 

Thinking about the presentations yesterday in a general sense, 
I believe it is fair to say that the major ship operators in Govern- 
ment badly feel the need of pinpoint navigational equipment in order 
to locate precisely where the observations are being made, and 
perhaps of equal importance, they are seeking "packages" of 
instruments which will allow the greatest automation possible 
aboard ship and the greatest ease in assembling the observations 
and data later for use by scientists. 

It was also obvious that the Industry representatives had 
reservations about the part they could play in this development and 
manufacturing program. 

You also wish to know about Government support. 

Yesterday, general. Today, more specific. 

128 



12. APPLIED RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS 

INCLUDING ASWEPS 

PART I. FOR THE HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE (ASWEPS) 



John J. Schule, Jr. 

Navy Department 
Washington, D. C. 



I have been asked to describe briefly the instrumentation 
requirements of the AntiSubmarine Warfare Environmental Pre- 
diction System (ASWEPS). At the outset, I should mention that 
the ASWEPS program is not new, but is approximately 2 years 
old. Consequently, a considerable amount of contracting in sup- 
port of instrumentation requirements has already been accom- 
plished. These contracts have been executed mainly for the 
development of better and more reliable instruments; no large- 
scale procurement actions have been undertaken. 

ASWEPS may be described briefly as a program for develop- 
ing the capability for providing ASW operating forces with up-to- 
the-minute environmental intelligence in the form of recent analy- 
ses and predictions on a continuing basis. The approach that has 
been chosen as most potentially successful is one similar to that 
used in weather prediction and involves the establishment and 
operation of a synoptic oceanographic reporting network. It is in 
connection with this network that most of the instrumentation 
requirements of ASWEPS arise. Data handling, trcinsmission, and 
processing equipment are very important, because the observations 
obtained by the synoptic network will be transnnitted to shore-based 
centers where analyses and predictions will be prepared. It is 
fvirther planned to make the preparation of end products as auto- 
mated and as objective as possible; research is being conducted 
to develop these techniques. 

In development of the synoptic network, the ASWEPS program 
has not envisioned the exclusive utilization of one type of platform; 
rather, it has been planned to utilize any and all platforms avail- 
able and suitable to the purpose. Available ships, whether in fixed 
locations or randomly distributed throughout an area, are preferred 



129 



at the present time as the most reliable and efficient platforms. 
In the absence of ships, aircraft and moored telemetering stations 
can be used. 

Figure 12.1 schematically shows the synoptic reporting network 
for the ASWEPS system. ASWEPS in its present form is confined 
to the western North Atlantic; a complete service test is planned 
for this area during 1965. Experiments are already being carried 
out in other areas; it is highly probable that the ASWEPS progrann 
will be extended to other oceans if it is successful. Evaluation 
of the systenn is not waiting for a service test; individual end pro- 
ducts are being released to the Fleet as soon as they are developed. 
Therefore, in a very limited sense, ASWEPS is currently opera- 
tional. 

Figure 12.1 illustrates the two synoptic networks in the ASWEPS 
program. One is the regional net designed to provide a gross pic- 
ture of the entire ASWEPS area; the other is the mobile net which 
provides detailed information necessary for ASW tactical decisions 
in a small, restricted operating area. The various types of 
potential platforms in each network are indicated in the margins 
of figure 12. 1. 

It should be clear that, while ASWEPS instrumentation should 
be as precise and efficient as possible, heavier emphasis should 
be placed on certain characteristics than would be the case in the 
development of ordinary research or survey equipment. Liberal 
use of ships of opportunity and aircraft, coupled with the require- 
ment to transmit the data ashore for immediate availability, are 
factors which must be considered. 

Figure 12,2 indicates some of the special qualities to be 
emphasized. The emphasis on ease of operation, simplicity of 
maintenance, and reliability stem from the fact that few of the ob- 
servations will be obtained by professional oceanographer s. The 
requirements for speed of operation and rapid data transmission 
are inherent in the synoptic problem itself; compatibility will be 
mandatory if data from a variety of platfornns are to mean anything 
when analyzed. To achieve these objectives, it will be necessary 
in many cases to sacrifice depth, precision, and number of varia- 
bles sensed --a procedure that would not be tolerated in research 
or survey operations. 

Based on the above facts, the most logical way to proceed 

130 




.a: 

CEUJ 

lUOx 
(-(To. 

liJ o< 

SOCC 
O tuo 

s^o 






Oqx 

o< 

< UJUi 
UUJ 

zz 
aor 
o o 
0000 s: 





oca. 



t-o. 

UJ < 

tr 2 










q: 
o 
o 

s 







FIGURE I 2#l 

SYNOPTIC REPORTING NETWORK FOR ASWEPS 



131 



probably would be to divide the instrumentation requirements into 
four categories depending upon the type of platform used and to 
develop a compatible sensing, recording, and transmitting system 
for each. These categories include: (1) A basic synoptic system 
for ships generally positioned continuously in a given area; e.g. , 
ocean station vessels; (2) an underway shipboard system which 
will essentially be a modified version of the basic synoptic sys- 
tem for ships of opportunity and fleet vessels; (3) an oceanogra- 
phic aircraft system; and (4) a long-life, long-range, moored, 
telemetering station. To achieve these requirements, it has been 
necessary to support the development of individual instruments to 
fit into the various systems, as has been mentioned earlier. In 
addition, a certain amount of specialized instrumentation will be 
required which does not properly fit into these four categories at 
the present stage, either because they are not truly synoptic 
instruments or because they have special requirements of their 
own. 

Figure 12. 3 attempts to show the requirements of the synoptic 
survey system. It should be mentioned that this diagram is merely 
intended to be symbolic and involves no intent to influence the ul- 
timate designer of the system. The basic requirements, as indi- 
cated by Captain Fusselman, are also outlined in the figure. 
Temperature, sound velocity, and conductivity to a depth of 2, 500 
feet are to be measured and recorded in three modes: Visual, 
digital for transmission, and magnetic for permanent storage and 
research use. The system should be completely remote-controlled 
and simulate an all-weather system as much as possible. About 
30 of these systems will ultimately be required for a service test 
version of ASWEPS; more will probably be necessaj-y as the 
ASWEPS program expands. Though procurement action of this 
item has not been initiated, it is planned in the immediate future. 
A 2-year development contract is visualized with the prototype to 
be delivered by the end of fiscal 1963. 

Figure 12.4 illustrates a nnodified version of the synoptic 
system required for fleet vessels and ships of opportunity. Consi- 
derable success has been achieved in the ASWEPS program by use 
of MSTS commercial vessels as bathythermograph platforms. If 
the synoptic system capability can be extended so that data can be 
obtained at speeds of 12 to 15 knots, such platforms will be highly 
efficient contributions to the program. This system is expected 
to be able to reach depths of 1, 500 to 2, 000 feet and to measure 
temperature and sound velocity in a form suitable for transmission 

132 



'->*- ^i RELIABILITY 



SIMPLE TO MAINTAIN 




RAPID DATA TRANSMISSION 



FIGURE 12.2 

DESIRABLE QUALITIES OF ASWEPS 

INSTRUMENTATION 




FIGURE I 2« O 

REQUIREMENTS OF THE SYNOPTIC SURVEY SYSTEM 



133 





■iyuTS wmen Ma>i 



TEMPERATURE i 2° C i-2- - 33°l 

SOUND VELOCITY * 2 m/sac li,350-i,?00 " 

DEPTH * tX 10-600 mi 



FIGURE 12.4 

MODIFIED VERSION OF THE SYNOPTIC SYSTEM 



AIRBOHNE r-'-: " 

Alh[Hl..t 




fljir.M£-iC RFOORDING AND DIGITIZING 



■rA-.VyFl^ '"■tOO'lOER ANTENNA 






F' -.HI r;;'H 



FIGURE I 2 • 5 

AIRBORNE OCEANOGRAPHIC PLATFORM 



134 



■^^z" 



/ 



C"J^ 



TELEMETERING RANGE- 2000 MILES 



WIND SPEED. 
DIRECTION 
(1.2 rm/sec.i 5°V 



SURFACE TEMPERATURE (t .1° C) 



ELECTRIC CABLE - 1,800 m 
TEMPERATURE (1 1° C ) (24 REO.) 



12.6 



FIGURE 
MOORED 
TELEMETERING 
BUOY 




WAVE HEIGHT 



CURRENT SPEED ±.02 m/sec 
DIRECTION It 4°) 



SOUND VELOCITY (4 REO.) 



DEPTH GAUGE (3 REO.) 



MOOR 



TYPE 


ACCURACY 


RANGE 




SOUND VtL 


- .2 m/sec 


MIN 
1,350 m/s«c 


MAX 
1,700 m/sec 


WiTFH TEMP 


11° C 


-5- C 


35' C 


CURRENT SPD 


♦ .02 m/sec 


01 m/sec 


2 S m/sec. 


...nor,,., ,-,,o 


* 40 


0- 


360' 




• 5% 


m 


WOO m 




: 004% 


3% 


■»% 


AIR TE.V.P 


» 2' C 


-5*0 


40- C 


.WIND SPEED 


1.2 m/sec 


m/sec 


40 m/sec 


WIND OlR 


15- 


0- 


360" 


BAROW-Tts 


'- 5 mm 


700 mm 


780 mm 


MOOR TiLT 


1 i' 


0* 


90" 




to shore. Since this system will be operated strictly on a ship of 
opportvinity basis, ease of operation, reliability, and ability to 
record data at speeds of 12 to 15 knots are overriding requirements. 
Approxinnately 36 of these systems, mainly for installatidn aboard 
HUK group destroyers and appropriate commercial vessels, will 
be required for the ASWEPS program. Although experiments in 
this field will be accelerated, it is not anticipated that this system 
will be contracted for in its entirety until the synoptic system is 
well underway. 

Figure 12. 5 indicates inherent possibilities of an oceanographic 



135 



aircraft. No attempt has been made to design even a symbolic air- 
craft system at this stage. Emphasis is being placed on the deve- 
lopment of individual aircraft instruments and aircraft observ- 
ing techniques, although some work in integrated aircraft data 
recording will be performed. This figure indicates instruments 
based on the present state of the art that could conceivably be 
developed to fit into this system. These include: (1) Some type of 
expendable device almost certain to be required for measuring 
subsurface conditions, whether it is the version being developed 
by the Bureau of Naval Weapons or some other instrument such as 
the BT slug being developed by Canadian laboratories (The Bureau 
of Naval Weapons has contracted for a number of airdroppable BT's 
with improved capability for delivery in the fall of 1961. ); (2) the 
airborne radiation thermometer (ART) with which the Hydrographic 
Office has been experimenting for some time (This instrument was 
originally developed by Woods Hole and more recently improved 
and repackaged by commercial contractors.); (3) a device for 
nneasurement of wave conditions from fixed-wing aircraft (ASWEPS 
has procurement action underway for the development of an ex- 
perimental model based on work performed by the Naval Research 
Laboratory. This instrument will be evaluated in an aircraft 
recently assigned to the ASWEPS program.); and (4) possible exten- 
sion of infrared techniques to include a scanning device for tempera- 
ture measurement as has been developed for other DOD applica- 
tions (These instruments and others will be tested and evaluated 
in the ASWEPS aircraft in the hope that a system can be designed 
for procurement in late 1963 or early 1964. About 12 such systems 
will be required for installation on land-based ASW aircraft, as 
well as on aircraft assigned to operating task groups.). 

Figxire 12, 6 indicates the fourth category of platform, viz. , 
moored telemetering stations. This is an attempt to show the 
ideal telemetering station as far as ASWEPS requirements are 
concerned. The Bureau of Naval Weapons has been most active in 
its development. The Hydrographic Office has recently joined the 
Bureau of Naval Weapons in the procurement of several stations 
which will have capabilities somewhat less than those indicated in 
this figure. Subsequent development caji be improved to naeet 
ASWEPS requirements by means of successive procurement actions 
which will improve the state of the art. For the service test 
version, about 12 of these stations will be required. 

Figure 12.7 indicates a few additional instrumentation require- 
ments; e.g. , an instrument to provide an index of bottom reflec- 

136 



tivity. This instrument is considered extremely important. One 
such device is currently being developed by the Bureau of Ships, 
and the Hydrographic Office is participating in its procurement. 
Although the proposed instrument is not a true synoptic tool, 
resulting information will be of extreme importance to prediction 
of effective performance of new sonar gear. A new type of current 
meter will be required for synoptic purposes, and will be prinnarily 
used in connection with buoys. Several devices which eliminate 
the mechanical principle of present current meters have been 
suggested; however, no procurement action has been taken. Sup- 
port for development of such a meter is planned in the near future. 




WAVE HEIGHT 
\NAVE HEIGHT RECORDER ±0.5' (0-40') 



INDEX OF BOTTOM REFLECTION 



y 




SOLID STATE" CURRENT DETECTOR i O02 KT (0-5 KTS) '7. 




SURFACE THERMOGRAPH 



GIMBAL ARRANGEMENT 



12.7 



FIGURE 

ADDITIONAL INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS 



137 



The wave -height meter is also being developed but was not included 
in the synoptic system, because the type of recording required is 
not really compatible with vertical profile data. A considerable 
number of synoptic reporting units should include reliable wave 
meters in view of the importance of sea conditions to all phases of 
ASWEPS. 

It has not been possible to do more than briefly outline some 
ASWEPS requirements in this paper. With cooperation of Industry, 
the value of information provided to the Fleet can be considerably 
upgraded in order to make ASW operations more effective. 



138 



12. APPLIED RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS 

INCLUDING ASWEPS 

PART II. FOR THE BUREAU OF SHIPS 



B. King Couper 

Navy Department 
Washington, D. C. 



The position of the Bureau of Ships in regard to oceanographic 
research has been publicly expressed before Congress at the House 
Special Subcommittee on Oceanography of the Committee on 
Merchant Marine and Fisheries as follows: 

"The Bureau provides modest support to oceanographic 

research ... as its primary concern is in the application of 

such research. 

"The Bureau is a USER-CONSUMER of oceanographic research . 

"However, the Bureau does contribute to the oceanographer and 

oceanographic research in three ways: 

(1) By building equipment which is useful in delineating the 
ocean, 

(2) by assisting in the development of instruments which 
give us the limiting factors controlling design of 
military equipment and weapons which we must build , 
and 

(3) by providing direct research support in the case of 
certain priority items, such as in ASW " 

I would like to emphasize the second item above again: "By 
assisting in the development of instruments which give us the 
limiting factors controlling the design of military equipment and 
weapons. " This is our main justification for participation in this 
Symposium. 

As an exannple of controlling limiting factors in determining 
what goes into a new military equipment, the range of temperature 
which one will encounter in different parts of the sea is one piece 
of necessary information. I want to point up the remarks of 
Ivlr. James M, Snodgrass a little more specifically. It is obvious 
that the operational requirements of a ship in the tropics are 
different from those in the arctic. Such requirements can be 



139 



important. Take the case of some outboard submarine equipment. 
If it is mounted outside on the hull beiow water level, the measur- 
ing "readout" will probably not have to be greater than from 28° - 
90° F. for just under the ice and for shallow lagoons and the Red 
Sea. But what about instrument protection during drydocking at 
Pearl Harbor? The sun beats down there and the steel plates in a 
local spot may become hot enough to fry an egg; so, in the standby 
condition, temperature will far exceed the 90° F. for water. For 
its protection, the equipment might have to stand a temperature 
spread of 28 to 168, or 140° F. On the other hand, what if the same 
equipment is mounted on the "sail" of a nuclear submarine? You 
are cruising along under the ice and the temperature is close to 
freezing, say 28° F. Suddenly, you decide to come up, and, like the 
Skate, break through the ice. The air temperature may be minus 
50° F. , so you get an almost immediate drop of 78° F. Now you 
need to design for protection from minus 50° to plus 168°, a spread 
of 218° F. Also, effects of the rapid cycling of temperature on the 
materials used are important. So environmental linnitations must 
be furnished for equipment design. In addition to the cycling ef- 
fects and temperature, the factors of wave motion, vibration, 
radioactivity, corrosion, fouling, shock, and stresses of all kinds 
are of interest. 

Let me emphasize again that the Bureau of Ships is a user- 
consumer, relying heavily on the Office of Naval Research, the 
Hydrographic Office, and the private laboratories for environmen- 
tal information. With regard to instrumentation in the specific 
areas sponsored by the Bureau of Ships, the bulk of oceanographic 
instrumentation development is carried out and funded as a part 
of the approved programs at our Bureau-managed laboratories. 

The remainder of this paper briefly covers some of the spe- 
cific areas of interest to the Bureau of Ships and its laboratories. 
Of particular interest are the following: (1) Acoustic Measurements, 
(2) Wave Motion, (3) Antifouling and Corrosion Effects, (4) Deep 
Current Velocities, and (5) Deep Sea Floor Characteristics. 

The Bureau of Ships' interest in ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS 
is understandable both from the point of view of offensive and 
defensive capabilities of the fleet. Other speakers have mentioned 
to you direct sound-velocity measurement. A good and partially 
satisfactory instrument (The National Bureau of Standards Sound- 
Velocity Meter) has only recently beconne available in small quan- 
tities. Here is a case where a problem of measuring a property 

140 



of sea water has been partly licked. You will note that -- because 
it is available -- the instrument has rapidly created additional 
sound-velocity programs. There is still room for improvement. 

For instance: There is need for a rugged, streamlined, 
sound-velocity meter with a standardized scale which is the same 
for all instruments and which can be handled very much like a 
modern bathythermograph (BT) by quartermasters and sonarmen 
aboard ships which are nriaking speeds of about 10 knots. The 
absolute "accuracy" of such an instrument is no more critical 
for velocity than the absolute accuracy of temperature in the pre- 
sent BT. But the precision with which the instrument can record 
a slope, that is, the velocity gradient with depth, is very import- 
ant. If such an instrunnent were available as a replacement for 
the BT (and good for greater depths) at anything like a reasonable 
and comparable cost, I am sure it would get most serious con- 
sideration. In addition to this simplified, rugged, sound-velocity 
meter, the survey-type instruments are needed. 

I would like to add one more point on acoustics. Navy lab- 
oratories. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography, and others, have been studying the 
effects on sound velocity of pressure at great depths. Several 
measurennents of the coefficient of sound velocity with pressure 
were made off Guam from the bathyscaphe, Trieste. These 
have been reported by Mackenzie^' . But a lot more needs to be 
done. The proposed single-packaged means of obtaining direct 
sound-velocity measurements at the exact spot while water 
samples are collected will be helpful in several respects: The 
tables of sound velocity with depth can be corrected, and the 
computations for long echo sounding and other deep-water 
sonic paths can be corrected to usable values. 

In addition, the horizontal changes in sound velocity, as 
well as the vertical changes are important. I leave to your own 
ingenuity the questions of proper readouts and the data processing 
of such information. 



3/ Mackenzie, Kenneth V. 1961. "Bottom Reverberations for 
530- and 1030-c.p. s. Sound in Deep Water." Journal of the 
American Acoustical Society, vol. 31, no. 11, November, p. 1498. 
(ED.) 



141 



Another serious instrumentation problem in acoustics is the 
determination of the acoustical properties of the ocean bottom 
from a ship underway. There is a foreseeable need for a blackbox 
which can be attached to a common echo sounder and which will 
give us even a rough indication of the type of bottom (physically 
and acoustically speaking), the special characteristics of acoustic 
absorption and reflection over a broad band of frequencies. 

Turning now to ocean WAVE MEASUREMENTS discussed by 
Mr. John Schule, Jr . , I will just remind you that the Bureau 
builds ships and submarines. In most ships the structural 
stresses, the seakeeping qualities, and the combinations of the 
ship's inertia and the processes of energy transfer, all, involve a 
somewhat limited wave spectrum compared to the overall fre- 
quency spectrum of the sea. Surface wave information and inter- 
nal wave information from the region of the thermocline would be 
of interest. Far outside the spectrunn of interest in ordinary ship 
design, the high frequency spectrum affecting sea clutter is 
important. Right now we do not really know fully how a wave is 
born and grows in the sea as a measured sequence of events. 
It is probable that a whole series of "wave meters" will be re- 
quired in the future. Considerable attention to a better descrip- 
tion of sea state for use by engineers is a recognized problem on 
which professional societies (such as the Society of Naval Archi- 
tects and Marine Engineers) are now working. 

As to ANTIFOULING AND CORROSION EFFECTS, a great 
deal has been learned from the studies of antifouling paints and 
the moth-balling of ships. However, the deep waters of the ocean 
are practically unexplored in this respect. Yet the commercial 
cables and deep anchoring systems show evidence of considerable 
activity at all depths. Improved pH meters, conductivity meters, 
techniques for rate-of-growth measurennent, and techniques for 
the study of fouling organisms as they apply to particular mater- 
ials are all fruitful fields. The connprehensive report, "Marine 
Fouling and Its Prevention, " prepared for the Bureau of Ships 
by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and printed by the 
U. S. Naval Institute in 1952, has now been pretty well digested 
and we should be moving on. 

DEEP OCEAN CURRENT VELOCITIES are extremely impor- 
tant in deep-water navigation and to deep-ocean structures. 



142 



The navigational needs are fairly obvious. A deep-running 
submarine in an underwater jet stream (and there may be such), 
or a submarine in the region of shear between a current and the 
counter current can be set off course unexpectedly and perhaps 
tossed about. We do not know. We do not have a good method of 
measuring deep currents. 

We need to know about DEEP SEA FLOOR CHARACTERIS- 
TICS; people in our sister Bureau of Yards and Docks ask ques- 
tions similar to those a builder on land would ask, such as: What 
is the bearing strength of the sediments at this spot? How far 
down from the bottom is bed rock? What is the expected "windage" 
(horizontal pressure due to currents) on future structures? 

I would like to include a few generalities as to materials at 
this point. The first rule in choosing materials for underwater 
work is: "take nothing for granted. " You are working in a 
strange environment -- both salt water and salt atmosphere. 
During the war, when the radio industry began to manufacture 
fleet units of sonar equipment, I recall beautiful receivers which 
had undoubtedly stood up perfectly under hours of the bench 
testing your home radio would require. But the first time a 
little spray came through the porthole, some of the condensers 
turned green, perhaps from sea sickness, and the receiver went 
dead. Whole systems were knocked out. Just to emphasize the 
proper choice of materials, here is a verbatim comment regarding 
a material which most of us sort of "gravitate to, " as you might 
say "natxirally. " It seems so reasonable to use stainless steel in 
connection with water -- perhaps because of those lovely knives 
and forks of which your wife is so proud! "Care should be taken 
with the use of stainless steels in seawater atmospheres. Class 
304L or 316 are recommended for moving and stagnant water con- 
ditions, respectively, to avoid chromium carbide formation which 
leads to pitting. " 

Each instrument developer must carefully consider the ma- 
rine environment and the effects of corrosion and antifouling. 
Sometimes a less exotic material with a good paint may be the 
better and more economical way to do it. In particular, little is 
known about the effects of the so-called "trace elements" in sea 
water. Yet they are beconning important in antifouling and 
corrosion prevention. 



143 



I hope you will carry home with you two final thoughts. The 
first is that considerable understanding of environmental problems 
which apply to a modern navy has developed throughout the Bureaus 
in the past twenty years. This is because we, too, just like Mr. 
Gilbert Jaffe, have watched a parade of instrument problems go by. 
Even in those problems where the final solution is not yet clear, 
much is known about what will not work -- and usually something 
is known about what may work, I do not believe the Bvireau will 
again be so naive as to favor a manufacturer like the one who de- 
veloped a beautiful black box and a slick report many years ago 
for a device dependent on wave motion at sea. The report con- 
tained a "safety clause" sonnewhat like this: "This device will per- 
form properly provided that the ocean surface acts like a pure sine 
wave ! " 

I think that we can expect from Industry today a higher esti- 
mate of the Bureau than that, and a more realistic solution of prob- 
lems in the marine environment. 

The second and closing thought I have is to beg you to consider 
and reconsider the effects of pressure wherever they may apply. 
Please do not be lulled into a sense of slide-rule security by the 
low compressibility of water and its almost straight-line relation- 
ship with depth. There is no more terrible demon hidden anywhere 
in the sea than pressure. Conditions with which we "land animals" 
are familiar (under one atmosphere) may not be controlling in the 
ocean depths. The recognition of pressure hazards and effects 
takes a conscious effort, a deliberate cold-blooded appraisal to be 
checked and rechecked throughout all stages of your instrument 
design work. There are ways of conquering or allowing for pres- 
sure effects. But you must think of them to use them. For it is 
well to remember that into every crevice of the bathyscaphe, 
Trieste, on its deep dive, and into your cable connections, seals, 
and coverplates of instruments at the deepest depths, a devil is 
seeking to deliver a wallop of over 8 tons per square inch. 



144 



12. APPLIED RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS 

INCLUDING ASWEPS 

PART III. FOR THE BUREAU OF NAVAL WEAPONS 



Murray H. Schefer 

Navy Department 
Washington, D. C. 



The requirements of the Bureau of Naval Weapons for 
oceanographic instrumentation are based on the programs which 
support the mission of the Bureau. This mission reads, in part, 
as follows: "The Bureau of Naval Weapons is responsible for 
the research, development, design, test, operating standards, 
and evaluation of all naval weapons, Navy and Marine Corps air- 
craft, target drones, naval photographic and meteorological 
equipment, and supporting equipment. Every effort of the 
Bureau is oriented to the concept: ' The better to serve and 
support the Fleet.'" All weapons and detection systems which 
operate in whole, or in part, in the ocean, or in the atmosphere 
immediately above it, are affected and/or limited by the marine 
environment. Intelligent design, improvement, test, and evalua- 
tion of weapons and related systems demands that these effects 
and limitations be well understood. This understanding will only 
come from the careful analysis and study of data gathered to 
determine the relationships between the environmental conditions 
and the instruments. Our first problem, therefore, is to measure 
accurately those properties of the marine environment which are 
considered significant. 

The oceanographic work pursued by the Bureau, in large 
part, can be aptly termed Applied Military Oceanographic Re- 
search. In addition, a certain amount of basic research isper- 
fornned because of gaps in our knowledge, because nobody else 
is doing the work which needs doing to keep the applied pro- 
gram going. 

The objectives and requirennents of instrumentation for 
survey and research have already been described to you. Although 
our mission and objectives differ from those of survey and 



145 



basic research, it is believed that if their requirements are met 
many of the Bureau's requirements will be satisfied simultaneous- 
ly. Certain of our problems, on the other hand, are peculiar to 
our work and will require special attention. 

A brief review of the oceanographic programs of the Bureau 
of Naval Weapons is in order: 

Radar Surveillance: Work in this area generally relates to studies 
of surface waves as they affect radar signals in an attempt to learn 
more about the detection of surfaced or snorkeiing submarines in 
various sea conditions. 

Sonar Surveillance: This work relates to two areas. One is the 
development of towed and dipped helicopter sonars. The other re- 
lates to bearing accuracy of sonars at long ranges. Much of this 
is concerned with acoustic transmission in the medium. 

Magnetic-Electro Surveillance: Work in this area relates to the 
detection of submarines using MAD (Magnetic Anomaly Detection) 
equipment. The type of information required is basic geomagnetic 
background measurements as an input to the development program. 

Sonobuoy Surveillance: The work here is twofold. With regard to 
acoustic sonobuoys the interest is in obtaining acoustic data re- 
lating to sonobuoy use. Second, we are interested in the use of 
explosive echo ranging for submarine detection. This latter prob- 
lem requires tests in the ocean on propagation, reverberation, etc., 
of explosive waves. 

Fire Control Sonar: This concerns hull-mounted fire control sonar. 
The work conducted here in the oceanographic area is basically 
sound coherency measurements. 

Torpedo Guidance and Control: This area represents the largest 
portion of our oceanographic effort, and relates to the development 
of acoustic homing torpedoes. Fairly extensive programs are 
carried on in (1) acoustics of the medium, which includes scatter- 
ing, reverberation, propagation, etc. , in the particular frequency 
ranges of interest, and (2) acoustics of the target which include 
active and passive acoustics of a submarine in the operating medium. 

Torpedo Hydrodynamics : In this field, a relatively small amount of 
oceanographic work is done principally in the area of drag reduction. 

146 



Mine Development: In the mine development program the basic 
problem is to obtain environmental measurements to enable the 
development of better influence mines and determine mine 
utilization and behavior in varied environmental conditions. 

Aircraft Carrier Motion: In the development of automatic carrier- 
landing systems a knowledge of the surface waves in different 
ocean areas is required. The same information is needed for sea- 
plane hull design and performance prediction. 

Interaction of Sea and Atmosphere : The Bureau provides meteoro- 
logical services to the Navy. It is, therefore, very much interested 
in the interaction of the sea and atmosphere and instrumentation 
to study this interaction. 

These brief descriptions hardly do justice to the significant 
oceanographic projects underway at such field activities of the 
Bureau of Naval Weapons as the Naval Ordnance Test Station, 
China Lake, the Naval Ordnance Test Station, Pasadena, the 
Naval Ordnance Laboratory, White Oak, the Naval Underwater 
Ordnance Station, Newport, and the Naval Air Development 
Center, Johnsville. In addition, the Applied Physics Laboratory, 
University of Washington, and the Ordnance Research Laboratory, 
Pennsylvania State University, conduct for the Bureau considerable 
oceanographic research and instrumentation development, partic- 
ularly in the area of underwater acoustics. The Applied Physics 
Laboratory has played a dominant role in the development of 
underwater range acoustic tracking equipment, of which we will 
have more to say. 

The oceanographic work conducted in connection with the 
programs previously mentioned calls for a wide variety of oceanog- 
raphic and marine geophysical instrumentation. Permit me to des- 
cribe briefly a few typical exannples of instruments that have been 
developed at BUWEPS activities. 

Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, has developed the 
\inderwater SVTP, a self-contained unit with which sound velocity, 
temperature, and pressure are nneasured simultaneously. The 
present accuracy of the measuremients is: sound velocity, about 
0. Z5 meters per second; temperature, one hundredth of a degree 
centigrade; and pressure, 1 percent of full range. The signals from 
the sensors are telemetered along a single-conductor polyethylene 
covered steel cable in the form of different frequencies. The 

147 



information from the sensors is recorded on magnetic tape for 
future analysis in the laboratory and also displayed on other re- 
cording equipment for examination aboard ship. The equipment 
has been successfully used to depths of slightly more than 1,000 
nneters. However, the basic design of the equipment will permit 
its use to all depths. 

This is a development from equipment on which Mr. James M. 
Snodgrass worked several years ago. 

Naval Ordnance Laboratory, White Oak, has developed 
DEEP DIP, an unmanned, unattached vehicle used to provide an 
instrunnent platform capable of descending to the greatest ocean 
depths and returning to the surface after a predetermined interval 
of time. The instrument platform is a sphere having an inside 
diameter of 27 inches. This holds the sensing devices, recorders, 
and batteries. Under the sphere is an anchor release mechanism 
and a concrete anchor. Above the sphere is a rubber, gasoline- 
filled flotation bag, equipped with a small radio transmitter. When 
the complete system is launched over the side of a vessel, the 
anchor carries it to the bottom. At a preset time, a clock-actuated 
mechanism severs the anchor from the rest of the system, allow- 
ing the flotation bag to raise the sensor sphere to the surface. 
Once at the surface, the radio begins to send out signals, per- 
mitting the recovery vessel to home on the device. DEEP DIP 
is designed to withstand pressures at depths of 8 miles. DEEP 
DIP has been used extensively to make geomagnetic measurements 
for mine development purposes. 

Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, has 
developed the DEEP SEA RESEARCH VEHICLE. This is an 
unmanned instrument carrier capable of 50-mile horizontal 
trajectories at depths to 10,000 feet. This vehicle was tested 
successfully last year. Now this, I believe, answers one of the 
questions that was asked yesterday about the artist's conception of 
miniature submarines. During the period of this Symposium 
the vehicle is at sea on its first data-gathering expedition. I 
would have been with it except for this Symposium. It is torpedo- 
like in shape, 120 inches long and 20 inches in diameter, and has 
a displacement of 1,000 pounds. The pressure hull is designed to 
carry sensors and other components to a maximum depth of 
12,000 feet. High-performance batteries propel the vehicle for 
8 to 10 hours at six knots. It can carry an instrument payload of 



148 



up to 200 pounds. A radio beacon having a range of 5 to 10 miles 
has been installed to facilitate location and recovery. The 
tracking ajid command link is a simplified version of the three- 
dimensional underwater range tracker, mounted on a ship. The 
instrumentation to be used in this vehicle remains in large mea- 
sure to be developed. Initial instrumentation includes a thermis- 
tor probe mounted forward and a high frequency, narrow beam 
echo sounder to pick up the details of bottom topography. Work 
will soon begin on a recording system suitable for general appli- 
cation and data recording consistent with the space, power, and 
weight capabilities of the vehicle. 

Ordnance Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, 
has developed the MICROTHERMAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM 
which permits the measurement and recording of horizontal or 
vertical temperature differentials as small as one thousandth 
degree centigrade by use of thermistor probes spaced on a bar 
which can be lowered to any desired depth down to 1, 000 feet. 

And now in the time remaining, I will describe a requirement 
in an area which I believe is specific to the Bureau: 

UNDERWATER WEAPONS RANGES: The performance of wea- 
pons cannot be adequately tested and evaluated in the laboratory. 
This work has to be done on a range. For underwater weapons, 
such as torpedoes, this must be an underwater range. The rapid 
development since World War II of sophisticated underwater 
weapons has called for a parallel de velopment of underwater 
ranges to test and evaluate these weapons. Several of these ranges 
already exist and are constantly being innproved, and others are 
in the planning stage. One of the better known ranges is in 
Dabob Bay and is operated by the Naval Torpedo Station, Keyport, 
Washington. The Applied Physics Laboratory, University of 
Washington, developed the three-dimensional acoustic underwater 
tracking facility for this range. The range at San Clemente 
Island, off the California coast, is described by H. R. Talkington 
in the U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings of June 1960lZ . The ranges 
in existence, and planned, vary in size from 1 to 10 miles wide, 
3 to 70 miles in length, and 150 to 5, 000 feet deep. 

In order to analyze and evaluate weapon and equipment perfor- 
naajice intelligently in an underwater range, it is necessary to know 

j/ Vol. 86. no. 6, p. 93. (ED.) 

149 



those properties of the marine environment which either affect wea- 
pon performance or affect the instrumentation employed to mea- 
sure weapon performance. 

Oceanographic surveys of range sites are conducted during 
planning and early construction stages. These surveys employ con- 
ventional available equipment. Once the ranges are in operation, 
periodic surveys are conducted to gather information on the degree 
of variability that occurs in the range. However, these surveys do 
not reveal the day-to-day conditions of the range. 

The ranges are instrumented to provide an accurate and instan- 
taneous presentation of the movements of a submerged weapon, or 
a weapon and its target on the same run. From the data obtained, 
accurate determinations of weapon trajectory, velocity, accelera- 
tion, turning radius, advance transfer, and other parameters are 
made. This information is invaluable from the standpoint of de- 
sign and tactical considerations. The ranges present a unique 
facility as an underwater "laboratory" and many new uses and re- 
quirements for them are constantly being generated. Amongst 
them are calibration of ship-mounted sonar and navigation equipment. 

In this vuiderwater "laboratory, " however, we cannot control 
the environmental variables. In this sense, the underwater range 
cannot be strictly referred to as a laboratory. Therefore, it is 
important to be able to measure these variables over the entire 
volume of the range, not periodically, but concurrently with the 
tests. 

A three-dimensional system is required that will accurately 
measure the properties of interest throughout the volume of the 
range, communicate the data to a central location where they are 
recorded, and graphically display the data for immediate inspection. 
This is the ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM for the 
xinderwater ranges. 

The function of the Environmental Surveillance System is to 
provide, either according to a programmed schedule, or on 
demand, environmental data from points throughout the range 
volume, including the atmosphere immediately above it. 

DESIGN CONCEPTS: The system may consist of a number of 
taut-wire buoys to which sensor clusters are attached at different 



150 



depth levels. Or, it may consist of sensor buoys which ride up 
and down on the taut-wire arrays. It is desirable not to obstruct 
the range; therefore, moored equipment may not be feasible and 
some other approach will have to be explored. Data collected 
at the sensors will be relayed to a data center either by radio 
telemetry or by cable. At the data center, equipment will be 
provided both to record the data and to display it graphically for 
immediate inspection. 

Now what are the environmental properties of interest? I have 
lumped these into the water properties and the air properties. 
The properties of interest with their ranges and accuracies are 
as follows: 

Among properties of the water, we are concerned with: 
Depth (total ±0.25% full scale); temperature vs. depth (-2° to 
35° C. ±0. 10° C. ); salinity vs. depth (15 - 40%o ±0. 05%o); 
current velocity vs. depth (0.05 to 5.0 knots ±0.02 knots and 
0° _ 360° ±10°); surface waves (0 - 20 ft. ±0.5 ft. and 0° - 360° 

±10°); pressure (0-4, 000 p. s. i. ); density vs. depth (1. 01000- 
1.07000 ±0.00001); bubbles (to be determined); the optical char- 
acteristics of the water, including such things as the ambient light 
vs. depth (absorption - 100% ±1.0%), and the light tr ansmissivity 
vs. depth (allowable error to be determined); the acoustical 
characteristics of the water mass: sound velocity vs. depth 
(4, 500 - 5, 500 ft. /sec. ±0.1 f t . /sec. ), ambient noise vs. depth 
(0 - 100,000 c.p.s.), acoustic scattering coefficients from 
the surface and from the bottom (to le determined), and acoustic 
propagation variability (to be deternnined). 

Air properties in which we are interested are: surface 
temperature (-10° to 120° F. ±0. 5° F. ); wind velocity (0--125 
knots ±3 knots and 0° - 360° ±5°); barometric pressure (880 - 
1,050 millibars ±0. 1 millibar); incident radiation (0 - 40 Langleys/ 
min. ±5% range); and reflected radiation (0 - 100 USWB scale 
±5% range ). 

Do not be dismayed by the length of this list or the ranges 
and accviracies asked for. We are not asking for a trip to the 
moon. We are aware that redundancy exists in this list, but we 
want it. We consider it a desirable feature. The system can be 
built piecemeal, sensor modules being added as the state of the 
art develops. The design of the recording system, however. 



151 



should take into account maximum possible utilization. 

It should not be construed that the oceanogr aphic instrumenta- 
tion and data requirements of the Bureau of Naval Weapons are 
limited to the needs of the underwater ranges. Our oceanogr aphic 
interests extend beyond the ranges. Indeed, it is oceanwide, par- 
ticularly as it relates to ASW. The sites of the ranges have been 
selected with certain considerations in mind which do not make 
them truly representative of the open ocean or the actual ASW 
tactical situation. Complete evaluation of ASW weapons and sys- 
tems must occur under these latter conditions. Meanwhile, the 
ranges seem to present an excellent opportunity to develop, test, 
and evaluate oceanographic instrumentation that will be required, 
not only for our own needs, but also for ocean surveillance as an 
input to such synoptic programs as ASWEPS, basic oceanographic 
research, and surveys. 

Finally, I add a couple of simple thoughts based on 12 years 
experience with oceanographic survey instruments. 

First, I want to emphasize the point made by Mr. James M. 
Snodgrass and Mr. B. King Couper regarding the fact that a 
considerable body of experience in oceanographic instrumenta- 
tion has been built up during and since the war. 

I have considered too many proposals that have completely 
ignored this background. This experience cannot be ignored 
even though it exists in no neat package, you have to research 
and to dig for it. 

And secondly, I want to remind you once again that an oceanog- 
raphic instrument consists of three parts: the sensor, the recorder, 
and the link between the two. The sensor has to be accurate, relia- 
ble, and durable. The link has to be reliable and durable, without 
degrading the accuracy of the sensor. The recorder has to be 
reliable and durable, also without degrading the accuracy of the 
sensor. 

The recorder is the area which, I believe, is the least trouble- 
some but the one with which the proposals seem to be most con- 
cerned because one can make many beautiful pictures of impressive 
counters, punches, printouts, eind so on. The part most in need of 
improvement is the sensor. 



152 



13. DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF BUOY SYSTEMS 



Dr. William S. Richardson 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 



Yesterday, nine of the speakers mentioned buoys as systems 
for oceanographic data collection; this morning, two of the pre- 
ceding speakers mentioned they have an immediate need of buoys. 
Mr. John J. Schule, Jr. 's picture of ocean buoys is what we look 
for within the very near future, but I will discuss buoy systems in 
the light of existing systems. Part of my intention in so doing is 
to demonstrate that the efforts in this direction have not been very 
extensive and progress has not been very remarkable. 

Anyone who has worked in oceanography and wanted data for 
his work very soon realizes that there are practically no long time 
series of measurements in existence, neither physical measure- 
ments nor biological measurements. About the only exceptions are 
some of the light vessel measurements and the Coast Guard Ocean 
Station measurements, and these, in general, are not in deep 
water nor are they, properly speaking, continuous. The other 
thing that is missing in oceanographic data is synoptic data over 
large areas. The reason for this lack is perfectly obvious. 
Oceanographer s work primarily with the ships and ships are not 
well suited to taking long-ternn, time-series measvirements at sea 
nor are they capable of covering large areas synoptically. 

I will restrict my discussion of buoy systems to anchored 
buoys. This is not to imply there are not good uses for drifting 
buoys (in current measurements, etc.), but I do not think that the 
full potential of buoy systems is realized until reliable -- there is 
that word again -- anchoring systems exist. I will also restrict 
nny attention to deep moored stations. By this, I (arbitrarily) 
mean anchored in water greater than 500 meters deep. There is, 
of course, much interest in shallow water areas, but the buoys 
for shallow water can be handled by brute force techniques. I will 
also restrict my attention to buoys which are to be worked for 
long periods of time. By this, I mean 1 or 2 months or longer; 
long enough so a ship cannot be kept alongside to watch thenn. 
Such buoys are, of course, all-weather systems. In the case of 

153 



experiments where a ship can be kept in the vicinity of the buoy or 
where the weather can be selected, lighter gear can be used in the 
mooring. 

Within this framework of anchored, deep-water, long-term, 
all-weather buoys, I would guess that perhaps 50 or 75 successful 
moorings have been made. I am sure I do not know about all of 
them but I think this is probably a conservative maximum number. 
Based on the importance which the speakers, both yesterday and 
today, placed on such systems, it seems like a remarkably small 
effort, particularly since the buoy can accumulate a type of data 
which ships cannot. 

Existing buoy experiments, or buoy types, may be divided 
into four classes: 

In the first, the buoy records only data from surface observa- 
tions and these are stored in the buoy. Surface observations are 
made from a few feet underwater up to and including meteorologi- 
cal observations. This buoy must be visited and the records 
recovered. This is perhaps the most prevalent type of buoy. It 
is characterized by the effort of Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
in fall-out ani atomic-blast areas, where they use taut-wire 
moorings with skiffs as surface floats. There are many other 
exannples . 

The next more complicated class is the one in which only 
surface observations are obtained, but the data is telemetered. 
This is characteristic of the meteorological buoy which has been 
moored in the center of the Gulf of Mexico. That mooring is a 
slack-rope mooring, and I believe the buoy has been in place for 
about 2 year s. 

The third extension of the buoy system is that in which mea- 
surements are made in the deep water, but no information is 
transferred to the surface. This might be characterized by the 
present line of 15 buoys which the Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution has installed between Cape Cod and Bermuda. In this 
case the mooring is senni-taut plastic rope, and internally re- 
cording instruments (primarily current meters) are installed in 
the mooring at various depths down to the bottom. It is, of course, 
necessary to pull the whole mooring up to retrieve the records. 
The instrvunents are then refurbished and the mooring reset. 



154 



This is obviously a somewhat dark-age system; we have no 
communication to the surface and no telemetry. It leads to the 
final desired system involving conducting cable moorings, data 
storage, and radio telemetry from the surface. This is the goal 
toward which we are working and may be considered an ultimate 
system. As far as I know, only the work of Dr. Charles S. Cox 
at Scripps Institution of Oceanography approaches this require- 
ment. There have been very few buoys moored on a conducting 
cable with information sensed at depth and transferred to the sur- 
face. I understand that I. T. and T. will set some deep hydro- 
phone buoys shortly, and we at Woods Hole will be setting some 
current stations, probably later this winter, but really very little 
has been accomplished. There nnay well be efforts in the Depart- 
ment of Defense about which I do not know and there is also some 
foreign effort. 

The title of my talk implied I was going to discuss the main- 
tenance of such a system. Nobody knows very much about this. 
Our own line has been in place for only about 3 or 4 months. We 
are just beginning to see what the maintenance picture will be. 
The first thing one encounters on setting a line of buoys out in 
the ocean and driving away from them is they look very fragile, 
lonely, and small. If you are normal, you worryl This is perhaps 
one of the worst features of this type of experiment. We have 
lost 4 out of 31 of the deep stations which we have set. In two of 
these, the cause has been diagnosed as the mechanical failure 
of a part of the instrument, not really a failure of the mooring 
proper. For the other two the causes aire unknown, since not- 
thing was recovered. 

We encounter marine fouling on these moorings at all depths, 
although the species, of course, change. We do see some evid- 
ence on our current meters (where we rely on rotating parts) of 
difficulty with this facet of the environment. We have had con- 
siderable corrosion on some parts of our instruments and pre- 
sently have installed corrosion test panels in these moorings. 
This data will be analyzed and available fairly soon. The rates 
of corrosion in the deep water are appreciable as they are in 
the shallow water, as you might expect; but for some materials 
they appear to be different in deep water than in the shallow 
water . 

I would like to finish by trying to convey some idea of the 
economics of buoy operations as opposed to ship operations. This 

155 



is rather difficult to do because buoys and ships in general do not 
do the same job. I feel that perhaps one could make a valid com- 
parison by assuming that there are two operations, such as the 
buoy-line operation and a ship operation, which occupied about the 
same length of time and in which all of the data which are collected 
are important. That is, no excess data was collected. Then we 
might compare the economics on the basis of the cost per measure- 
ment. 

What I have compared is an IGY cruise of the R/V Crawford 
of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the buoy line be- 
tween Cape Cod and Bermuda. 

Crawford Cruise 10 involved four crossings in the Atlantic 
Ocean. It was a long cruise, 3-1/2 to 4 months, and an economical 
cruise. (The Crawford is a small but very efficient vessel.) The 
work done was hydrographic stations and the prinnary reason they 
were done was to take temperature and salinity sections. We may 
logically put the entire cost of the trip on the temperature and 
salinity measurements, since the trip would have gone for this 
purpose alone. If one does this and takes the cost of the trip (pay 
for the scientists, ship time, etc.), but does not charge for the 
instrumentation (because Mr. Nansen developed this back in 
1900) -- we find that each temperature and each salinity measure- 
ment costs $21. 75. These measurements are three or four digit 
numbers so the price is about $5 to $7 a digit. The sea water which 
was captured in the Nansen bottles and brought up for the salinity 
measurements costs $16. 30 per liter. If you are not facile in the 
metric system, that is $11. 50 a fifth. 

In comparing these costs with the buoy line, I use ail the costs 
of the instrument development, procurement, ship time, and 
salaries. If I then total the number of current measurements which 
we have available at the present time (3 to 4 months operation), 
each measurement costs about 50 cents. The line is out there at 
the present time so it is running the cost downward. Analyses of 
this type makes buoys look very attractive from an economic point 
of view. 

In conclusion, we can look forward to many buoys at sea. Many 
of these will have conducting cable moorings and will utilize storage 
and telemetry. Such systems have not been developed and are not 
in operation at the present time; only these much less sophisticated. 



156 



more dark-age systems which I have mentioned have been used and 
this use has been limited. 

We need moorings with conducting cables; we need reliable 
(that word again) electrical and mechanical connections to the 
instruments in the moorings and to the surface floats, cables, and 
ground tackle. We need well-engineered parts for these systems, 
and I think this is a place where Industry, with its excellent 
engineering experience, can make a really significant contribution 
to oceanography. 



157 



14. FIXED PLATFORMS IN OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH 



Arthur L. Nelson 

U. S. Navy Electronics Laboratory 
San Diego, California 



Until about a decade ago, nearly all oceanographic studies 
were conducted from piers, moving vessels, or from the shore. 
The choice of locations depended upon the particular specialty or 
interest of the oceanographer . If such investigations included 
studies of ocean currents, the sea floor, or midocean meteorology, 
the oceanographic measurements were made from an oceangoing 
ship. When near -shore phenomena such as sand transport, shore- 
line circulation, and intertidal biology were to be investigated, the 
studies were conducted from the beaches, platforms, or piers. 

The U. S. oil industry first demonstrated the value and practi- 
cability of constructing offshore fixed platfornns or towers. Such 
structures have been used to pursue oceanographic research. Al- 
though these fixed platfornns entail certain disadvantages, they are 
superior in vital respects to all other types of facilities. 



The principal advantage in the use of oceanographic towers 
over vessels anchored in the same location is their stability. A 
fixed platform virtually eiinninates the motions caused by waves, 
winds, and currents, and the recording, processing, and analyzing 
of data are, therefore, more precise. In miost cases, it is possi- 
ble to stabilize instruments in depth. The lowered efficiency on 
oceangoing vessels caused by the absence of seasick personnel is 
a factor not experienced. The absence of adequate electrical power 
is no longer a problem. With a fixed platform, or tower, contin- 
uous measurements can be made over long periods of time at the 
same geographical location. 

An outstanding advantage of the fixed platform at sea is its 
economy of operation. Oceangoing vessels are well known to be 
extremely expensive to maintain and operate. The smaller towers 
may be, by comparison, adequately manned by two or three per- 
sonnel or can be left unattended for considerable periods of time. 
Computed comparisons of maintenance costs between ships and 

158 



fixed platforms are not available at this time, but it is obvious 
that a well-designed structure of the smaller class of tower re- 
quires much less expensive maintenance than the usual oceanog- 
raphic vessel, although this may depend in certain instances upon 
the size of both tower and vessel. 

A final advantage is that fixed platforms are quieter, acous- 
tically and electrically, than ships. 



The main disadvantage in fixed platforms is a limitation in 
geographical coverage. The nnovement from one area to another, 
as with an oceangoing vessel, is not possible. Range, however, 
can be increased somewhat through the use of booms or floats, 
although the latter cannot qualify as a stable platform. 

Another disadvantage with the fixed platform is the limited 
depth at which they can be safely constructed. This is generally 
considered to be about 200 feet. Such a depth restricts the use- 
fulness of towers to what is sometimes called "shallow-water" 
oceanography. A somewhat lesser disadvantage is the creation 
of an unnatural environment, particularly at the bottom. However, 
reflection and refraction of the waves in the substructure, and 
their effects on biological population, may be minimized by 
proper structural design. 

Towers and other fixed platforms cannot run for shelter 
when a storm arises, and, consequently, they are subject to 
damage by high winds and waves. A hurricane destroyed the 
first fixed platform at Caplan, Texas, as well as the first Panama 
City oceanographic tower. Fire devastated the Magnolia Petro- 
leum Company platform off Louisiana, a hazard of interest to 
oceanographers since some towers are used jointly by oii com- 
panies and oceanographic research groups. At Woods Hole, the 
windmill structure in Buzzards Bay was toppled during a hurri- 
cane. The recent loss of a Texas Tower in a hurricane was 
widely publicized. Fixed, open-sea platforms frequently present 
boarding and debarking hazards in bad weather. 



The most common type of fixed platforms employed in 
oceanography are piers. These are especially useful for in- 
vestigating sea boundaries that extend across the surf, and the 
resulting wave action and beach erosion. 



159 



Piers are accessible from land and convenient to electrical 
supply, but are restricted to even shallower water than towers. 
Most piers have been constructed primarily for ship moorings, 
outfalls, and so forth, and oceanographic research is a by-product. 
A notable exception to the general situation is the pier of the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography at La Jolla, California, which 
was designed and built expressly for research. This pier, unique 
in oceanographic research, extends 1, 000 feet out in the open sea 
to water about ZO feet deep, and provides for the sampling of 
water and the recording of tides, waves, and other sea properties. 

The other principal form of fixed platform, the tower, as 
exemplified by the Oceanographic Research Tower, U. S. Navy 
Electronics Laboratory, promises to be an invaluable tool in 
extending knowledge of shallow ocean environment, including the 
sea floor, the surface, and the water in between as well as the 
meteorological conditions immediately above the ocean (fig. 14.1). 

With the NEL Oceanographic Research Tower, the legs are 
hollow and through them are driven pins, 120 feet long, which pene- 
trate the ocean bottom about 60 feet. This affords a uniquely 
stable, fixed platform. 

A cargo boom is used to load and unload equipment from the 
NEL tower. A boat is swung on davits from the tower and can be 
launched to collect samples of surface foam. A cathodic protection 
system has been in use for the past year. Its purpose is to keep 
corrosion damage down to a negligible level. 

The knowledge provided by the NEL Oceanographic Research 
Tower will be applied to better ways of detecting and neutralizing 
enemy mines, sneak craft, and submarines, and to development 
of improved connmunications and navigational systems for the 
Navy. 



The U. S. Coast Guard is replacing certain of its light ships 
with fixed structures, which are intended for additional use as 
platfornns fronn which to study the ocean by the Beach Erosion 
Board and the Hydrographic Office. The first of these fixed plat- 
forms will be located in Buzzards Bay, 3 miles southwest of 
Cuttyhunk, Massachusetts, in 70 feet of water. Sinnilar structures 
will be built at the rate of two per year for the next 9 years, and are 



160 




14.1 



FIGURE 

OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH TOWER 



161 



expected to provide splendid oceanographic research facilities. 

The oceanographic research program that started out so 
promisingly on Texas Tower 4 is being transferred this fall to 
Argus Island (fig. 3.2), located southwest of Bermuda. Installa- 
tion of cables for the raising and lowering of instruments was 
finished recently, and a Hydrographic Office ship completed an 
oceanographic survey of the surrounding areas. The program's 
prime objective is to study the heat budget of the water column, 
not only the energy exchange due to radiation, but also that due to 
the size of the column and the wave action. 

The experience with Texas Tower 4 proved the practicability 
of such a fixed platform, and even greater results are expected 
from Argus Island. 

An offshore structure, located 11 miles off Panama City, 
Florida, in 100 feet of water, is being readied for an ambitious 
oceanographic research program by the Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal College of Texas, under contract with the Office of Naval Re- 
search. This facility for the most part will be unattended. The 
data will be telemetered back to a shore station over a radio link. 

A typical anchored platformi is Monob I, the David Taylor 
Model Basin's underwater sound barge. This ship is a converted 
water barge, modified by the addition of extensive laboratory 
facilities. It can be anchored wherever facilities are needed and 
for as long as required. 

Another type of platform being studied by the Naval Research 
Laboratory is a large, floating structure approximately 300 feet 
in height and constructed of hollow structural members. According 
to the particular requirement, it can be made to float high in the 
water or nearly submerged. The huge lower floats will contain 
nnany scientific laboratories. This structure will have less than 
1-foot vertical excursion when the surface waves are 40 feet high, 
but will be responsive to low-frequency waves such as those pro- 
duced by underwater volcanic eruptions called tsunamis. 

The Marine Physical Laboratory of the Scripps Institution of 
Oceanography is constructing FLIP, a floating stable platform, to 
do essentially the same work, but along somewhat different lines. 



162 



15. SUBMERSIBLES AND AIRCRAFT PLATFORMS 

Allyn C. Vine 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 



Throughout a great deal of this meeting there has been dis- 
cussion on the sinnilarities and differences between survey and re- 
search. It has been said, "Research is what I am doing and devel- 
opnnent is what you are doing. " In this vein it can also be said, 
"Survey is something we both believe worth doing. " 

To many a seagoing research worker the ocean seems alive. 
Things are happening in it which he wants to further investigate 
while he is there. To do this he needs to have sufficient incoming 
data and sufficient operational control to exploit this opportune 
time to imiprove his data-gathering procedure. This is in con- 
trast to the generally xxnderstood survey concept where the mea- 
suring program is laid out well in advance and is to be closely 
followed. However, any good survey program will allow the 
chief scientist on the ship enough operational control to take 
advantage of unexpected events. The Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey has recently done this and they are to be commended for it. 

We probably talk about research and survey in terms that 
are too absolute as though any trip is either all survey or all re- 
search. The most rabid research worker with his pet project 
likes to retain his data in order to make it available to others; 
likewise, the most dyed-in-the-wool survey man wants to learn 
more about interesting, transient phenomena while they are 
occurring. 

The question for us to consider here is what method of re- 
cording best achieves these goals. We hear too much discussion 
about the relative merits of magnetic tapes that play data back 
in the laboratory versus graphical recorders with convenient 
readouts for meaningful on-the-spot observations. There seems 
to be every reason to have both types of recording. By having 
both visual recording and tape recording available, the on-the- 
spot observer can make the best immediate judgements affect- 
ing the operation and a detailed permanent record can be brought 
back for later examination by all. 



163 



Individual discussions at this two-day meeting are so brief 
that they iTiay be misleading as well as frustrating. Whereas our 
presentations may appear to be too general and not definite enough 
with a specific list of budgeted instruments with formal specifica- 
tions, please remember you have been invited to this general dis- 
cussion before all the decisions have been made. This conference 
may be premature, but it is not too late. 

At special meetings at a later date a whole day can be devoted 
to a particular instrument, such as a new echo-sounder or a bio- 
logical sampler. At this time when the number of actively in- 
terested companies is perhaps twenty instead of five hundred, dis- 
cussions can be held on specifications and design concepts in 
lengthy and meaningful detail. The list of oceanographic instru- 
ments (appendices E, F, G, and H) which you have all received 
will help you decide the kind of instrument in which your company 
is seriously interested. 

The use of AIRCRAFT FOR RESEARCH has been mentioned 
by several previous speakers and there are several important 
aspects of aircraft in research. Airplanes are cheaper per mile 
than ships. A large airplane might cost $1 per mile and a large 
ship might cost $10 per mile. Therefore, continuous measure- 
ments which can be made fromi an airplane are much cheaper to 
do from a plane than from a ship which is making only the same 
measurements. As indicated earlier, such measurements might 
be of surface waves using a vertical radar system, surface tem- 
peratures of the water, air turbulence, or color of the water as 
an indicator of biological activity or different water masses. 

If one considers making discrete oceanographic observations 
50 miles apart, it costs $500 to inove a ship between stations 
and only $50 to move an airplane. However, if one is using an 
expendable instrument which costs more than $450 at each 50- 
mile interval, the total cost for the plane plus the instrument 
would be greater than for a ship using non-expendable instru- 
ments. In considering future problems in oceanography, it may 
be that you manufacturers can make such expendable instruments 
considerably cheaper than $450, or perhaps the equipment can 
be recovered later by ships or aircraft. It inay also be that a 
special scientific or military requirement justifies the extra 
cost of expendable equipment. 



164 




MIRROR (3"DIA ,I.5"F.L.) 

DETECTOR (THERMISTOR BOLOMETER) 

MIRROR CHOPPER 

THERMOSTATED REFERENCE 
BLACK BODY 



ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE ERROR 
DEPENDS ON ALTITUDE 

SENSITIVITY >0.1° 



BAL. AMP — RECORDER 



POWER SUPPLY 



FIGURE 

AIRBORNE RADIATION THERMOMETER 



Airplanes have great speed and transport type airplanes have 
ample space for equipment, but unfortunately there just are not 
many types of oceanogr aphic mstrumients available today for use in 
aircraft. An excellent example of one of the instruments that does 
exist is the airborne radiation thermiometer for measuring surface 
temperatures (fig. 15. I). The radiation thermiometer comipares 
the difference in temiperature between a self-contained standard 
temperature reference and the ocean surface. By using the new 
thermo-electric heating and cooling devices, the radiation thermo- 
meter might be made miuch simpler and more usable than earlier 
models that depended on thermos bottles with ice cubes in them 
which had to be renewed at awkward intervals. Simplifications 
of this type might result in much wider use of airborne thermo- 
meters. 

Concerning UNDERSEA VEHICLES, let us start with the deep- 
running torpedo which has already been mentioned. One of the 
assuring things about torpedoes is that we have considerable know- 
ledge and experience with their hydrodynamics, propulsion, noise, 



165 



and control. Recently a deep-running torpedo for scientific purposes 
has been made and used by scientists at the University of Washington. 

A torpedo can make almost any simple measurement that can be 
miade on wires or cables, or from submarines. The fact that it is 
remote from the miother ship is an advantage that deserves more ex- 
ploitation. Properly programmed torpedoes can miake observations 
along lines radiating away from a stationary ship. There is also a 
possibility that echo-sounders could be mounted on slave torpedoes 
that run parallel to the mother ship. With such a combination a 
single survey ship accompanied by a systemi of slave torpedoes 
could echo-sound a broad path across the ocean. Somiething like 
these echo-sounding slave torpedoes that navigate acoustically from 
the mother ship and return to one mother ship for battery charging 
might turn out to be a nnore economical way to do bathymetric sur- 
vey work than to use two conventional ships. 

We usually think of an echo-sounder as looking down at the 
bottom from a surface ship. The detailed depth and slope of a 
rough bottom might be found more accurately if an inverted echo- 
sounder is run close to the bottom on a torpedo so it can look up 
at the relatively flat surface. An echo-sounder of this type would 
permit more detailed bottomi measurements because a point on the 
bottom would be much smaller and miore discrete than averaging 
the central Fresnel Zones from a surface-miounted sounder. 

The above are thoughts on special torpedo-like devices that 
you might consider. Some of these devices might only be needed in 
quantities of five or ten a year. However, if they really make a 
magnitude of difference in oceanographic capabilities, the quantity 
required might increase to proportions that would frighten the user 
and please the supplier. 

In using conventional nriilitarY' submarines, availability and 
operational control have been limiting factors. Submarines have 
normally been used as specialized ships of opportunity on which 
one could measure such variables as temperature, salinity, or 
sound velocity. The special capabilities of great stability have 
made the submarine an emiinent platform for gravity measurements. 
Their quiet mechanical and acoustical background have also made 
them ideal for certain kinds of acoustical measurements. A port- 
able set of special instruments and attachments for a Navy sub- 
marine might make them much more useful and generally avail- 
able for research work. 

166 



The polar, under-ice trips have provided an excellent oppor- 
tunity for good science and good instrumentation. For example, 
on her recent trip under the polar ice, the Sea Dragon was equipped 
with television, high resolution sonar, inverted echo-sounders, and 
an automatic -inultiple -plankton samipler. This trip produced the 
pleasant and anomalous situation of knowing for the first time how 
deep the plankton samples were being taken, what the plankton 
swarms looked like on TV and on sonar, while simultaneously meas- 
uring temperature and salinity. The fact that this ideal comibina- 
tion occurred first under the polar ice was simply because scien- 
tists, instrument designers, and the Navy seriously faced the 
problem of under-ice work. That so much has been done so quick- 
ly augers well for further advances. 

There is obviously a great deal of under-ice work yet to be 
done. We have all heard about the under-ice work in the Arctic, 
but some of the scientists interested in the Antarctic would like 
to see submarines used to study oceanographic features tmder the 
Ross Ice Shelf. The much greater thickness of ice involved and 
the greater distances represent a serious problem, but there is 
every reason to think that a second generation of nuclear sub- 
marines and instruments will see it done. 

A submarine can travel in three dimensions. Where the ocean 
is streaky, the streaks can be explored in depth as well as in 
latitude and longitude providing the submarine is properly instru- 
mented. Such investigations require that gradiometers be install- 
ed on two axes. 

The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has done some explora- 
tory work in the Pacific using subiTiarines for studying fish. 
They hope to do a great deal more in studying the schooling habits 
of fish and are seriously discussing the requirements of a sub- 
mersible for this purpose. 

In the NASCO report (Oceanography I960 - 1970) much atten- 
tion was given to deep, manned submer sibles. The general con- 
cept was of a small submarine that could carry three or more 
people and could dive several miles to expedite the studies of the 
biologist, the physical oceanographer , and the geologist. 

Although two European-built bathyscaphes have been used 
for research, to date none of the U. S. -designed craft has been 
constructed. Many deep submersibles have proceeded through 

167 



early design stages and some designs are becoming practical, near- 
ly final, and 1 hope saleable. _£' If small submersibles are success- 
ful, it miay well turn out that most of the large research ships will 
routinely carry a small submarine in just the way that they now 
carry an ordinary work boat in order to investigate interesting bio- 
logical or geological features found on the echo-sounder. 

The scientific justification for these submarines is that by hav- 
ing a trained person in a deep, on-the-spot laboratory more pur- 
poseful and fruitful experiments can be miade than could be miade 
with an instrument. For example, a rock-hunting geologist can 
select the rock he chooses, turn it over with a manipulator, and, 
if it still looks interesting, he can bring that particular rock back. 
He will also know something about the local environment and 
whether that rock is typical or not. If ripples are found on the 
bottom, the area can be surveyed to see if they are present over 
a wide area or a small area. 

Certainly, submarines with usuable windows in them are going 
to encourage more interest in optical methods in research and 
should increase our emphasis on the optical properties of the 
water, including the optical scattering characteristics of marine 
life and of the particles in the water. It will emiphasize the color 
aspects of the ocean and its inhabitants. 

It is often heard that one cannot see miuch under the water. 
Perhaps the real reason we have not seen much to date is because 
we have refused to look underwater. Conventional submarines 
took their windows out in 1941 and periscopes cannot be used very 
far below the surface. The bathyscaphes did not have very power- 
ful lights and few of our surface craft have windows in them. 
Happily some of the research ships and submarines on the drawing 
boards have corrected this optical deficiency. 

A few more comments about the techniques associated with 
working at great depths are in order. Mr. B. King Couper was 
certainly correct when he said that that "old devil pressure" 
and that "old devil corrosive salt water" are working against us 
at all times. On the other hand, there is also the point of view 
inferred by Mr. Bridgeman in his book on high pressures that at 
such low pressures as a few hundred atmospheres, almost any 



5/ Since the August meeting, a construction contract has been 
let for Aluminaut . 

168 



logically designed device will work. Somewhere between these two 
points of view lies the practical answer. The important thing to 
rennember is that there are well established physical principles, 
and there are good materials and components, which, if properly 
used, will permit simple instrument cases to be tight, strong, and 
economiical. In fact, oceanographer s are as apt to have trouble 
with low pressures and shallow-water equipment as with deep 
equipment in deep water. With shallow-water equipment they may 
get sloppy in design; deep cases are rugged and their design is 
usually based on fundamentally sound principles. Pressure 
compensation techniques often solve high pressure problems ex- 
actly as easily as they solve low pressure problems. There are 
reasonable descriptions of these techniques scattered through 
the literature. 

Most of the instruments that are good for small submarines 
miight work equally well if miounted on deep fish towed by a sur- 
face craft. If an instrument is well designed, the chances are 
it will work at great depths as well as at shallow depths. A 
very practical point for you mianufacturer s to remember is that 
the more universal you can make your instruments, the more 
potential buyers you will have for any one model. The balance 
between a miulti-purpose instrument and a simpler, single-pur- 
pose instrument is an imiportant one, both to the user and the 
manufacturer . 

With respect to the desirable recording equipment on a smiall 
submarine, there should definitely be provision for instantaneous 
viewing of data and there should also be provision for recording 
it for further analysis at a later date. It would appear that six 
to eight recording channels should be available for routine nneas- 
urements such as temperature, salinity, and depths, and a few 
more of the recording channels should be reserved for recording 
variables of particular interest to a particular dive or program. 

It is likely that a deep research vessel would be used much 
like other research ships. As such, a biologist might use it for 
three or four trips on his problems and then when his work is 
finished, or his instruments quit, or his time runs out, he would 
turn the submarine over to a geologist or someone else with a 
new set of equipment and interests. 

A research submarine looking for biological specimiens or 

169 



geological features has about the same problems as a military sub- 
marine; it must detect, classify, and capture its prey. By using 
an acoustic echo ranging system out to perhaps 1,000 mieters to 
provide search and to help avoid obstructions, both good search and 
high safety should be achieved. Classification of objects will be ac- 
complished at short ranges by visual methods. There is every 
reason to believe that the water is clear enough to see at distances 
of from 30 to 100 feet. Capture can be either photographic with 
a camera, or be physical with nets, or with remotely-controlled 
mechanical arms and storage bins. 

The camera equipment should be very complete, taking not 
only time lapse movies, but also high quality stills and movies on 
demand. Fortunately, some of the second generation deep sub- 
marines now being designed have the electrical power to provide 
sufficient illumination so water clarity may be the only limiting 
factor in vision, photography, and TV. 

There has been little done either with research submarines 
or good towing equipment from surface craft. The thermal tow 
chains now used on Woods Hole and NEL ships that permit con- 
tinuous underway observations down to several hundred feet are 
merely indicative of future possibilities. 

In summary, 1 would like to say that although aircraft have 
been very useful in oceanography, their overall general utility 
is low compared to surface craft, so it is doubtful if there will 
be more than one aircraft per ten surface ships. If the number 
and capability of instruments for aircraft could be increased, 
the overall efficiency of aircraft in oceanography might become 
high enough to connpete seriously with surface craft on more than 
just a speciality basis. 

The Navy has obtained a good many complex sonar and re- 
cording equipments for use on such submarine projects as under- 
ice work, equipment test, and survey. There will probably be 
more demand for equipment of this type and there may be more 
varied instrument requiremients after a few civilian subinarines 
start doing oceanographic research. 

As you have noticed throughout this meeting, the surface 
ship has done most of the work and will remain the standard of 
comparison for the foreseeable future. Carefully selected and 



170 



generally useful instruments or devices will become generally 
adopted. The frequent loss of instruments at sea is a decided fact- 
or in favor of manufacturers. The design of survey type instru- 
ments will be frozen from timie to timie and prototypes and produc- 
tion units will be obtained. The much wider use of electrical cables 
and telemetering will have a profound influence on the kind of equip- 
ment used by oceanographer s. 

These are some of the directions oceanography may take in 
developing and using instruments. The potential instrument 
market will be built up as new instruinents and techniques prove 
that better and more measurements can provide a much better 
picture of what is going on in the ocean. 

A typical example of this progress is that just in the last 
two years since the initial oceanwide survey recommendations 
made by NASCO in 1959, instrument development has progressed 
sufficiently to enable oceanographer s to plan seriously for much 
better surveys than initially suggested. 



171 



16. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL REQUIREMENTS 



Dr. Hugh J. McLellan 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas 
College Station, Texas 



Occasionally I read in the Houston Post a syndicated colunnn 
by someone, whose name escapes me, who very often lists things 
that people get tired of hearing. One week it might be things that 
a policeman gets tired of hearing, the next, the things a psychia- 
trist gets tired of hearing, etc. These columns contain a careful 
analysis of essential misunderstandings that make relations with 
the public a trial for the men who are engaged in a selected 
method of earning a livelihood. 

Recently, I have been thinking of what a column would look 
like if it were "things that an oceanographer gets tired of hearing. " 
At the top of the list would probably be: "Our company is emi- 
nently situated to take care of all your instrumentation needs in 
oceanography, both present and future. Mr. Blank of our engineer- 
ing staff will call on you early next month, and we hope you will be 
free to discuss some of your current problems. " 

To the perhaps 15 percent of all U. S. oceanographer s who 
spend anywhere from 10 to 15 percent of their time talking to 
Mr. Blank these days, this is one of the few tangible results of 
the spate of publicity which has been given to oceanography during 
recent years. Few among us had heard this gallant offer more 
than 2 years ago. We did hear its equivalent, however, usually 
froiTi young physicists and engineers who were interested in ocean 
studies. 

They usually put it this way: "Gee, what a crude way to mea- 
sure temperature. There are modern techniques by which it can 
be done much better and much easier. " 

In those days it was not very hard to hire some of these 
people and to give thenn a few odds and ends to work with. Some 
of the more stubborn among them are still, fortunately, with us. 

Yet, the reversing thermometer of 1880 vintage is still the 
172 



one way to measure deep sea temperatures accurately. Why have 
we progressed so slowly? Why have only two or three oceanogra- 
phic instruments conne into general use since 1900? Why do we 
sometimes have doubts about the ability of these 'well-qualified 
companies" to answer all our problems? 

The answers lie in the ocean itself, its nature, the behavior 
of small ships on the surface, and the physiological reaction of 
man to this behavior. Quite a number of young fellows started 
out and decided the resistance thermometer could give precise 
temperature measurements, for example, and only stopped when 
they ran up against problenns introduced by several nniles of cable 
dangling in an ocean of nonuniform temperature, with perhaps 
part of the cable still sitting on deck, either warmed by a tropi- 
cal sun or cooled by frozen spray. 

Quite a number of electronic gadgets that work perfectly 
well in the laboratory turn out to be allergic to high humidity, 
fluctuating line voltage, vibration, and seasick operators. 

The interest of U. S. Industry in our problems is really very 
heartening to all of us in the laboratories. We hope that some of 
the companies in instrumentation will learn of our problems and 
will come forward with solutions. We hope they will send their 
people out to sea to measure something from small, uncomfortable 
ships like the ones that are going to have to keep our program 
going for several years at least. This is about the only way to 
grasp the problem fully. Again, I repeat what other people have 
said: "There has to be an effort to keep things simple. " Even 
those lucky ones among us who never get seasick operate at 
fractional efficiency after a few days of tossing in a ship. 

The maintenance of electronic equipment, which might be 
dead simple ashore, can become absolutely impossible when 
the chassis refuse to stand still. 

The man who studies the ocean proceeds very much like any 
other scientist. He takes the best reliable instruments that he can 
get his hands on, and he goes out and makes observations. When 
he begins to suspect that he knows what his subject is like, he 
makes the kinds of observations necessary to check his suspicions. 
Soon he finds he is working to the limit of the available instru- 
ments and he may be trying to modify them and get a little better 



173 



performance. He begins to suspect that the measurement of some- 
thing else may teach him more about the oceans. He devises some 
gadgets to do this. Perhaps the results fail to interest him at all 
and he abandons this tack completely. Perhaps it leads him into 
something more exciting than he ever imagined. Each new measure- 
ment is a speculation, and if one could be sure which measurements 
would pay off, the game would not really be worth playing. 

Captain Hendrix's group prepared a document which has been 
circulated at this meeting laying out the requirements for a set of 
instruments for survey ships (appendix E). Captain Fusselman 
and Mr. Jaffe have both discussed parts of this set of instruments. 
These instruments are being asked to do the reasonably possible 
in light of what oceanographer s know about the oceans and about 
instruments, and to measure the sort of things we are fairly 
sure we would like to measure. 

If these instruments come into being, they would represent 
a marked advance over present capabilities; and if they should 
become available tomorrow, it would be perhaps several years 
before the researchers had caught up with thenn and learned 
anywhere close to all that they can get with these instruments. 

We hope that American technology can do these things for us. 
If we sometimes appear pessimistic, it is because we have not yet 
seen a real try. We are still hoping to get the first-class, reliable, 
reversing thermometers, which were available some years back. 
We hoped for a long time that the bathythermograph would be 
improved to the point where we could get an instrunnent with a 
uniform rectilinear calibration. Right now, we would even be 
happy if we could get bathythermographs as good as the ones we 
had in 1945. We have been disappointed, but we still have faith 
that better days are ahead. 

Many of you have had, or will have, dealings with the people 
in the research laboratories. Representatives of at least 20 per- 
cent of the companies here today have visited my own obscure and 
rather unprofitable office. In case you interpret this otherwise, 
I have enjoyed meeting you. But I wonder if you understand the 
people in the laboratories? 

Most of us got into oceanography for the fun of it. Up until 
very recently there was little chance of any more concrete rewards. 
We in the laboratories either do not have funds to finance new 

174 



developments, or, if we do, we are not used to doing it and do 
not know how to proceed. 

We value freedonn in our work, including freedom to try things 
that may not turn out well at all. Hence, we like to do a lot of our 
own instrumentation. Not all of the laboratories have good instru- 
mentation sections; those that do, do not have all the good people 
that they should. This is improving, and, from where I sit, it 
looks as though we are learning to compete with Industry for 
talent. 

Because you have become interested in us, we are beginning 
to learn a lot more than we did about available instrument compon- 
ents and more and more we are exploring the possibilities of 
meeting our instrumentation needs by assembling existing parts. 
You will have to excuse us, though, if we like to assemble our 
own prototypes. We often do not know enough about what we want 
to measure in order to write specifications. Often, we cannot 
wait out delivery delays in order to try out ideas that we suspect 
may turn out to be worthless. 

One of the things that we like about oceanography is that 
there is surprisingly little jealousy m the oceanographic community. 
We in the laboratories compete with one another for the sponsor's 
dollars all right, but we exchange data, we exchange equipment, 
and we exchange ideas rather freely. 

If you in Industry have good ideas, you will find the labora- 
tories ready to help you check them out. If you have gadgets to 
test, we will take them to sea. All you will usually be asked for 
is a chance to see the data and the opportunity to buy your success- 
ful instr undents. 

I think it would probably be useless to try to outline the most 
pressing instrumentation requirements for physical and chemical 
oceanography from the point of the institutions. There would be 
no agreement between any two people on this, and our opinions 
change rather rapidly. Three of the things, though, about which 
there is rather general excitement in oceanography are: First, 
the certainty that in the very near future we are going to get 
synoptic data from reporting buoys; secondly, the apparent 
feasibility of instrumenting in-shore areas from towers for 
making microscale observations of the environment; and finally. 



175 



the developing capability to measure certain variables continuously, 
both in the vertical and the horizontal dimension. 

These are going to require cooperation from Industry. Once 
we decide exactly what we want to do, there is going to be the job 
of producing the equipment we require in quantity. 

It was interesting to me yesterday to hear in the question and 
answer session a query about available funds. We at the institutions 
have been wondering, too, what all this publicity is leading to. 
We all have research schemes that are not being funded now. 
We hope this will change. 

However, no matter what way we look at it, it is obvious that 
oceanography in this country has shown more signs of growth in the 
last 2 years than in the previous 20. I would think that both the 
oceanogr apher s and the few companies that are going to end up 
building their tools have a promising future. 



176 



17. GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS 



Dr. J. Lamar Worzel 

Lamont Geological Observatory 
Columbia University 
Palisades, New York 



I would like to point out that, while these instruments I am 
about to describe are not very sophisticated, they work. We have 
a very limited space on research vessels for instrumentation, and 
we run up to 30 programs on one cruise. So, it is not possible to 
take all the space for any one instrument. Therefore, it is essen- 
tial that the instruments be kept within reasonable sizes. 

We have at least partially solved the question of reliability 
by having two of each instrument. This way we can usually keep 
one working. Navigation is one of our most difficult tasks. We are 
always on the last ships at sea to receive new navigational tools. 

Figure 17.1 shows a DEEP SEA TRAWL WINCH (rather funda- 
mental to the studies of geology and geophysics, at least of the 
more remote types near the bottom). This winch is not packaged 
very well. It had to be built piece by piece. We could not get 
money enough to build a whole winch at once. It started out as 
Dr. Piggot's winch in 1928, and has rather remarkable capabilities: 
It can pay out 3, 000 fathoms of cable in 30 minutes; it measures 
the tension in the cable; and it is somewhat responsive to constant 
tension, but not completely. We had one winch which was com- 
pletely responsive to constant tension. Before we could find out 
how to unhook the device, we lost three sets of instruments. Our 
present winch will recover 3,000 fathoms of cable in 90 minutes 
with a ton on the end of the line, and, of coiorse, the weight of the 
wire as well. This particular one is capable of operating in 5, 000 
fathoms of water, which covers any of the trenches in this part 
of the world. Only those near Asia are deeper. 

The PISTON CORING DEVICE (fig. 17. 2) is of great use in 
geology. With it, samples up to 70 feet long of the sediment on 
the bottom of the ocean have been taken. We have now about 4, 000 
such samples in our laboratory taken with the winch shown in 



177 




FIGURE I (. I 

DEEP SEA TRAWL WINCH 



figure i7.1. Incidentally, the winch is rather reliable. It is just re- 
turning from a full year's cruise without a single breakdown. The 
thermoprobes on the side of this coring device are an innovation 
to measure the thermal gradient at the time of coring. Useful infor- 
mation can be obtained from this data and the thermal conductivity 
of a piece of this sediment can be measured later. 

We need to extend to deeper layers to see what is under the 
70-foot depth in the sedinrients. It is rather important. On the 
other hand, a rig as complicate 1 and as expensive as that used in the 
Mohole Project will never give us nnuch information about areal 
distribution. So we need sonnething on the order of a drill that is 
capable of being carried on an oceanographic vessel, along with the 
equipment of the other 29 programs that must be carried out as well. 



178 



1/2 INCH 
WIR-E 



WIRE 
SCOPE 

/ 

1200 POUND 
LEAD WEIGHT 



POSITION (5F^^ 
PISTON INSIDE 
PIPE 



STEEL 
ROPE 




i 



TRIGGER 
WEIGHT 



OCEAN BOTTOM 



OCEAN SURFACE 



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TRIPPING 

RELEASE 



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\\\^\'\\\\\\V^\\\\\\ 




THERMOGRAD 
RECORDER 



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FIGURE I 7. 2 
PISTON CORING DEVICE 



\ \ \ 



THERMISTOR 
PROBES 



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179 




FIGURE I 7. 3 

UNDERWATER 

CAMERA 



180 



The UNDERWATER CAMERA (fig. 17.3) has been extremely 
useful for guiding the use of dredges and similar instrumentation 
for recovering rocks. Rocks are not very readily available on 
the bottom of the ocean. A lot of sediment pours down from the 
rain of death in the ocean and covers everything pretty well, 
so it is necessary to search pretty hard to find some rocks. You 
do not just go around dredging at random. The underwater 
camera is very useful for this purpose. In the bottom is an 
electronic flash unit; near the top is the camera itself looking 
out a porthole; at the very top is a transducer which sends out 
a ping about every ten seconds as long as the camera is water- 
borne, and squeals continuously when the camera hits bottom to 
indicate that it is doing its job. 

There are many forms of the OCEAN BOTTOM TRAWL 
of which figure 17.4 is one. These have to be rather rugged 
instruments. Many times we have to break the rocks off for 
they are not just lying around loose for the taking. They must 
be broken off from the walls. This is hard duty for the wires, 
winches, and trawls. The trawls have to be ruggedly made and 
relatively inexpensive so we can afford to lose them fairly often. 



FIGURE I 7« 4 
OCEAN BOTTOM 
TRAWL 




181 



The PRECISION DEPTH RECORDER (fig. 17.5) is a fundamental 
geophysical tool. The recording and measurement of depths 
are controlling issues for nearly all of the other programs that 
go on at sea. With this particular one it is possible to measure 
to one fathom in 3,000. A narrow-beam vertically-pointing 
sounder is needed in addition to the broad-beann sounders that 
are prevalent today. Both are necessary, and each has its 
own uses . 



Figure 17.6 illustrates a rather old MAGNETOMETER. New 
ones are about a third or a quarter of this size. They are 
used for nneasuring the total magnetic field. It would be 
desirable to be able to include the measurement of declination 
and variation, although this has not been done yet. Recently 
our friends in Cambridge have demonstrated that the station- 
ary type of nnagnetometer is very important in the oceans in 
that the magnetic field variations with time at sea are not very 
sinnilar to what they are on the nearby land. The corrections 
we have been applying are not very reliable. 




182 



FIGURE I 7. 5 

PRECISION DEPTH RECORDER 




17.6 



FIGURE 
MAGNETOMETER 



183 



Some GRAVITY METERS (fig. 17.7) used at sea are mounted 
on stabilized platforms. The platform is stabilized to within about 
one miinute of the vertical. With it, we are able to measure gravity 
to about plus or minus 5 milligals. We could do better than this if 
we had better navigation. 

The navigation is the fundamental obstacle to better accuracy. 
Edtvos' correction is required by the change in centrifugal acceler- 
ation due to the east-west component of ship's speed. This amounts 
to 7-1/2 milligals per knot of ship's speed in east-west directions at 
the Equator. If the direction and the speed are not known accurately, 
it is hard to make the correction. The gravity meter is just one 
of many, many uses for a stable platform on a ship. I am sure when 
we get the narrow-beam sounders, we will need to stabilize the heads, 
which inay be done by simply telemetering the information from 
the stable platform of the gravity meter. 

It might be much more sensible to do this than to add addi- 
tional stable platforms, which require considerable space and up- 
keep. 

The DATA GENERATOR (fig. 17.8) is continuously in use on 
our ship. It puts data on depth, magnetics, gravity, course, 
mileage, and time on the record simultaneously. This combina- 
tion makes all the data much more useful and gives the scientist 
on board a chance to utilize the coordinated information immedi- 
ately. 

One of the most fundamental geophysical measurements made 
at sea is that for SEISMIC REFRACTION. Figure 17. 9 shows the 
method of marine measurements in less than 600 feet of water. 
We fire charges of half a pound to 300 pounds, in ranges of zero 
to 60 miles apart. From the timing of the return of the sound 
waves through the water and through the sediments, we are able 
to determine the sound velocity in the sediments and the layer 
thicknesses. These have rather striking variations in the ocean 
and are upsetting the geology books, which had all problems pretty 
well solved until we started finding out what occurs at sea. In 
general, the frequencies examined in the ground waves are be- 
tween about 6 and 50 c.p. s. In the water they vary between about 



184 



17.7 



FIGURE 
GRAVITY METER 




FIGURE I f . O 
DATA GENERATOR 



MAGNETO- 
METER 

REPEATER 



SIGNAL 
GENERATOR 



H*^ 



TO PDR AMPLIFIER 



PDR 
SCALE 
REPEATER 



^n^ 



* » 



•♦ ►^ 



GYROCOMPASS 
REPEATER 



PITOMETER 
LOG 

REPEATER 




FIGURE I f • 9 
SEISMIC REFRACTION 

Method of making seismic measurements 

in shallow water (less than 600 ft. deep) 



Another seismic method which has become more commonplace 
is the REFLECTION TECHNIQUE (fig. 17. 10). This gives consid- 
ably less information than the seismic refraction technique in 
that it does not indicate the velocity in the sediments. You only 
learn of the reflection time to the various horizons. This, 
however, is very useful for some particular cases, as will be 
shown later . 

Figure 17. II shows a record made with a sparker sound 
source. This is just the sound of an electrical spark under water, 
recorded from a hydrophone towed from the ship. Two gains are 
shown: the top is a low gain; the bottom is a high gain. Several 
of the layers in the bottom are visible and show some of the 
complex geology at the continental margin off New York. There 
are various types of sound sources being used for this, and I 
expect there will be many more. About every six months a 
new one comes along that enables us to do much more than the 
last one. 

Figure 17. 12 is a vertical reflection profile made with 
half-pound shots fired at 2-minute intervals across the PUERTO 
RICO TRENCH. I would particularly like to call your attention 
to (I) the abyssal plane part, and to (2) the many reflection 
horizons. The rock surface comes down rather abruptly (3), 
comes up in a pinnacle in the middle (4), down again (5), and 
up along the side (6). You see there are about 20 reflection 
horizons (7). There are about four kilometers of sediments 
(8), about a half a kilometer (9). and about a kilometer and a 
half (10), on the different parts of the trench. 

These are the types of sections that we have been getting 
recently. Our vessel the Vema has made about 30,000 miles 
of such geological sections which are rather startling, even 
to us who have been startled very often by what the sea tells 
us. 

Besides the explosive sources and the spark sources, a 
noise source known as the thumper, which is an aluminum 
plate caused to jump away by the eddy currents in it, an 
oxyacetylene gas chamber, which is exploded by a spark, and, 
more recently, a compressed air gun have been used. Each 
one of these has a little bit more energy than the previous one 
and allows us to see the ocean sediments in a little more detail. 

187 




TYPICAL REFLECTION "SHOT" 
AT SEA 



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7 SEC. 



DIRECT BOTToii? 
REFLECTION 



^SURFACE REFLECTED 
BOrtOM REFLECTION 



OCEAN FLOOR 



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z 



REFLECTING HORIZONS 
BENEATH THE 
OCEAN FLOOR 



I 



FIGURE ! f ♦ lU 
REFLECTION TECHNIQUE 



17.11 



FIGURE 

SPARKER RECORD 



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17.12 



FIGURE 

PUERTO RICO TRENCH 



189 



An OCEAN BOTTOM SEISMOGRAPH, one of our latest in- 
struments, is a throw away unit (fig. 17. 13). It is quite a largesse 
to throw away this much equipment. On the bottom there is a de- 
tector, some amplifiers, etc. Then the signal is put on the trans- 
ducer and telemetered to the surface by frequency modulation on 
a 12 kc. carrier. This is analyzed at the surface and recorded on 
magnetic tape and also on a pen recorder so we can see what we 
are getting immediately. These instruments also bring in rather 
startling results. We have shot refraction profiles out about 
three times as far as we can for surface refraction measurements. 
We have seen some things in earthquakes that we have never seen 
on land. We have not had very many of these working very long, 
so we expect many other surprises when we get to use them more 
extensively. 

It is necessary that these be extended to other frequency 
ranges, and it is necessary that sonne form of recovery technique 
be devised so that these instruments do not have to be thrown away. 
As instrumentation gets more complex, it will become harder and 
harder to tear yourself away from it. 

In addition to the gravity measurements (mentioned on p. 184), 
many others can be made from a stable platform. Three-compo- 
nent accelerometer s are kept in position relative to the vertical 
reference. A great deal is being learned about ship motions from 
such records. I suspect that we might do quite a lot better for 
ship's navigation if we just tied the master's sextant to our stable 
platform and brought it up on deck and let them look at the stars 
without having to see the horizon; but we at Lamont have not tried 
this yet. This would be, of course, a stop-gap type of measure. 

Figure 17. 14 shows the ray diagrams for a sofar shot. This 
is an explosion made 700 fathoms deep in the Atlantic, and about 
400 in the Pacific. The ocean acts like a speaking tube. The sound 
is relegated to within the body of water in the ocean, and we have 
heard sounds from a 50-pound explosion as far as 14, 000 miles 
away, half way around the world by this method. It is useful in 
many ways. It can be used as a navigational scheme. To date, 
its accuracy has not been adequately tested. It is possible to 
use it to locate life rafts at sea. It is a quick method of survey- 
ing for higher parts of the topography and has been so used, etc. 



190 



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FIGURE 

OCEAN BOTTOM SEISMOGRAPH 



191 



DEPTH IN FATHOMS 




17.14 



FIGURE 

RAY PATHS IN DEEP-SEA 

SOUND CHANNEL 

Ray diagraiB for 
a source located 
at the axis of a 
typical Atlantic 
Ocear. sound 
channel. 



OCPTH IN FATHOMS 



192 



There are several ways of building THE ACOUSTIC POSITION 
KEEPER (fig. 17. 15). One is a unit that squeals intermit- 
tently until the batteries run down. Another type answers when 
queried by the anticipated signal. With a single one of these, 
it is possible for a ship to maintain its position at sea to within 
about 1 mile in 3 miles of water. K three of these are used 
in an appropriate technique, the position can be kept accurately 
to within several feet. What we need to improve this kind of 
work are better sources, better transponders, and, above all, 
longer-lived batteries. The nuclear batteries are, of course, 
the most promising. Corner reflectors can possibly be used 
for this purpose with great economy but have not been tried. 

The THERMAL, PROBE (fig. 17. 16) was used for measuring 
the heat flow out of the bottom sediments. From the cores, 
of course, we can measure the heat conductivity of the sedi- 
ment. 

A LARGE-VOLUME WATER SAMPLER (fig. 17. 17) is 
needed for some types of radioactivity dating techniques, 
such as, those using carbon-14 and strontium-90. Other pro- 
grams could utilize it also. 

This is usually done in conjunction with a coring operation 
so that we take a core, measure thermal gradient, and take 
a deep water sannple simultaneously. This sort of doubling 
up or tripling up, if you will, is necessary in order to increase 
the efficiency of operation of the research vessels which 
are rather expensive. 

Another problem is the measurement of the SOUND 
VELOCITIES IN SEDIMENTS right at the bottom of the ocean 
fronn places where core samples have been taken. If we can 
get longer cores, this will become more and more important. 
There is good evidence that rather peculiar velocity variations 
occur in the bottom, or near the bottom (fig. 17. 18), and 
that these may have a much more fundamental concern to 
underwater sound than anybody has given them credit for to 
date. 

Additional geophysical measurements will obviously be 
made. It is necessary to make deep ocean tide meters and 
probably a bottom instrument like the seismograph will be 

193 



developed for this purpose. Current meters mounted on floats for 
use in the deep ocean have already approached this principle. There 
are other methods. 

We need deep-water sound sources of all kinds. Noise moni- 
toring at the bottom will be done. A particular need is a cheap 
sound source that will have considerable energy, such as, an 
explosive charge, and that will make a sound when it hits bottom. 
There are very many uses for this kind of a device. 

The most urgently required item is a system for making a 
low frequency sound -- 20 to 400 cycles --at frequent intervals -- 
at least each 2 minutes -- of an intensity equivalent to one half 
pound of TNT, that is safe to operate and does not require too 
large an energy source. 



shot or hydrophone 




t ronsponde r B 



tro nsponder C 



17.15 



194 



FIGURE 

ACOUSTIC POSITION KEEPER 



NYLON COLLAR 



2 CONDUCTOR WIRE 




MOUNTING DETAILS 



10 INCHES 



LEAD 
WIRES 



^ 



1/8 INCH DIAMETER 
S S TUBING 



KNURLED BRASS 
SLEEVE 



PROBE 



FIGURE I f . I 6 
THERMAL PROBE 



^=m§, 



■1/4 INCH 



-S S PLUG 



PLASTIC-J L-THERMISTOR 
CEMENT BEAD 





1717 



FIGURE 
LARGE-VOLUME 
WATER SAMPLER 



Top 



CORE 40 



CORE 27 



IxJ 

cr 
o 
o 



Q_ 
P 



O 



liJ 

UJ 



-P = \A8qm/cc 



10 



15 



20 



I I I I I 'I I ' I I I 'I I ' 'I ' 




T 



'/J = 1.71 gm/cc - 



1.72 



1.61 



1.82 




1.77 



1.715 



1 I I I I I' I I I I 'I I I I I I I 



1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 
VELOCITY -KM/SEC 



Top 



cr 
o 
o 

Li_ 

o 

CL 

Q 



O 

q: 

Li_ 



UJ 
LlJ 



- Ton Cloy 

- Ton a Gray Cloy 
Groy Sond 

~ Gray a Ton 



10 



CORE 48 



\ 



I I ! I I I I I I I 

p = 1.525 qm/cc 



" GrayaTon 
- GrayaTon 

Gray a Block Cloy 



Gray Coarse Silt 
" Gray Cloy 



Fir>« Sill 4 
Fine Silt / • 



II II 



Gray Sand 
~"Groy Clay 



"y 



1.55 

1.84 
1.58 



r 



' I ' ■ ■ ■ I ' I ■ ■ 



1.5 1.6 1.7 

VELOCITY- KM/SEC 



FIGURE IT. 18 

SOUND VELOCITIES IN SEDIMENTS 



196 



18. BIOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTATION 

Charles S. Yentsch 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 



In the short time that I have this afternoon I cannot possibly 
describe all existing problems of sampling in the field of biolog- 
ical oceanography. Any attempt to do so would only result in worth- 
less overgeneralization. Therefore, I shall confine my discus- 
sion to a nnajor field in biological oceanography, the study of 
plankton, and discuss some of the sannpling problems associated 
with it. 

"Plankton" is an aggregation of plant and animal organisms 
which is moved about by ocean currents. Plant plankton is 
phytoplankton and the ajiimal, zooplankton. In open oceans these 
organisms make up the bulk of living matter and are respons- 
ible for many of the chemical, physical, and biological changes 
in the sea. 

Figure 18. 1 is a microphotograph of a collection of 
PHYTOPLANKTON. Notice the great diversity in the shapes of 
these organisms as well as their size. Most of these are dia- 
toms, one-celled plants which contain chloroplastic pigments 
and are capable of photosynthesis. The cell-wall material in 
these organisms is silica and the organisms may be found as 
solitary cells or in long chains as shown. In the open ocean 
these organisnns are responsible for the initial production of 
organic matter. Through their activities, inorganic matter 
changes to organic in the presence of light. Figure 18.2 is a 
microphotograph of ZOOPLANKTON. Notice the bizarre shapes 
of these organisms and the wide diversity of size. Much zoo- 
plankton is made up of "primary herbivores"; these organisms 
graze on the phytoplankton and thus provide the second step in 
the transfer of organic matter in the food chain. Not all species 
of zooplankton remain such for their entire life histories. For 
instance, the organism with the big eye ajid spine in the center 
of the lower photograph (fig. 18. 2) is a zoeal stage of a crab. 
It will eventually develop into an adult similar to the well-known 
coastal blue crab. Exemriples of species which remain as plankton 
throughout life are illustrated by the shrimp-like forms in the 

197 




FIGURE I 0» I 
PHYTOPLANKTON 

Magnified 110 times (from Hardy 1956) 



198 




FIGURE IO*2 
ZOOPLANKTON 

Vhkgnified 16 times (from Hardy 1956) 



199 



photograph. These are copepods and are probably the most im- 
portant group of the zooplankton. Another permanent species is 
the cylindrical, tube-like worm known as the arrow worm, seen 
in the lower portion of the photograph. 

To be a bit more specific about the sizes of these organisms, 
the cell diameter of the phytoplankton ranges from approximately 
5 U up to 100 p. In some cases, the overall length of a colony 
of chain-forming diatoms may exceed 100 [}. The zooplankton 
are considerably larger. Their sizes range from approximately 
10 p to 10mm. Hence, there is considerable overlap in size 
between the zooplankton and phytoplankton. The maximal size 
of zooplankton is difficult to ascertain since some individuals 
grow from forms which are passively moved by ocean currents 
to those which are freeswimming organisms. 

These pictures may give a wrong impression with regard 
to the abundance of organisms in the oceans. They are photo- 
graphs of concentrates of organisms and do not represent the 
natural abundance. The concentration of phytoplankton cells in 
the open ocean ranges from 1 to 10 per milliliter of water, 
while individual zooplankton organisms are found in numbers 
of 1 to 10 per liter of water. 

Therefore, whether the initial problem in the study of plankton 
be taxonomic, chemical, or physiological, the concentration of 
the orgcLnisnns is almost always a necessary step in their collec- 
tion. This step is frequently the most difficult one to overcome 
in the instrumentation of this field. Principally two methods of 
concentration have been used. These are centrifugation and 
filtration. Of these, the latter has found most wide use. For 
exajTiple, phytoplankton biologists frequently measure chloro- 
phyll by filtering 4 to 6 liters of water through a membrane 
filter with a pore size of approximately 1 |j . Collection of 
water in this quantity is not easy, and, in practice, it is pre- 
sently accomplished by using what is now termed a MODIFIED 
VAN DORN WATER SAMPLER (fig. 18.3). In addition to having 
a large water capacity, such a sampler must be non-toxic; the 
sampler shown in the figure contains no metal, being composed 
entirely of polyvinyl chloride with the exception of the two 
plumber ' 8 -helper valves (pure gum rubber). The tension be- 
tween the valves is applied by gum-rubber tubing, and the 
valves are kept in an open position by two connected chains 



200 



FIGURE |0*0 
MODIFIED 
VAN DORN 
WATER 
SAMPLER 




201 



retained in slots slightly below my right hand in the picture. A num- 
ber of these bottles may be attached to the wire and tripped by mes- 
sengers. Routinely, 4 to 5 samples are filtered at a time in the 
shipboard laboratory. After the sannples are filtered they may be: 
(1) used for pigment analysis, (2) measured to determine their dry 
weight or some other biochemical paranneter, (3) examined by spe- 
cial microtechniques, or (4) identified and individually counted on 
the filter. 



In connection with studies 
of phytoplankton, biological 
oceanographer s are generally 
interested in light penetration. 
The SUBMARINE PHOTO- 
'METER (fig. 18.4) is a Weston 
photoelectric cell enclosed in 
a watertight housing which is 
lowered on a two-conductor 
cable. The amount of light 
detected by the Weston cell is 
read on a microamnneter . 
Such a unit has many advan- 
tages with regard to simplicity. 
However, it is becoming in- 
creasingly apparent that we 
need better measurements 
which nnay be interpreted di- 
rectly as energy. We have con- 
sidered using pyrheliometer s 
with special watertight housings; 
however, further improvements 
are desperately needed to give 
the necessary accuracy and 
sensitivity required for studies 
of photosynthesis in the oceans. 



18.4 



FIGURE 

SUBMARINE 

PHOTOMETER 




202 



As the mean size of the zooplankter is larger than the phyto- 
plankter, coarser filter s may be used. The THREE-QUARTER 
METER (diameter) QUANTITATIVE PLANKTON NET is essen- 
tially a cone of nylon netting with a mesh size of 0. 16 nrim. 
( fig. 18. 5). It is possible to purchase material with mesh dia- 
meter ranging from 1.3 mm. down to 0.064 mm. The net shown 
is equipped with a flow meter to record the amount of water pass- 
ing through as it is towed. From the data obtained and the catch, 
the density of the plankton in the area may be computed in terms 
of numbers per unit volume of sea water. Such nets are towed at 
approximately 2 to 4 knots and some ZOO to 300 cubic meters of 
water are filtered. In an open ocean area we get approximately 
10 to 20 ml. of packed volume of plankton from such a haul. 
Nets may be used for towing at higher velocities, but the intake 
opening must be much smaller than the filtering area (fig. 18. 6). 
The intake of this HIGH SPEED PLANKTON SAMPLER is ap- 
proximately 1 inch, and the appropriate filtering area is much 
larger. This net is towed at 7 to 10 knots with a small depressor. 




18.5 



FIGURE 

THREE-QUARTER 

METER 

QUANTITATIVE 

PLANKTON 

NET 



203 



2j-5i,«k~* -^'j ■»w^»r 





FIGURE |0*0 

HIGH SPEED PLANKTON 

SAMPLER 




re nozzle" type 



In many cases there is now a need to bring the organisms back 
to the laboratory alive. This has been done successfully at our 
laboratory by removing the organisms from the plankton catch and 
placing them into small plastic containers and into a refrigerated 
box. Such a procedure is highly satisfactory for surface catches 
of zooplankton; organisms have been kept for 2- to 3-nnonth periods. 
There is little chance that the deepwater plankton, however, can 
survive the ascent of the net from deep, cold water through the 
warm surface layers of temperate and tropical waters. The severe 
thermal shock is so great using our present techniques that we 
are denied access to these animals for careful physiological or 
biochemical studies. 

I have reviewed generally the nature of the collecting tech- 
niques used in plankton biology; now I will be more specific with 
regard to the instrumentation for obtaining the larger zooplank- 
ton from various depths throughout the water column. Our present 



204 



DAMPER 




PINS 
ARRESTING GEAR 



BT ELEMENT 



FIGURE lO. f 
PRESSURE-OPERATED 
PLANKTON NET 



understanding of the vertical distribution of plankton is hampered 
by not being able to sample at specific depths. Various methods 
of closing the net have been proposed and some of them have been 
moderately successful. However, in the long run, all of them have 
been shown to have some basic inadequacy. Pumping water from 
depths is not entirely satisfactory largely because some planktonic 
animals can avoid the existing pumps. At our laboratory we have 
considered designing sampling devices which can be actuated at 
depth by either pressure, electrical, or mechanical action. An 
example of a PRESSURE-OPERATED PLANKTON NET (fig. 18. 7) 
has a pressure mechanism for opening and closing a plankton 
sampler using a spring-loaded damper actuated by the pressure 
element from a conventional 900-foot bathythermograph. The 
sampler fishes between depth intervals preselected by inserting 
pins of different lengths into the arresting gear. The first pin 
governs the point at which the sampler will open as the BT ele- 
ment is compressed by the water pressure. The sampler remains 
open until further pressure releases the second and longer pin. 
Larger plankton nets are not as easily opened and shut, one of the 
means that we have considered is to use so-called strangle lines 
which are successive attachments to the net for pursing it off. 
Pressiire pistons can be used to sever the strangle attachments. 



205 



rCANVAS BAND 



FLOWMETER 




8.8 



FIGURE 

MIDWATER NET RELEASE SYSTEM 



206 



One device, a MIDWATER NET RELEASE SYSTEM, uses two pres- 
sure pistons (fig. 18.8). The first ( Q ) compresses and cuts the 
cod end release which allows the net to filter the watta' inder tcnv 
(2); the second piston ( 5 ) compresses at a greater depth and sev- 
ers the frontal towing bridle and the net is pursed off midway (3). 
The selection of depths is accomplished by inserting rods of var- 
ious diameters in a secondary hole in the cylinder to arrest the 
piston. 

In looking for devices to aid in our understanding of the dis- 
tribution of plankton in midwaters let us consider the use of 
well-logging or conducting cable. Such a cable would provide a 
means of nnonitoring depth. This may be easily done by using 
a PRESSURE POTENTIOMETER (fig. 18.9). Three conductors 
are used for the operation of the potentiometer, the outer cable 
armor being the third wire and the ground. The signal from the 
potentiometer is taken from the wire via the winch-drum axle 
and a slipring brush contact at the end of the axle. Batteries 
are maintained topside and depth can be conveniently read in 
microamperes from a meter. Since the wire has little elec- 
trical resistance, pressure is a linear function of current. 



18.9 



JOY PLUG 



FIGURE 

PRESSURE 

POTENTIOMETER 




(— > "0 RINGS 



METER 



PRESSURE CASE 

BOURNS PRESSURE 
POTENTIOMETER 



"0" RING 



© 



PRESS. 



WIRING DIAGRAM 



DEPTH 
DETECTOR 




=5- HOSE CLAMP 

4-COND. CABLE 



BANJO 



WEIGHT 



In conjunction with this depth-detecting device it is equally 
feasible to have sonne sort of system for opening and closing nets. 
Initially, we felt a solenoid would be the simplest and nnost sat- 
isfactory device. Later, we abandoned this approach because of 
the frictional effects and the resulting large power requirements 
and selected a simpler means of turning the damper. An 
EXPLOSIVE SQUIB was used as a wedge to hold the damper 
door in various positions (fig. 18. 10). These squibs contain a 
half grain of black powder which is fired by an internal elennent 
energized through two external leads. The outer case of the 
squib is of sufficient strength to withstand water pressures up 
to at least 2,000 meters and at the same time to arrest the 
spring-loaded dampers. Such an arrangement allows the obser- 
ver on the vessel to lower his net to a desired depth, fire the 
first squib to start the sampler fishing, and then fire the second 
squib to close the sampler. 




FIGURE I O* 10 
EXPLOSIVE SQUIB 
RELEASE MECHANISM 



208 



The damper is in the open (fishing) 
position, one squib haring been fired. 
When the second squib (which can be 
seen) is fired, the spring trill turn 
the damper on aro\isd, counterclockwise, 
and effect the closure* 





FIGURE IO»l 

MECHANICALLY CONTROLLED 
DAMPER SYSTEM 



L09 



We have attempted to adapt this system to larger plankton nets, 
but, instead of opening and closing the mouth, we tried opening 
and closing the cod end. This has proved difficult largely because 
it seems to be impossible, using a fine mesh net, to get all of the 
plankton to converge in the cod end by the times of opening and 
closing the net. 

Finally, our mechanical devices have esentially included the 
original design of the Clarke-Bumpus sampler greatly enlarged 
and vastly improved with regard to opening and closing techniques. 
Such a sampler with a MECHANICALLY CONTROLLED DAMPER 
SYSTEM is shown in figure 18. 11. It consists of a damper closing 
unit with a net attachment. The damper is controlled by sliding 
nnessengers down the wire which contact the lines at the top of 
the frame. The inside diameter is approximately 1 foot and the 
cyclometer housing is made of 3/8-inch thick polyvinyl tubing. 
Such a sampler has proven highly satisfactory and has an advan- 
tage in the fact that several units may be placed on the wire and 
tripped simultaneously. 

My purpose in hurriedly showing you as many sampling 
apparatuses as possible has been to introduce some of the present 
thinking with regard to instrumentation of biological samplers. 
The instruments cited represent only a small percentage of 
those used in oceanography and are essentially designs and 
developments from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 
The plankton biologist deals with a heterogeneous distribution 
of organic particles in sea water; his needs for continuous 
three-dimensional monitoring are great. There is no doubt 
in nny nnind that this void will persist until proper instrumen- 
tation engineering is applied. 



210 



19. FISHERIES 

Dr. J. L. McHugh 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Washington, D. C. 



Fishing is one of the most primitive activities of modern man. 
Since fishing first began many thousands of years ago, there has 
been no substantial change in gear or methods. Today we still fish 
with essentially the same devices that our early ancestors used, 
the trap, the net, or the hook. Over the years, we have added var- 
ious modifications, it is true, but these have merely served to 
increase the efficiency of catching with the same old gears. The 
major improvements have been power to allow boats to move more 
quickly and range more widely, power to reduce the labor and in- 
crease the speed of hauling nets or lines, and new materials to 
prolong the life and increase the catching power of nets. The only 
radical change has been the use of electricity for guiding fish, but 
even this has not developed into an entirely new method, for it is 
used in conjunction with net fishing. 

The ACT OF FISHING has two distinct phases. First, it is 
necessary to locate the fish in sufficient quantity; second, to catch 
them and bring them aboard. Both operations depend on a knowl- 
edge of the habits of fish. Fixed gears rely on prior knowledge of 
migration paths, vertical distribution, or reactions to barriers. 
Moving nets rely on visual clues, like jumpers, "finners," bird 
concentrations, or the tell-tale color of a school of fish near the 
surface as seen from the crow's nest, but prior knowledge and 
experience play an important part, too. Hook and line fishing 
depends on the feeding habits of fish, and requires a knowledge 
of their feeding habits, vertical distribution, and movements. 
Various types of attractants, such as lights or disturbances of 
various kinds, may be used in conjunction with conventional types 
of gear. These depend on a knowledge of reactions to different 
kinds of stimuli. An interesting method, once used to locate 
schools of herring for seiners, employed a length of piano wire 
with a weight at the end, suspended over a man's finger at the bow 
of a slowly-moving boat. By feeling the vibrations caused by con- 
tact of herring with the wire, an experienced man could judge 
not only the size of the school, but its depth and direction of 
movement as well. 



211 



The ART OF FISH LOCATION has benefited more from modern 
technology than has the art of catching. Various types of sonic 
equipment have been used with some success for the past 20 years 
or more. Even the standard fathometer is useful for this purpose. 
With the most modern equipment, it is possible to determine the 
depth and numbers of fish, not only immediately beneath the ves- 
sel, but at distances of a mile or more. With experience, it is 
also possible to recognize the kinds of fish on the record. But 
much more needs to be done before the art of fish location can be- 
come a science. Perhaps waves other than sound waves will 
prove useful, and these should be investigated. It is interesting 
also that many fishes and other nnarine animals produce distinc- 
tive sounds. No one has yet put this knowledge to use in fishing. 



The ART OF CATCHING FISH, as I have already mentioned, 
is one of the most primitive activities of man. This situation 
did not arise entirely by chance, for increased efficiency with- 
out regulation places an extra drain on the resource. Many laws 
limit the efficiency of fishing operations in the name of conser- 
vation. This often has been carried to ridiculous extremes, 
such as, forbidding the use of power in fishing boats. Science 
can help the fishing industry in two ways: by determining the 
maximum sustainable yield for each fishery resource, and by 
reducing the cost of catching fish to a minimum. But the tradi- 
tion of conservation by inefficiency is so strong that it is diffi- 
cult to put scientific management measures into effect even when 
our scientific knowledge justifies them. 



Some of the most serious problems of our United States 
fishing fleet today are economic in origin. As the world's pop- 
ulation grows, and the fleets of the major fishing nations range 
the world's oceans in search of protein food, it will be disas- 
trous to the American fishing industry to operate under in- 
efficient conditions. Indeed, because our living standards and 
our wages are higher than those of any other nation, our fisher- 
men need to be more efficient in order to compete successfully. 
This will require the fullest use of instrumentation, both for 
locating and for catching fish. 



212 



Two recent developments show promise as radical new methods 
of fish catching. One is the air -bubble curtain developed by our 
New England scientists. The other is electrical fishing. It is 
known that when fish come within the influence of an electrical field, 
they orient themselves with respect to the gradient in potential and 
swim toward the positive pole. The dissolved salts in sea water 
create problems, and a purely electrical method of fishing has not 
yet been developed, but electricity is used in the menhaden catch- 
ing operation, once the fish have been surrounded by the seine. 
The anode is placed on the end of the hose used for pumping the 
fish aboard, and the cathode is laid in the bottom of the net. This 
brings the fish to the hose, relieves the strain on the net, and 
speeds up the process. Electricity also is used successfully in 
fresh water for a variety of scientific purposes, such as sam- 
pling the fish life of a stream, killing predators like the sea lamp- 
rey, or guiding salmon past turbines in dams. Electricity, 
therefore, offers possibilities for locating, for guiding, and for 
catching fish. If the two operations could be combined, an import- 
ant step would be achieved in reducing the cost of fishing. One 
way to do this might be to design an underwater trawler, a sub- 
marine-like vessel, with open mouth, which would attract fish to 
itself with electricity, then gulp them in. Such a vessel might 
even process the fish aboard, bringing a finished product back 
to shore. 

The needs for instrumentation in FISHERY SCIENCE are 
many and time will not allow a complete account. (A special 
list is included in appendix H. ) Better methods to measure 
abundance in the natural environment would be invaluable, for 
such information is now obtained quite indirectly by sampling, 
from tag returns, or from catch statistics. Particularly useful 
would be practical ways of estimating abundance of young, as a 
guide for planning future fishing operations, for fluctuations in 
abundance are sources of difficulty to the fishing industry. They 
usually are not anticipated, and thus, they add to the cost of 
fishing. 

When migration pathways are restricted, direct counting 
maybe possible. In narrow, clear streams, for example, migrat- 
ing salmon can be counted by eye, but in broad or muddy streams 
this is difficult or impossible. Electronic counters have proven 
successful in restricted channels; but in broader streams, much 
of the width must be blocked in order to lead the fish to the count- 
er. Barriers interfere with movements of fish in various ways, 
and may cause serious delays in reaching spawning grounds, to 

213 



the detriment of reproduction. What is needed is a successful 
method of scanning the water without using extensive underwater 
structures. 

Our scientists have solved the physical problem of passing adult 
salmon upriver and young salmon down over low dams, and we 
think high dams can be conquered in a reasonable length of time. A 
difficult problem that still has to be solved, however, is to find a 
sure method to attract adult salmon to the entrance of a fishway. 
There also remains the problem of guiding fish without undue delay 
through the unfamiliar environment of the reservoir at a reasonable 
cost. One method might be to create a turbulent path from end to 
end, or in some other way to simulate the river that they seek. 
Some success has been achieved with electrical guiding, but more 
needs to be done, and other methods perhaps should be tried. 

Another important series of problems exists in PLANKTON 
RESEARCH. These microscopic plants and animals are the basis 
of all organic production in the sea. Many fishes spend a part 
of their lives in this drifting world as eggs and tiny larvae. 
Plankton is also important food for many fishes. In collecting 
plankton for study and for estimation of abundance, fine-meshed 
nets usually are employed, but this is a cumibersome and awk- 
ward method. Many plankton organisms are so tiny that they can 
escape through finest mesh; others are sufficiently active so that 
they can escape the net mouth. Thus, nets of any kind give a 
biased sample at best. Somiething close to a complete sample can be 
obtained by bringing aboard a quantity of water by pump, or in a 
container, and separating the living organisms from the water by 
centrifuge. But plankton is relatively sparse, and large amounts 
of water must be handled to obtain a sufficient sample. 



Although plankton samples taken with nets are biased, they 
still give useful information. One of the most successful ways 
of studying the distribution of plankton over large areas of ocean 
has been with the Hardy Continuous Plankton Recorder, which pre- 
serves a sample on a moving belt of fine-meshed silk. Later ex- 
amination of this strip under a microscope permits reconstruction 
of the numbers and kinds of organisms along the path of the ship. 
This method is successful only in waters where plankton is rela- 
tively abundant, for the amount of water strained per unit area of 
sea surface is small. Moreover, the net fishes at only one level, 
and we know that the vertical distribution of plankton varies in time 



214 



and space. Some automatic method of fishing a sinuous path in a 
vertical plane, on the order of 300 feet from the ocean surface to 
the deepest part of the trajectory, is needed. More thought needs 
to be given also to methods of recording temperature, depth, and 
amounts of water strained by plankton samplers. 

Solution of some of these problems of scientific plankton study 
may have commercial applications, too. Plankton is much more 
abundant in total mass of protein than the larger marine organisms. 
Hence, some people have suggested that plankton is the most effect- 
ive source of food from the sea. The slow rate of harvesting by 
conventional methods, caused by the need to handle large quanti- 
ties of water, has prevented development of a practical method. 
If this instrumentation problem can be solved, fish factories 
may become a thing of the past. 



215 



20. RADIOBIOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS 

Dr . I. Eugene Walien 

Atomic Energy Commission 
Washington, D. C. 



The Atomic Energy Commission is not an operating agency; 
our research and surveys are done on contract. We do not have to 
decide between in-house and out-of-house research. 

However, those who request research support of the Comnnis- 
sion, must choose between four AEC divisions which might be in- 
volved in any instrumentation program. These Divisions are 
Reactor Developnnent, Isotope Development, Research, and Biology 
and Medicine. 

Our oceanographic research effort is directed at any kind of a 
program that might give us information about the ultimate dis- 
tribution and potential hazard of radioactivity in the ocean. We 
support research in instrument development but we are primarily 
concerned with the use of the instruments in research. We pre- 
fer that requests to develop instruments come to us via one of 
our marine science contractors or potential contractors who 
wish to do research using the instrument; proposals need to be 
approved by the independent investigators who will use thenn. 

Our primary interests in radioactivity involve three general 
problems. One of these, of course, is the total problem of 
biological effects. We would like to know the direct effect of 
radioactivity on all kinds of organisms. We would like to know 
the concentration factors, the specific activity, and the length of 
residence time of various radioisotopes in marine organisms. 
We would like to know what the effect might be on neutron act- 
ivation of various materials within the ocean as these neutron 
products might be concentrated or might have some effect on 
organisms. We are interested, of course, in long-term effects 
of direct radiation. 

In addition to this major item of biological effects, we are 
interested in processes that may remove radioactivity from or 
distribute it in the ocean. That means that we are interested 

216 



in all aspects of sedimentation and in various kinds of equipnnent 
that may be useful in studying sedimentation rates. 

A third concern is with water movements and all of the various 
devices that might be of value in studying oceanic circulation, 
either vertical or horizontal and either long-term or short-term. 

From a differing standpoint, we are interested in instrumenta- 
tion as it may use nuclear power in the ocean. We are interested 
in the applications of various Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary 
Power -- that is, the so-called SNAP devices. Nuclear batteries 
permit the development of instruments that will do jobs that were 
impossible before. We feel that these instruments have a great 
deal to offer to the oceanographer , particularly where needs for 
electricity independent from a shore-based source may be such 
as to make these devices practical. As you know, the SNAP 
devices may be made into battery form, and they may function at 
a relatively low power, up to about 5 watts; or they may be small 
reactors, which can produce a kilowatt of electricity or even 
many megawatts of electricity. We feel confident that these de- 
vices will continue to operate in the ocean; however, we are 
concerned with various potential hazards of the operations. 

Thus, part of our instrumentation requirement lies in the 
development of equipment which could make it possible to judge 
nnore accurately the hazards of the devices that may be developed. 

SNAP, or at least similar devices, are presently conceived 
for use in oceanographic buoys and for use in various kinds of 
instrument stations including oceanic instrument stations where 
a continuous or intermittent readout is needed to give the 
information. 

As far as our marine operating interest is concerned, the 
Commission places priority on those oceanic areas adjacent to 
shore-based nuclear reactors. We are concerned with any 
possible equipment that might tell us more about the distribution 
of radioactivity from such sources as the Hanford reactors where 
radioactive materials may be released into the ocean. We are 
concerned with the safety and possible hazards of ship operation. 
If there should be a nuclear war, we realize there is a good 
chance of a nuclear submarine having an accident, and certainly 
a very small chance but perhaps a minimum chance that an 
accident will occur during normal operation of these or other 

217 



vessels. In such case we would like to know particularly the diffu- 
sion rates for radioactivity. 

Since the operating devices may be destroyed at the surface, 
or at some depth in the ocean, they could remain a hazard until 
the toxic substances have been diluted in the marine environ- 
ment to an extent that they are no longer harmful, or they may 
remain as a point source hazard for long periods of time. 

We are interested in the rates of diffusion at the surface of 
the ocean and the rates of diffusion at depths in the ocean. 
As some of you know, the dye, rhodamine-B, has been developed 
recently, ajid other rhodamines as well, to where it is possible 
to study very minute quantities of these dyes. We plan to do 
some initial experiments with dyes. Rather soon, we hope to 
be able to try large-scale experiments with loss of radioactivity 
in the ocean. 

Some people contend that the only practical way to put a 
man on the moon is to use nuclear -propelled space vehicles. 
Almost everyone is certain that even if ordinary propulsion is 
used, various types of nuclear -powered devices will be aboard 
these vehicles. 

All these will have to be tested and various concepts, var- 
ious instruments, and various techniques will have to be develop- 
ed in order to insure that their operation meets the very high 
standards of safety which have been set and accepted by the 
Commission in past operations. 

One other thing, although the economics of ocean disposal 
of radioactive wastes are such as to preclude any great increase 
in disposal of radioactivity in the ocean, we are very much 
concerned with continuing programs that may make it possible 
to determine the distribution of waste products that may be dispos- 
ed in the ocean at some future date. 



218 



21. GENERAL DISCUSSION AND QUESTION AND ANSWER 
PERIOD RELATING TO ALL TOPICS 



Donald L. McKernan, Chairman, and Panel -' 



DR. GEORGE M. BRYAN (Genisco, Inc.): A great deal has been 
said about the need for Industry's cooperation in the National 
Oceanographic Progrann. Would someone care to comment upon 
the incentives offered to Industry to develop instruments for a 
market which is as thin as this Symposium has led us to believe? 
Even if engineering costs are sustained by a governmental agency, 
the most precious commodity expended by a company in a develop- 
mental program is time, and that is not refundable. 

THE CHAIRMAN: This is a serious problem which both Govern- 
ment and Industry are going to have to consider. It may be that 
some companies, after thoroughly understanding the possibilities, 
may decide that they cannot afford to go into this particular pro- 
gram. From personal discussions I have had with some of you, 
however, I feel that your present developmental and manufactur- 
ing program is quite similar to what is required, and that per- 
haps for some of you it will not be quite the problem that it will 
be for others who are about to enter or are considering entering 
the field of oceanographic instrumentation. 

I can only repeat what I said yesterday -- perhaps a little 
more clearly -- that I believe the Government is prepared to 
enter into financing and funding a certain amount of development 
for oceanographic instrumentation. Part of the Government's 
problem in deciding to what extent it will contribute is the fact 
that many of us do not know to what extent governmental fund- 
ing is required. For example, I understand a great many com- 
panies are very close to manufacturing certain oceanographic 
instruments. In this case, no great extra effort is required to 
alter their developmental and manufacturing programs. 

On the other hand, if great sacrifices and a great deal of 
time and thought are required to improve other aspects of 
oceanographic instrumentation, then Government will have to 
pay for or share a greater proportion of these developmental 
costs. 

^The addresses of panel members eind of those asking que stions 
may be found in the List of Attendees . (See appendix D. ) 

219 



Some of us do not know to what extent we need to share the 
developmental costs in oceanographic instrumentation. We hope 
that information which is provided you at this conference and in the 
Proceedings of the meeting will give you an idea of what we need. 
Perhaps this will be the beginning of the negotiations between 
Government and Industry. We hope it will culminate in new ocean- 
ographic instruments to benefit the Nation by more efficient utili- 
zation of our oceanographic platforms at sea. 

One of our speakers this morning -- Dr. William S. Richardson 
-- pointed out that somie of the individual temperature readings 
which we are taking cost about $21 each. This is pretty expensive. 
If we can get these cheaper by better equipment, we will. We can 
indicate better how much of the developmient Government must 
pay for after we find out what Industry's contribution is going to 
cost. If you are already set up to produce certain instruments, 
then the Government should not be required to pay very much for 
their development. On the other hand, if no one is set up to 
produce given instruments, then Government is going to have to 
pay more. We are going to have to wait and see what your situa- 
tion is after you have viewed our needs and requirements. 

Later, I presunne, there will be negotiation between us, 
between you and Navy Department officials and those of other 
agencies, such as, the Coast and Geodetic Survey, who are carry- 
ing out the survey program and who will fund a great many of 
the survey instruments required on their ships. 



MR. AUGUSTUS N. HILL (U. S. Weather Bureau): Aerological 
soundings (radiosondes) were not mentioned in regard to meteoro- 
logical suits. Is this data not important to oceanography, or 
has the need for a good, portable system already been solved? 

MR. J. J. SCHULE, JR. (HO): Data for the lowest levels of the 
atmosphere are important to oceanography, and we do not feel that 
a good radiosonde device for providing such data has as yet been 
developed. Recently there have been requirements for a low level 
radiosonde expressed not only by the ASWEPS people, but by other 
organizations in the Navy as well. The Bureau of Naval Weapons 
has an active program in this area, and preliminary evaluation of 
the equipment will begin soon. As far as the standard radiosonde 
is concerned, the Weather Bureau has developed a portable 
system which is being installed aboard more ships -of-opportunity 
each year . 



220 



MR. ROBERT S. BOWDITCH (Northrop Corporation): Does the ICO 
contemplate the possibility of establishing an oceanwide network of 
telemetering buoys for ASWEPS, navigation, and oceanographic 
research? 

MR. J. J. SCHULE, JR. (HO): I do not know of any plan to estab- 
lish a worldwide network of telemetering buoys. In the ASWEPS 
program we have planned to take advantage of any available plat- 
form, and buoys would mainly be used only in areas where other 
platforms, such as ships or aircraft, were not available. 

MR. A. C. VINE (WHOI): I do not know of any plans for a world- 
wide field of buoys, but there is a great deal of work going on 
right now trying to visualize what the future extent of buoys might 
be. This is strictly crystal-ball gazing. We are trying to get 
frequency allocations in the radio spectrum for buoy- satellite 
networks so that it might be possible to operate at least several 
sets of several hundred buoys each. 



MR. ROBERT S. BOWDITCH (Northrop Corporation): Would the 
hydrofoil, if available, be a useful survey vessel because of its 
speed, recognizing the present state of hydrofoil art? 

MR. A. C. VINE (WHOI): I would think that a hydrofoil would be 
very much like all these other vehicles, if it is competitive on 
a general basis. If people have a particular job where a hydro- 
foil would work extremely well, then, of course, that would be 
a good thing for them. 

There is work going on in several laboratories in which 
scientists are getting very interested in catamarans. We hope that 
in a few years there will be several catamarans operated for 
research work. Several of the people are interested in hydrofoils, 
but their day-to-day capability is a little uncertain to the oceanog- 
rapher . 



MR. JOHN D. NEELY (Tracerlab, Inc.): Is it possible to ob- 
tain some of your ocean core material for analytical studies of 
the possible presence of micrometeorites ? 



221 



DR. J. L. WORZEL (LGO): It is indeed possible to get samples of 
cores for study providing the results of such studies are made avail- 
able in publications. We have given too many core materials out, 
not to get any return in published information. This, then, makes 
it ultimately impossible to give materials to somebody else who 
would publish later. 



MR. RALPH MONAGHAN (Dresser Research): Mr. Allyn Vine 
indicated in his talk that more specialized and selective confer- 
ences on the measurement of a single parameter should follow. 
Are these conferences anticipated? And, if so, who will be in- 
vited, when, etc. ? 

MR. A. C. VINE (WHOI): That is certainly a good question. I 
do not see how some of these things can get solved unless such 
conferences are held. It would seem to me that if, when you 
people go back, you think about the areas of oceanographic in- 
strumentation in which you are particularly interested and let the 
people who held this conference know about your particular interest, 
then we can be sure you are included. 

A conference for a particular instrument would probably be 
called by the individual group or bureau who is the most interest- 
ed in it, and the one who would forge ahead. This might be either 
a design group or it might be people who had the money and 
wanted the instrument in a hurry. 

One of the purposes of this conference is to find ways to do 
this and to find out how many of you might be interested in 
different aspects of oceanographic instruments. 



THE CHAIRMAN: Someone who remains unnamed mentions that 
many of the past two days' presentations have contained a paradox, 
namely, the oceanographer s are severely limited in their work 
by rough seas -- there certainly has been mention of getting 
green around the gills. Yet, the emphasis for future shipbuilding 
is for smaller surface ships of some 1, 500 tons, which will be 
subject to surface water conditions. Why is not more serious 
consideration being given to submarine oceanographic ships, for 
example? This might be a good use for mothballed submarines 
currently in existence. 

MR. A. C. VINE (WHOI): Submarines are very specialized, and 



222 



then you have to get them. There has not been any submarine 
over which oceanographer s have had full operational control for 
a long enough time to get it properly equipped and to get every- 
body really shaken down. 

Undoubtedly, submarines will be used in the future, but nobody 
has yet been quite bold enough to take on a full-fledged, full-time, 
non-Navy operated subnnarine; and a full-time. Navy-operated 
submarine with a small crew is not yet available. 

DR. H. J. McLELLAN (T. A. M. ): A 1, 500-ton ship is not small. 
Very few of us have had the luxury of going to sea on research 
vessels of that size. Those are definitely larger ships, and the 
distinct possibility of having anti-rolling devices on them would 
make themi palatial compared to what we have been used to. 

DR. W. S. RICHARDSON (WHOI): I think those of us who have 
been out on trips in the 1, 000- to 1, 500-ton range feel that they 
are very nearly ideal. When the ships get bigger than that, they 
can become rather cumbersome. There are things that are 
hard to do. Some of us would rather enjoy the sunshine and be 
a little seasick than live all the time on a submarine. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Interestingly enough, the Russians have develop- 
ed much larger ships. I recall the one I visited in New York last 
year, a 6,000-ton vessel. They have gone in for much larger 
ships than we have. Most of our oceanographer s feel that this 
size is really larger than they would like to have. 

DR. J. L. McHUGH (BCF); The Russians have a submarine 
which is being used for fishery research. I believe it is in full 
use all around the year. 

DR. J. L. WORZEL (LGO): There are many operations in 
geology and geophysics that would be difficult if not impossible 
to perform on a submarine. I might point out that a submarine 
would cost probably twice as much to operate as a ship of the 
same size. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I would like to ask, what kinds of things might 
be impossible from a submarine? Of course, taking observa- 
tions of the sun might be a little difficult unless you came to the 
surface. 

DR. J. L. WORZEL (LGO): I think you would find ocean bottom 

223 



coring from a submarine would be rather difficult. Seismic work 
has been done on submarines, but it is extremely difficult. The 
underwater programs are very simple. Most of the water sampling 
techniques are too deep for most submarines to reach, so they 
would require essentially the same gear as a surface ship. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Of course, many of us like the idea of sub- 
marines, which would allow us to escape from wave action and 
enable us to study concurrently severe storms and their effect on 
the surface layers. Submarines would also enable us to inspect 
and visually select and pick up biological and rock samples from 
the continental shelf. 



MR, JEROME ROTHSTEIN (Maser Optics, Inc.): Will the speak- 
ers add short bibliographies useful to industrial people? 

THE CHAIRMAN: This is an excellent suggestion. Might I 
speak for our people and suggest that we do add a short bibli- 
ography. This is a good suggestion, and I see no reason why we 
cannot do this. (See appendix 1, ) 



MR. W. THOMAS HUGHES (Farrand Optical Company, Inc.): 
Are there any organizations studying the use of porpoises for 
herding less intelligent fish in groups, much as dogs herd 
cattle? Also, has there been any effort in domesticating food 
fish by chemiical-electr ical stimulus or breeding techniques? 

DR. J. L. McHUGH (BCF): I have heard this porpoise sugges- 
tion before. I think I read it in the funny papers. It is not a 
bad idea, though. It is worth looking into. They are intelli- 
gent aninnals and perhaps could be used for this purpose. 

As far as the control of farming techniques is concerned, 
we have miade the most progress with shellfish, animals such 
as oysters which are farmed to some degree. Comimercial 
oyster culture is much more highly developed in some foreign 
countries than it is in the United States, particularly in Japan, 
Holland, France, Australia, and to some extent in Great Britain. 

We have some ideas for the future about breeding oysters 
in laboratories. Our laboratory at Milford, Connecticut, has 
oysters that are in their fifth or sixth generation of captivity 
at least, and have lived their entire life cycle in the laboratory. 



224 



They have been produced by artificial inducement of spawning, and 
we believe that they can be bred selectively for certain desirable 
characteristics, such as rapid growth and disease resistance. 

Not as much has been done with commercial food fishes, with 
the possible exceptions of salmon, carp, and catfish. There has 
been some hybridization. Considerable work has been done in other 
countries. We are also interested in the possibility of using rice 
ponds in this country for growing fish, too. This provides mutual 
benefit. It grows better rice if we have fish in there because they 
keep the roots clean, and the fishes, such as, carp and buffalo- 
fish, can grow quite rapidly in rice ponds. 

We are doing something along these lines, but we have a long 
way to go. 



MR. THEODORE J. SMITH (Packard Bell Computer): Of the 
20-odd transducer types mentioned for survey vessels, indicate 
the number which provide output in the following ranges: to 10 
v.d.c, Otolv.d.c, OtoIOmv.d.c, and 1 mv.d.c. or less. 

MR. B. K. COUPER (BUSHIPS): The range for most transducers 
or sensors would be, perhaps, - 5 v.d.c. However, the ranges 
and accuracies desired are usually expressed in other units, or, 
in some cases, merely indicated in the hope of improvement in 
present designs. These 20-odd transducers to which you refer 
have not yet been ordered -- for the most part. You will notice 
that the handouts (appendices E, F, G, and H) tend to be per- 
fornnance rather than engineering specifications, and so it is not 
known what their output will be. 



MR. THEODORE J. SMITH (Packard Bell Computer): Are there 
any digital output transducers yet? 

DR. W. S. RICHARDSON (WHOI): Yes, there are several pressure 
transducers, such as the vibratron, which are essentially digital 
devices, if you include with the sensor the annplifier service sys- 
tem. Of course, this is the most common type of system in 
instrumentation. 



MR. SCOTT A. MILLS (Ramo-Wooldridge): What technique 
makes Omega more effective than Loran, and when will Omega be 
in worldwide operation? 

225 



DR. W. S. RICHARDSON (WHOI): Omega's greater range is due to 
the lower frequencies. I do not have any idea when it will be gener- 
ally available . 



MR. THEODORE J. SMITH (Packard Bell Computer): What sam- 
pling rates are typically desirable in oceanographic data gathering? 

DR. W. S. RICHARDSON (WHOI): That is a ve^y difficult question. 
If you are talking about acoustics, of course, we get up into the 
megacycle range. On the other hand, we normally like to work 
somewhere near the time constant of perhaps a second for things 
like temperature, and we might be satisfied with time constants 
of several minutes for current measurements. It depends very 
strongly on the particular instrumentation problem and the part- 
icular scientific problem to which the data apply. 



MR. BENJAMIN H. FONOROW (Philco Corporation): How will 
Industry or the general public be able to get the output data fronn 
the National Oceanographic Data Center? Will this data be in a 
form useful to the user of the data? 

CHAIRMAN: They can buy it at the cost of machine time, the 
same way that the rest of us do, and it probably can be put in a 
useful form -- any convenient form -- that they wish. Further 
information on this, I think, can be supplied by NODC, Washington 
25, D. C. 



MR. RUSSELL E. HUKEE (Imperial Electronics, Inc): Is there a 
requirement for an inexpensive disposable bathythermograph? 

MR. B. K. COUPER (BUSHIPS): The increase in ship speed 
would make a disposable bathythermograph quite useful. However, 
the cost, as far as we have been able to find out from casual dis- 
cussions with quite a number of people, has not been anywhere 
down to what we are getting at present by the bathythermograph. 

We have had some wonderful ideas, but, if I may mention the 
horrible word of reliability again, we have had difficulty. The 
difficulty with the present bathythermograph is that, in general, 
we must limit the speed to reach the depths we want. An expend- 
able one would be very handy, but again it is a matter of cost. 



Z26 



MR. RUSSELL E. HUKEE (Imperial Electronics, Inc.): Is there a 
requirement for a temperature to frequency converter? 

MR. B. K. COUPER (BUSHIPS): Increased efficiency of informa- 
tion transmission is always of interest, especially if the technique 
is more economical, reliable, and easily maintained. The value 
of the technique you mention would depend on how it contributes 
to any or several of these qualities in the actual system of which it 
would be a part. 



MR. WILLIAM HILDRETH (Lockheed Aircraft Corporation): Is 

an Encyclopedia on Oceanographic Ins trumientation to be published? 

THE CHAIRMAN: We have not fully decided whether or not to pub- 
lish these several volunnes of the encyclopedia. If there seems to be 
enough interest in Industry, in Governnnent, and in non-govern- 
miental laboratories, we will publish thenn. It nnay be published 
for the ICO by a staff on contract. These several volumes at 
the back of the room are too bulky to be included in the Proceed- 
ings of this particular mieeting. An indication from you concern- 
ing an interest in the encyclopedia will help us to make a decision 
in this regard. 



DR. ROBERT S. BRAMAN (Armour Research Foundation): Would 
you please comnnent on the use of nuclear techniques in auto- 
miatic sensing devices? 

DR. I. E. WALLEN (AEC): Nuclear energy offers long-term, 
reliable, lightweight power sources for sensing devices. Because 
of the limitations of production and the high purity requirements 
of suitable materials, these power sources are expensive for 
the usual types of oceanographic observations. 

When remote operations or special use requirements demand 
reliable performance for several years, my opinion is that wide 
use will be miade of these Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power 
(SNAP) units. 



MR. R. B. PRIEST (Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corpora- 
tion): How much use has been made of television in oceanography? 
What results have been obtained as to range of view and depth of 
operation with artificial light and with natural ambient light? 



227 



DR. J. L. McHUGH (BCF): I can answer with respect to our own 
work in fisheries. We have used TV primarily for watching the 
behavior of fishes in trawls with an idea of seeing whether we can 
improve the efficiency of trawls for catching various species. 

DR. I. E. WALLEN (AEC): We have made some use of television 
in testing the barrels in which packaged wastes might be placed. 
We have surveyed waste disposal sites. We probably will continue 
this . 

MR. B. K. COUPER (BUSHIPS): One of the interesting experi- 
ments going on in the Navy Electronics Laboratory Oceanographic 
Tower is a closed-circuit TV with which one can see the effects 
of internal waves. At about 10 feet from the camera, there is a 
inetal grid from which, by means of dials, we can release dye 
or dye markers, or on which we can tie little strings of wool. 
By means of televisional photography we are getting some infor- 
mation about the rotational motion of shallow water. It is very 
interesting to see these pictures. Near the surface the little 
strips of bunting make almost complete circles; whereas, when 
you go down near the bottom off the California coast, where 
everything is controlled by the swell, you see almost a right and 
left, flip-flop motion. 

MR. M. H. SCHEFER (BUWEPS): On the underwater ranges, TV 
is in frequent use to locate lost ordnance and to assist in the 
installation and inspection of bottom-mounted devices. Operating 
depths are from 600 to 2, 000 feet, with an existing requirement 
to 6,000 feet. Artificial light is used. (See also appendix A, 
page 248. ) 



MR. SCOTT A. MILLS (Ramo- Wooldridge Company): What does 
ASWEPS stand for, and will the central data processing equipment 
and display be aboard ship? 

MR. J. J. SCHULE, JR. (HO): ASWEPS stands for "Antisubmarine 
Warfare Environmental Prediction System. " 

The master data processing and display system for ASWEPS 
will not be aboard ship but will be located ashore. Such a unit will 
provide the daily synoptic analyses for the entire ocean area con- 
cerned, as well as long range predictions of a general nature. How- 
ever, other smaller units will be located at Fleet commands and 
aboard Task Group Flagships for the purpose of providing environ- 



228 



mental displays for the particular area of interest. These displays, 
intended mainly for local tactical use, would not require as com- 
plicated a data processing capability as the master unit. 



THE CHAIRMAN: An anonymous person asks: If various radio- 
isotopes are concentrated by plankton and other biological systems, 
what happens to the radioisotopes in organic compounds after the 
organisms die? 

DR. I. E. WALLEN (AEC): Radioactive isotopes can be expected 
to behave as stable isotopes. The dead organism decays or is 
eaten to release the elements for r econstitution by another organ- 
ism. The actual cycle of r econstitution varies with the element's 
abundance and the requirements of the species. 

Dilution of the radioactive isotope by stable ones tends to 
reduce the availability and, thus, the concentration in succeeding 
steps in the cycle. In addition, radioactive decay and diffusion 
processes reduce the environmental concentration of the radio- 
active element of concern. (See also appendix A, page Z36. ) 



THE CHAIRMAN: An anonymous person asks: Has any study 
been made concerning the possibility of obtaining sedimentary 
samples with a coring device operating from subnnarines? 

MR. A. C. VINE (WHOI): Yes. On a small scale, an external 
manipulator can operate a drill or hammer a tube into the 
bottom from a smiall submarine, or essentially jab a tube or a 
series of tubes into the bottom to collect small samples near 
the submarine. A large number of samples could be so taken. 
They might be very useful, even though no one sample was very 
long. There has also been sonne discussion about a small 
submarine supervising a much larger bottomed device which 
took much larger and longer cores. 



MR. CLIFFORD C. BORDEN (Cur tiss -Wright Corporation): 
Has any work been done on subsea floor strata profiling by means 
of an electrical resistivity on ships underway with depths of the 
order of 6, 000 fathoms of water, plus Z, 500 feet of sediments or 
bedrock? Would some such device be useful? 

DR. J. L. WORZEL (LGO): So far as I know, no work of this 



229 



type has been done in the ocean anywhere. Such a device would 
be useful. 



THE CHAIRMAN: Gentlemen, there are a few more questions that 
are of a somewhat technical nature which we will try to answer in 
the Proceedings of this meeting. (See appendix A.) 



DR. W. S. RICHARDSON (WHOI): Mr. Chairman, I wonder if I 
might make a remark? Yesterday Mr. Snodgrass made some re- 
marks which I would very strongly like to second. He suggested 
that if there are among you people anyone who is serious about 
learning what the sea and the environment of these instruments 
is like and who wants to go to sea, arrangements can be made 
for you to go to sea on research vessels. I presume he was 
speaking for his institution, and I think now I can speak for mine. 
If you want to come as a worker on a trip, we will provide you 
with a bed and steak lunches and things, and hold your hand if 
you are seasick. We expect you to work -- not just go along to 
visit. But arrangements can be made, not always at your con- 
venience, but with some advance planning. 

I would like to leave that thought with you. If you want to 
go and see what the ocean is like, these arrangements can be 
made. 



230 



22. SUMMARY OF OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTATION 

REQUIREMENTS 



James M. Snodgrass 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
La JoUa, California 



Since the hour is late and since you have been most kind and 
patient, this will not be a long summary. 

Before I get into other comments, I would like to say some- 
thing about the talk by Dr. Richardson which you heard this 
morning. Many of you have not had, I am sure, extensive ex- 
perience in the ocean. The prograiD which he has undertaken, 
which is installing a string of buoys from Cape Cod to Bermuda, 
ranks as a first-class project and one that will be an outstanding 
prototype for future research. This is a substantial accomplish- 
ment. It is difficult to do justice to what has really been done. 
Great credit is due to the insight which went into the program, 
and I am sure that it will get us the kind of information we need. 

With regard to ocean sampling, as recently as about 1956, 
by using our most intense techniques on a cubic mile of sea water, 
we could sample one part in lO'^'* at best. With such a miserable 
sampling, you might ask quite properly: "Do we really, after all, 
know very much about it?" 

I would like to suggest a reference for you to peruse. It 
has food for thought on the basic problems of instrumental de- 
sign and the kind of things that we need to keep in mind. It is, 
"The Crisis We Face; Automation and the Cold War. " The 
authors are George Steele and Paul Kircher. It was published 
by McGraw-Hill in I960. I strongly recommend the sections 
on reliability and on long-range technical problems. This bood 
is basically written for space problems, but it can be easily 
translated into the field which we have been discussing. 

Next, I would like to point out that the ocean we have been 
talking about is not, by and large, properly appreciated for 
what it is. We often ignore its relationship to the atmosphere. 



231 



We should remember that the atmosphere and the ocean represent 
the two largest heat reserviors with which we are associated. In 
reality, they are vast heat engines. The surface of the ocean to 
which we have referred both critically and humorously is the region 
through which energy exchanges occur between these two dynamic 
systems. We are just beginning to get a glimmering of basic under- 
standing, and we need a great deal more solid instrumentation. 
New theories, too, are needed. We need to do a great deal more 
work in this interfacial region because it covers such an impor- 
tant proportion of the earth's surface, where energy may be most 
easily exchanged. 

We should take very much to heart the warnings and comments 
made yesterday with respect to the problems of the National Ocean- 
ographic Data Center. Dr. Jacobs pointed out, it is not difficult 
to overload almost any data processing system if the data is not 
in the right form or selected with the proper discretion. Close 
cooperation between the instrument designer, the oceanographer , 
and the data custodian is extremely important. I was surprised 
to hear that the oceanographer of the future might not have any 
firsthand contact with his medium but would come to depend upon 
data from data centers. This I doubt. 

We must examine our position on expendable instruments 
carefully. I would like to emphasize that if we are going to deve- 
lop a successful, expendable BT, for example, we must look at 
both the design problem and the packaging problem very critically. 
Do not assume that our present techniques or past practices are 
adequate. Let us look hard at possible things which we can use, 
things we can eliminate, and get down to what is really necessary. 
Remember that huge volumes of these items will be required. Do 
not design it for only small production quantities. The design 
should permit large -volume production. This is the only way that 
we can get unit costs down. We heard some rather high figures 
on unit costs for observations given this morning. These are not 
excessively high. These are the facts. The cost of the little B'J' 
slide record to the Navy, not counting labor, is somewhere between 
$10 and $25 an observation delivered on deck. However, we should 
use this figure with caution. 

I do not believe any reference was made to the fact that re- 
peated surveys are going to be in order. We are not going to 
be able to go once over the ground lightly or even thoroughly and 



232 



find all we need to know, because the ocean and its environment 
change from year to year and from season to season. This is 
going to require continuous activity. 

The problems of marine biology are considerable. Most of 
you would concede that physical and chemical oceanography have 
suffered overlong by policies of attempting to build instruments 
using less than one vacuum tube. Biological oceanography is 
in a much worse situation. However, it is brighter for the 
manufacturer by virtue of the fact, as you heard from Dr. 
McHugh, that there is a large potential market here. There is 
a large United States and a rapidly expanding worldwide fishing 
fleet that is just becoming aware of the possibilities of new in- 
strumentation for operational purposes. This is a good field 
for study. 

A word on underwater TV. Many of the applications of 
underwater TV are inept. It is a nice device, but it has often 
been misused; we tend to forget some of the things which we can 
really do with underwater TV or, in fact, TV itself. We should 
question the use of conventional commercial frame rates of 
60 per second. Possibly we could do better if we had framie 
rates of only one per second with image storage systems. Low- 
er frame rates would permit a very great reduction in trans- 
mitted bandwidth or an increase in the resolution, whichever we 
may wish. We often spend far more to accomplish a task than 
is necessary, and we do not succeed in doing it well. I am 
thinking here of really deep TV, because of the cable and trans- 
mission problems which accompany the broad bandwidth situa- 
tion. 

Well, as I promised, I will conclude at this point, and leave 
the rest to our Chairman. 



233 



23. CLOSING REMARKS 

Donald L. McKernan 

Chairman of the Symposium 



You have had a long two days and I realize the time is getting 
late. We have had gratifying attendance and interest in this 
Symposium (729 attendees). It would not have operated smoothly 
by itself. There has been long and intense preparation by a small 
group. It would be neglectful if I did not give credit where credit 
is due. 

Capt. C, N. G. Hendrix of the Hydrographic Office, while act- 
ing in the background during the past two days, was in the fore- 
front during the planning stages of the conference. Mr. Howard 
H. Eckles and Dr. Julius Rockwell, Jr., of our staff have worked 
nights as well as days organizing the program. Dr. I. Eugene 
Wallen of the Atomic Energy Commission and Mr. AUyn C. Vine 
of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution have also contributed 
to a naajor degree. 

As I mentioned in the beginning, this conference is some- 
what of a departure from our normal contacts with Industry. 
We wonder how you liked it. If you have any views, suggestions, 
or criticisms please write us a note in my care, the Depart- 
ment of the Interior. Who knows, we might wish to hold a 
similar conference again with you. 

On behalf of the Interagency Committee on Oceanography, 
I want to thank all our speakers who have appeared before us 
and have come from long distances to participate in this program. 



With that, we will adjourn our sessions. You ail will be 
given an opportiinity to obtain copies of the Proceedings of these 
meetings. 



234 



APPENDIX A 

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS SUBMITTED AT THE SYMPOSIUM 
BUT NOT ANSWERED AT THE SYMPOSIUM 



Mr. James M. Crossen, Electronic Equipment Specialist, Woods 
Hole Biological Laboratory, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 

Lieutenant Commander R. P. Dinsmore, Chief, Patrols and Scien- 
tific Programs, Branch of Floating Units Division, U. S. 
Coast Guard. 

Mr. H. W. Dubach, Deputy Director, National Oceanographic 
Data Center . 

Mr. Howard H. Eckles, Chief, Branch of Marine Fisheries, 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 

Dr. Sidney R. Caller, Head, Biology Branch, Office of Naval 
Research. 

Mr. J. R. R. Harter, TV & Facsimile Equipment (Code 687B4), 
Bureau of Ships. 

Mr. Gilbert Jaffe, Director, Instrumentation Division, U. S. 
Navy Hydrographic Office. 

Mr. Feenan D. Jennings, Head, Oceanography Section, Geo- 
physics Branch, Office of Naval Research. 

Dr. Julius Rockwell, Jr., Coordinator, Governmient-Industr y 
Oceanographic Instrumentation Program, Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries. 

Mr. John J. Schule, Jr., Director, Oceanographic Prediction 
Division, U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office. 

Mr. James M. Snodgrass, Head, Special Developments Division, 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 

Mr. Allyn C. Vine, Physical Oceanographer , Woods Hole Oceano- 
graphic Institution. 

Dr. I. Eugene Wallen, Marine Biologist, Environmental Sciences 

235 



Branch, Division of Biology and Medicine, Atomic Energy 
Commission. 

7/ 
Mr. T. J. Wehe,— Martin Marietta Corporation, Electronic 

Systems and Products Division, Baltimiore, Maryland. 

^ •.•' S>' 

'fi I* 'V 

ANONYMOUS: If various radioisotopes are concentrated by plank- 
ton and other biological systems, what happens to the radioisotopes 
in organic compounds after the organisms die? (Answered on 
p. 229.) Has a means been developed to sample such compounds? 

DR. I. E. WALLEN (AEC): No completely adequate means has 
been found to samiple compounds released by an organism on its 
death in the ocean. Studies are underway to learn the nature of 
the compounds and the types of recycling that may result in recon- 
centration of radioactive materials. Investigators at Texas 
A & M have isolated organic compounds from ocean waters and 
several investigators are working on the utilization of compounds 
in solution. We need to have field data of the nature you suggest. 



MR. GEORGE L. BARNARD (Washington Technological Associates, 
Inc.): Is there an "on site" deep sea materials testing program in 
progress and when will results be available to us? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): The only truly deep sea testing 
station that I know of is being established at Port Hueneme, 
California. 1 would be pleased to refer you to Mr. Kenneth O. 
Gray, Project Scientist, Materials Division, U. S. Naval Civil 
Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California, who is in 
charge of the program. Unfortunately, I cannot tell anything about 
the time scale as to when results would be released, but I suggest 
you contact Mr. Gray directly. 

Another group interested in testing materials in the deep sea 
is the one at Santa Barbara operated by General Motors, and known 
as Defense Systems Division, Santa Barbara Laboratories. I would 
be pleased to refer you to Dr. J. Frederick Dubus of that company. 
They are concerned with the environmental testing of plastics. 

J7/ Formerly with Special Projects Office, U. S. Navy Hydrographic 
Office. 



236 



MR. C. E. BRADY (General Electric): I would like to hear some 
comments on the acceptable compromises or definitions of the re- 
quirements which appear to be conflicting, namely; durability, 
reliability, low cost, and limited production. 

MR. G. JAFFE (HO): There is no real conflict between the terms 
durability, reliability, low cost, and limited production. It is 
generally recognized that compromises are necessary in order to 
achieve all of these design goals. However, in the oceanographic 
application, instruments will be at sea under relatively severe 
environmental conditions for long periods of time. In addition, 
the cost of operating instrument platforms (research and survey 
ships) is very high, and, as a result, "downtime" is expensive. 

In the initial phases of the shipboard program, there will 
probably not be the opportunity to obtain low cost instrumenta- 
tion because the emphasis will be on reliability and durability. 
It is hoped, however, that as more platforms become available, 
production will increase to a point where the previously obtained 
reliability and durability can be provided at lower cost. 



DR. RALPH L. ELY, JR. (Research Triangle Institute): Are 
any in situ O^ analyzers in use? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): There are none, to my knowledge, 
in deep sea work. Some are used in shallow water, principally 
at installations such as Texas Towers. The instruments used 
are designed on the basis of the Kanwisher-Carritt electrode 
systems. At present, the difficulties with the Kanwisher-Carritt 
systems are as follows: (1) The relatively high temperature co- 
efficient, (2) a substantial pressure coefficient which is sioffi- 
cient to show the changes due to ocean waves when the instrunnent 
is installed in shallow water, (3) a tendency to drift with time, and 
(4) at present, no way has been devised to prevent fouling, when the 
sensor is left unattended. 

There are, of course, industrial O2 analyzers which are used 
in the process industry and may be used in open tanks. These may 
be used in sea water to a limited extent, providing the line between 
the sensor and the recording equipment is short enough. Com- 
mercial analyzers of the latter type are available from the Hays 
Corporation, Michigan City, Indiana. 



MR. VINCE GORDON (Philco Corporation): Regarding picture 

237 



data input to National Oceanographic Data Center (ice data) -- 

how many aerial photographs will NODC have to interpret per year? 

MR. H. W. DUBACH (NODC): We plan to begin investigation of ice 
digitalization schemes before January 196Z. To date we have not 
assigned any of our staff to consolidate existing collections and 
review them; therefore, we have no estimate of tfie annual rate of 
accrual of ice photographs. With daily ice reconnaissance by air- 
craft for the Baffin Bay, Canadian Archipelago, and Alaska-Bering 
Sea area, the volume could amount to 200 to 300 photos a day. 
The normal ice season could run from 6 to 9 nnonths. It is not 
unreasonable to ajiticipate an accrual of from 5, 000 to 7, 000 
photographs a year for the North American Arctic alone. 



MR. LEE HEL.SER (Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corporation): 
Does the Government plan to fund significant research, studies, 
and the development of new instruments and techniques, or does 
the Government expect Industry to develop new gear on company 
fxinds and then contact potential user agencies in an attempt to 
sell a finished product? 

DR. J. ROCKWELL, JR. (BCF): If a company already manu- 
factures an instrument to serve a given purpose and if this instru- 
ment can, with a small amoxint of modification, be adapted to 
serve the oceanographic effort, then it would be very much to the 
company's advantage to make this modification itself and sell the 
Government the patented, finished product. Where a need is pre- 
sent and there is nothing in existence that approaches the required 
instrvunent and where the number required is few, of course, the 
Government must finance development. To assist your company 
in deciding if its products may be adaptable I suggest that you 
turn to the list of laboratories dealing in oceanographic research 
(appendix B) and contact those nearest you, not with the idea of 
selling thenn on financing your work, but to learn if your particu- 
lar instrument is close to the corresponding one on the lists of 
required instruments (appendices E, F, G, and H). The most 
productive work in the past and the best instruments have always 
been produced by technically trained people and oceanographic 
field personnel working in close harmony. Before developing 
new gear on your own, I would suggest that you get in touch with 
a using group, particularly if you do not have an experienced 
oceanographer on your staff, to be sure that you are on the right 
track. 

238 



REAR ADMIRAL G. N. JOHANSEN (Land -Air, Inc.): Would it be 
feasible for ICO to establish a centralized information office where 
representatives of Industry could explain their capabilities and be 
directed to the agencies interested in these capabilities? 

MR. H. H, ECKLES (BCF): A mechanism is being set up for hand- 
ling this need. At present a master instrumentation proposal and 
capability file is being compiled at the National Oceanographic Data 
Center. Reviews of proposals made to each agency are to be plac- 
ed m the file and also made available to other governmental or non- 
profit research groups which might have an interest in the instru- 
ments concerned. The file will be organized so as to protect the 
ideas and rights of companies. It will, however, be a central 
source of information on instrument possibilities, to be used by 
governmental agencies. Other research institutions will have 
access to pertinent, nonproprietary information in the file but will 
not have access to the file itself. 



MR. CHARLES McLOON (Hughes Aircraft Company): In the syn- 
optic survey system of the ASWEPS program, have data samp- 
ling rates been determined? If so, will the data link handle the 
voiunne ? 

MR. J. J. SCHULE, JR. (HO): The proposed synoptic survey 
system, which s planned for installation aboard ocean station 
vessels, picket ships, and selected fleet destroyers, will provide 
a representation of the vertical distribution of temperature, 
sound velocity, and conductivity as a function of depth. The 
specific vertical sampling interval for these data has not as yet 
been decided. It may consist of ZO to 30 readings for each 
variable. When the system is fully developed, we can expect to 
have about 50 to 60 ships reporting, each ship transmitting four 
sets of observations a day. When compared to other data hand- 
ling problems, the volume of data connected with this system is not 
considered excessive and could easily be handled by the proposed 
data link. 



MR. WILLIAM PRICHEP (Specialty Electronics Development): 
What areas of instrumentation exist which are satisfactory in 
th4ir present state -- if any? 

MR. G. JAFFE (HO): The following instruments are giving satis- 
factory service, although there is room for some improvement. 

239 



This information s taken from the Instrumentation Summary of 
Special Publication No. 41, Oceanographic Instrumentation, Final 
Report of the Connmittee on Instrumentation, Second Edition, 
October I960, U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office, Washington, D. C, 
(price $1. 80). 



Instrument 



Operating Limits 
TEMPERATURE 



Mechanical Bathythermo- 
graph 



Depth: to VOO ft. 
Accuracy: *10 ft. 
Temiperature: -2. 2 to 32. 2° C. 
Accuracy: ±0. 1° C. 



Deep-sea reversing ther- 
mometer s 



Depth: to 20, 000 ft. 
Accuracy: ± 100 ft. 
Temperature: -2 to 30° C. 
Accuracy: ± 0. 01° C. 



Wire-wound resistance 
thermometer 



Depth: Surface. 
Temperature: -5 to 30° C, 

-25 to 5° C. 
Accuracy: ±0. 1° C 



Airborne radiation ther- 
mometer 



Thermocouples 



Depth: Surface. (Aircraft 

height 35 to 2, 000 ft. ) 
Temperature: -2 to 35° C. 
Accuracy: * 0. 2° C. 

Depth: to 200 ft. 
Temperature: -50 to 10° C, 
Accuracy: ±0, 5° C. 



SALINITY 



Sea water sannpler-- Nansen 
bottle 



a. Volumetric method 
(Titration) 



Salinity accuracy: ±0.02%o. 



240 



b. Conductivity bridge 
salinometer (Univer- 
sity of Washington) 

Electrical nnethod - -conductivity cell 

a. Foxboro Company 

b. Serfass Bridge 



Salinity accuracy: ±0.005%o. 
Repeatibility: ±0.001%o. 



DEPTH 



Unprotected mercury thermo- 
meter 



Mechanical pressure trans- 
ducer (Bourdon tube, 
bellows, helical coil, 
aneroid, etc . ) 

Electronic pressure trans- 
ducer ( "Vibratr on, " strain 
gauge, variable reluct- 
ance , etc. ) 



Accuracy: ±0.1%o. 

Accuracy: ± 1 . 0%o (0. l%o if 
calibrated before and 
after use). 



Probable error of depths: 
*15 ft. for depths less 
than 3, 000 ft. ; at greater 
depths to about 0. 5%. 

Depth: to 1, 500 ft. 

Accuracy: ±15 ft. 



Depth: to 1, 500 ft. 

Accuracy: ±4 ft. 

(Accuracy of the system 
is generally limited by 
the recording apparatus. ) 



CURRENT 



Mechanical current meter 
(Ekman) 



Speed: 0. 15 to 2. 5 knots. 
Accuracy: ±0. 1 "knot. 
Direction: to 360°. 
Accuracy: ± 10°. 



Electro-miechanical current 
meter 



1. Price meter 



Speed: 0.1 to 6.5 knots, 
Accuracy: *0.1 knot. 
Direction: None. 



241 



Z. Roberts meter, Mod. 3 



3. Low velocity types 
a. Hytech 



b. Crouse-Hindes 



c. Pruitt 



d. CM -3 (Japanese) 



Geomagnetic electro- 
kinetograph (ONR) 

Photographic type of current meter 
(German paddle wheel) 



Parachute drouges 



Speed: 0. 2 to 7.0 knots. 
Accuracy: ±0.1 knot. 
Direction: to 360°. 
Accuracy: ± 10 . 



Speed: 0. 1 to 7.0 knots. 
Accuracy: ±0. 1 knot. 
Direction: to 360 . 
Accuracy: * 10 . 

Speed: 0. 1 to 7. knots. 
Accuracy: * 0. 1 knot. 
Direction: to 360 . 
Accuracy: ± 10°. 

Speed: 0. 04 to 7. knots. 
Accuracy: *0.01 knot. 
Direction: to 360°. 
Accuracy: * 10 . 

Speed: 0.2 to 5.0 knots. 
Accuracy: * 0. 1 knot. 
Direction: to 360°. 
Accuracy: ±10°. 

Uncertain. 



Speed: 0.3 to 3.0 knots. 
Accuracy: *0. 1 knot. 
Direction: to 360°. 
Accuracy: * 10 . 

Speeds and accuracies deter- 
mined from tow tests by the 
Hydrographic Office. 



WAVE HEIGHT 



Bottom pressure instruments 

Wiancko pressure measuring 
system (U.S. Navy Mine Defense 
Laboratory) 



Depth: up to 200 ft. Senses 
changes in water height of 
0. 1 to 80.0 in. 



242 



Floating wave gauge 
Electric wave staff 



Fixed wave gauge 

Resistance wire wave 
staff (Research by U. S. Navy 
Hydrographic Office; Develop- 
ment by Atlantic Research 
Corporation under contract to 
HO) 

Inverted echo sounder 
(Edo Corp.— utilized 
on submarines) 

LIGHT 



Depth: to ZO ft. 
Accuracy: ±0.5 ft. 



Depth: to 1 5 f t 
Accuracy: ±0.Z ft. 



Depth: 55 to 100 ft. 

relative to keel depth. 
Accuracy; ±0.5 ft. 



Pyrheliometer -- soiar 
intensity (Eppley 
Laboratory) 



Intensity range: 0.25 to 
1. 50 g. -cal. /cm.2/min. 

Accpuracy: ± 1 . 5%. 

Wave length range: 3,000 
to 50, 000 A. 



Radiometer -- long wave 
and solar radiation; 
diurnal and nocturnal 
(Geir and Dunkle) 

Submarine photometer 



Unknown. 



Depth: Approximiately 
500 ft. 



Hydrophotonneter , Mark 2 

Secchi disc 

Water clarity meter 

(Visibility Laboratory, 
University of California) 



Depth: 200 ft. 

Depth: 20 ft. (maximum) 

Depth: 500 ft. 



BIOLOGICAL 



Meter or half-meter plankton 
samplers 



Towing speed: not greater 
than 2. knots. 



243 



Clarke-Bumpus Plankton Sampler 
(Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Inst. ) 



Same as above. 



Midwater trawl 



Samie as above. 



Hi-Speed Sampler (Scripps 
Institution of Oceano- 
graphy) 

Hardy Continuous Plankton 
Recorder (British, used by 
Woods Hole Oceanographic 

Institution) 



Towing speeds: 8 to 12 

knots . 



Towing speeds: 15 knots. 



Convex-concave fouling 
plates 



Plates in the environment 
from 1 month to Z years. 



Deep-sea multi-shot camera 
(Type III, Navy Electronics 
Laboratory) 



Depth: Greater than ZO, 000 ft. 

Number of photoyraphs 
per operation: Approxi- 
mately 55. 



GEOLOGICAL 



Mechanical bottom signalling 
device, "Ball Breaker" 



Depth: Unlimited. 



Substrata Acoustic Probe 
(Marine Sono-probe) 



Depth: 700 ft. 
Sediment penetration: 
200 ft. 



Precision Depth Recorder 
(Times Facsimilie Corp. 
and AN/UQN) (Edo) 



Depth: Up to 18, 000 ft. 
Sediment penetration: 120 ft. 
(extreme maximiunn). 



Fathometer -- echo sounder 
(Model 255B -- Edo Corp.) 



Depth: 2. 5 to 1, 500 ft. 

Accuracy: ± 1 to 6 ft. de- 
pending on depth scale 
in use. 

Sediment penetration: 
undetermined. 



244 



Corer s 



1. Gravity type -- Phleger 



2. Pi ston type 

a. Kullenburg 

b. Ewing 

Grab samplers 

1. Clamshell snapper 

(Navy Electronics Lab.) 



Z. Mud sampler 



Portable automatic tide 
gauge 



TIDES 



GRAVITY 



Depth: Unlimited -- deter- 
mined by length of lower- 
ing cable used. 

Sediment penetration: 4 ft. 



Depth: Unlimited. 
Sediment penetration; 6 to 
12 ft. 

Depth: Unlimited. 
Sediment penetration: 20 to 
60 ft. 



Depth: Unlimited. 
Sediment penetration: Sur- 
face. 

Same as above. 



Senses tide changes to 
approximately 0. 1 ft. 



Submarine and surface ship gravimeters 

1. LaCoste and Romberg 

2. Askania (Graf) 
West Germany 

Geodetic (land) gravimeters 

1. Worden gravimeter 



Range limit: 



245 



a) Equator to approximate- 
ly 45° north & south 
latitude . 

b) About 30 to 90° north & 
south latitude. 

Accuracy: ±0.1 milligal. 



2. North American gravi- 
meter 



Total range: 1, 000 milligals 
(can be used worldwide 
by resetting) . 



3. LaCoste and Romberg 
gravimeter 



MAGNETISM 



Vector airborne miagnetometer 
Types 2A and 2B (Naval 
Ordnance Laboratory) 



Total field: 23, 000 to 

78, 000 gammas. 
Accuracy: ±0. 05%. 
Inclination: -90 to +90°. 
Accuracy: *0.1°. 
Magnetic heading: to 360°. 
Accuracy: ±0.1°. 
Relative Bearing (Astro): 

to 360°. 
Accuracy: ±0. 1°. 



Marine navigational aid 

magnetometer (Varian free 
nuclear precision magneto- 
meter, model XN-4901) 

Land magnetic stations 

Fuska field magnetometer 



Total field: 25, 000 to 

73, 000 gamnnas. 
Accuracy: ±0.003% or 
±0.5 gamma. 

Magnetic dip: 90° N. to 90° 

s. ± r. 

Magnetic meridian: to 360° 

±r arc. 
True meridian: to 360° 

±r arc. 
LOG MH: ±0.001. 
LOG H/M: ±0.001. 



246 



NAVIGATION 



(A) Instruments for measuring angles and distances. 



I. Angle measuring 



Angle read to 1"; estimated 
to 0. 5". 



a. T-2 Theodolite 

(H. Wild Co. , Switzer- 
land) 



Azimuths determined to 

within 1 " of arc. 
Distance of measuring line: 

10 to IZ nautical miles. 



b. T-3 Theodolite 



Angle read to 0.2". 
Distance of measuring line: 
25 to 30 nautical miles. 



c. T-4 Theodolite 



Angle read on horizontal 

circle to 0. 1 " 
Angle read on vertical 

circle to 0. 2". 



2. Levels (Wild Models N-II and 

N-III) 

3. Distance nneasuring 

a. Geodimeter -- NASM-2 
(AGA, Sweden) 



b. Telluromieter 

(Teliurometer , Ltd., 
South Africa) 



Maximum) range: 38 to 40 

nautical miles. 
Accuracy: 6 ft. 

Maximum range: 38 to 40 

nautical miles. 
Accuracy: 20 ft. 



(B) Electronic positioning systems (Navigational Aids). 
1. Hyperbolic Systemis 



a . Loran-A (Ljng-range 
accuracy) 



Range (useful): approxi- 
mately 200 nautical 
miles . 

Accuracy: 15 ft. on base- 
line; 400 ft. at outer 
limits of usable area. 



247 



2. Ranging Systems 

a. Shoran (Short-range 
navigation) 



Range: Generally restricted 
to approximately line-of- 
sight distances . 

Accuracy: 30 to 50 ft. in 40 
nautical miles. 



b. LAMBDA (Decca 
Navigator, Ltd., 
England) 



Range: 250 nautical miles 
Accuracy: 100 to 400 ft. 

depending on which end of 
the range is being used. 



MR. R. B. PRIEST (Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corpora- 
tion): How much use has been made of television in oceanography? 
What results have been obtained as to range of view and depth of 
operation with artificial light and with natural ambient light? 

MR. J. M. CROSSEN (BCF): Underwater television has been use- 
ful in making oceanographic observations since 1948. However, 
reduced size and ease in maintenance due to more sensitive canneras, 
transistorized and modularized construction, and logging cable 
which incorporates electrical conductors and strength capabilities 
have resulted in increasingly wider utilization of television. 

Television has been used successfully for many applications, 
such as: 

1. Searching the ocean floor for sunken vessels, aircraft, 
transoceanic cables, and ordnance equipment. Generally, 
this type of operation requires the use of a remote-controlled 
trolled vehicle. 

2. Bottom surveys of sediments and studies of the demersal 
fauna. In this application the camera is set in a stand and 
lowered just off or on the sea floor. 

3. Studying the behavior of fish in their natural environment 
as well as within trawls, traps, and dredges. 

4. Observations of individual animals in and out of deep 
scattering layers in conjunction with sonar. 

5. Within submarines as an aid to navigation and for obser- 
ing certain operations. 

6. Water temperatures, current flow, internal wave motion, 
and other oceanographic data have been directly monitored 
on a continuous basis. 



248 



7. Where high definition is required it has been used as a 
view finder with still and/or motion picture cameras. 

8. Observations have been made for marine engineering 
projects. 

Basically, two types of television systems are available for 
making underwater observations. These are the image orthicon 
and the vidicon. Where low light levels are encountered and high 
resolution is a requirement, the image orthicon is generally re- 
commiended. When artificial illumiination is to be used and cost is 
an important consideration, then a vidicon system may satisfac- 
torily be employed. 

A wide range of visibility is encountered in the ocean. Many 
coastal areas limit viewing range to as little as 2 feet, while off- 
shore, visibility ranges of well over 100 feet have been reported. 
Of great importance in underwater visibility is the loss of inten- 
sity of light, caused by part of the light being reflected from the 
surface, by absorption, and by scattering. Horizontal scattering 
of light beneath the surface varies considerably with depth and lo- 
cality. In coastal waters with much wave action the planktonic life 
and particles of minerals cause excessive turbidity, and in some 
places half the total light is absorbed in the first 10 feet. 

Artificial lighting was found to improve contrast considerably. 
However, for optimum results particular care must be used in 
the physical arrangement of lights. The light source should be 
placed as near the subject as possible to reduce back scattering 
from particles. 

Observations made with the image orthicon system (tube type 
#58Z0) of our Woods Hole Laboratory have shown that adequate vi- 
sibility of 20 to 30 feet, with natural illumination, was consistently 
found in certain areas off New England in depths of up to 25 fathoms. 
One February, on the northeast edge of Georges Bank, we were 
able to observe, at 40 fathoms with natural illumination, the 
headrope of a trawl approximately 50 feet from the camera. It 
should be noted that image orthicons now available are more sen- 
sitive than the one we used. 

The U. S. Navy Bureau of Ships has reported nnaking obser- 
vations up to 100 feet away at depths of 800 feet in an area off 
Newfoundland with the use of high sensitivity image orthicon 
cameras. Observations have been reported in depths up to 500 
meters without the aid of artificial illumination. 

MR. J. R. R. HARTER (BUSHIPS): In November 1954 a cooperative 



249 



project was conducted by the Bureau of Ships and the Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries at Miami, Florida. Mr. R. F. Sand, Mr. 
F. H. Stephens, Jr., and a small group of Bureau of Ships techni- 
cal personnel continuously observed the performance of experi- 
mental midwater trawls to a maximum depth of 60 fathoms. Opera- 
tions were conducted aboard the Fish and Wildlife Service's ship 
Oregon in the Bimini area. The optical characteristics of these 
waters would be classified as "good"; they provided light transmis - 
sion on the order of 80 percent on this occasion. Horizontal view- 
ing distances as great as 120 feet produced useful information on 
net and rigging performance, as well as the antics of marine life 
entering or avoiding the trawl. The underwater television (UW- 
TV) camera used was the first Image Multiplier Orthicon (IMO) 
camera expressly designed for this environment. Bureau of 
Ships model CXRL. The camera was controlled in depth and 
attitude by our "UW-TV Glider, " a towed, remote-controlled 
vehicle. 

Relatively little technological improvement that effects the 
maximum range of underwater vision has been accomplished 
since that time. Currently, low light level IMO cameras, having 
useful performance characteristics at illumination levels on the 
order of one nnillionth of a candle per square foot, should 
provide comparable viewing distances in clear water to depths on 
the order of 200 fathoms. Increased light sensitivity has rela- 
tively little influence on the viewing distance due to the character- 
istic turbidity of the clearest of natural waters. Improved light 
sensitivity increases the depth attainment with natural illumina- 
tion. We have recorded useful, detailed, pictorial information 
from an UW-TV camera of the low light level IMO type at a depth 
of 150 fathoms in North Atlantic waters. Natural illumination 
between the hours of 1000 and 1500 provided viewing distances 
up to 100 feet. 

On the occasion of the 150 fathom surveillance project, the 
application of artificial illumination by the best practical techni- 
que possible reduced the viewing distance by a factor of 66 per- 
cent due to the "blinding" effect of scattered light. 

In all related instances the UW-TV picture quality obtained 
provided true halftone detail sufficient to establish shape and 

textural information. By reducing the information requirement to 
outline information or object detection, maximum ranges will be 
increased on the order of 33 percent. 

You will note that the information provided consists of speci- 
fics rather than broad statements. Due to great variations in the 
optical characteristics of natural waters, theoretical essays on the 



250 



subject of hydrological range are presently conceived to be 
primarily useful in the design of UW-TV equipment. It is hoped 
that these empirical data will provide the assistance you required. 
(See also pages 227 - 228.) 



MR. SAM O. RAYMOND (Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc.): 
Does the National Oceanographic Data Center have, or does it 
plan to have, a library of deep sea photographs taken in various 
parts of the oceans of the world? 

MR. H. W. DUBACH (NODC): Yes. We have already acquired 
a few such pictures; those obtained to date are primarily of in- 
terest to the marine geologists. We expect that in the next decade 
there will be nnany more bottom photographs obtained and sub- 
mitted to us as well as pictures of biological life and ice. 



MR. R. P. SHAW (Philco Corporation): Does there exist a sat- 
isfactory equation of state for water relating pressure, volume, 
temperature, and entropy or enthalpy; and, if so, does it explain 
why sound speed increases, then decreases with temperature? 

MR. F. D. JENNINGS (ONR): There is an equation of state for 
sea water and this has been related to entropy and enthalpy by 
N. P. Fofonoff. This subject was widely discussed at the 1958 
meeting in Easton, Maryland, on the Physical and Chemical 
Properties of Sea Water. The Proceedings of that meeting were 
published as: Physical and Chemical Properties of Sea Water, 
National Academy of Sciences -- National Research Council, 
Publication No. 600, 1959. Whether or not the equation of state 
for sea water is satisfactory is a matter of some disagreement 
among oceanographer s . 

In reality, the velocity of sound only increases with tem- 
perature. The minimum sound-velocity channel in the oceans 
is caused by the combined effects of temperatures, pressure, 
and salinity. 



MR. NATHANIEL SHEAR (Emerson Research Laboratories): 
Administratively, how is the funding for oceanographic instru- 
ments handled? 

MR. T. J. WEHE (HO): At present, funding is generally by 
the using agency insofar as purchase of production items is 
concerned. 

251 



MR. TED SMITH (Packard Bell Computer): What is the signifi- 
cance of bio-oceanographic work to defense programs? 

DR. S. R. CALLER (ONR): The answer to this query would entail 
a complete description of our program and a full discussion of our 
philosophy as follows: 

Although not generally recognized outside of the scientific com- 
munity, the U. S. Navy through its Office of Naval Research is one 
of the principal sponsors of fundamental hydrobiological research in 
the United States. The Navy's major effort in this field occurs 
through the Office of Naval Research Hydrobiology Research Pro- 
gram and includes sponsorship of over 100 basic research contracts 
and grants in academic institutions in the United States and abroad 
involving the research activities of several hundred outstanding 
scientists throughout the world. As one of the major consumers of 
hydrobiological infornnation, the Navy is vitally interested in the 
maintenance of a vigorous, healthy national research effort in 
this field of scientific endeavor. 

The purpose of this presentation is threefold: (1) To describe 
the reasons for the Navy's interest in hydrobiology; (2) to ascer- 
tain the nature and scope of the Hydrobiology Program's contribu- 
tions to naval operations; and (3) to review the requirements for 
maintaining an optimum level of scientific activity in this field. 

The term "hydrobiology" as used here describes research con- 
ducted to identify and characterize the biological components of 
marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments, and to ascertain 
the interrelationships of these components with the physical and 
chemical factors of their environments. 

The Office of Naval Research in 1951 instituted a program of 
basic research in hydrobiology with a twofold objective: (1) To 
assess the impact of the biological components of the marine envi- 
ronment on naval operations, and (2) to obtain the basic information 
necessary for developing the means to recognize and cope with the 
hydrobiological causes of naval problems. During the last decade, 
the Navy has profited quite substantially from the Hydrobiology 
Program not only along the lines einticipated when this program was 
first formulated but in many ways quite unforeseen at that time. 

At this point it would be appropriate to present, very briefly, 
an unclassified inventory of the naval problems and interests which 
are now recognized as being marine biological in origin and/or 
which require basic hydrobiological information for their resolu- 
tion. In general, this inventory may be broken down into two ma- 
jor problem categories: 



252 



A. Control of, or protection against, marine biological com- 
ponents interfering with naval operations, and 

B. Utilization of marine biological elements and information 
towards the enhancement of naval operations. 

A. Control of Marine Biological Interference with Naval 
Operations. 

1. Prevention and control of marine biological deterioration 
and fouling: It has been conservatively estimated that the annual 
cost to the Navy alone for the protection and maintenance of ships, 
waterfront structures, and outboard equipmient against marine bio- 
logical deterioration and fouling is approximately $100, 000, 000. 
This figure does not include the costs of increased fuel require- 
ments or the costs of overcoming the logistic and supply problems 
resulting from marine boring or fouling damage. This problem is 
further complicated by the fact that nnany of the protective agents 
which were developed since World War II are incompatible with 
the optimum operational characteristics of a number of modern 
special purpose components, equipments, and systems. As a con- 
sequence, the Navy is engaged in a never-ending search for new 
means of controlling the activities of marine organisms responsible 
for deterioration and fouling. The review and assessment of this 
problem by the scientists engaged in fundamental hydrobiological 
research under Navy auspices has resulted in a reorientation of 
the Navy's research and developmental activities in the field of 
marine protection. It deemphasizes the empirical "trial and error" 
approach to the development of new protective agents. Instead, it 
stresses the importance of understanding the vital processes which 
govern the life cycles and behavior of the organisms causing de- 
terioration and fouling with the objective of characterizing the 
"weak links" in the chain of vital proce sse s, i.e., those basic 
functions which are susceptible to external control. Obtaining 
this information is a requisite for the development of whole 
"famiilies" of control agents which can be "custom tailored" to 
protect in manners compatible with the efficient operation of a 
particular naval equipnnent or system. 

Progress: The Hydrobiology Program has yielded bas^ic in- 
formation showing that certain types of molluscan fouling organ- 
isms depend on an enzyme to control the rate of shell deposition. 
Also, it appears that this enzyme can be inhibited by external 
means. A number of substances have been tested in the laboratory 
to determine their effectiveness as enzyme inhibitors. Several of 
them show considerable promise and are being field evaluated to 
determine their suitability for actual use in the field. Also, con- 



253 



siderable progress has been made in determining the nutritional 
requirements and mechanisms of digestion of crustacean marine 
borers. It has been ascertained that a specific enzyme is required 
for the utilization of cellulose by the wood gribble -- an organism 
which is responsible for much of the marine borer damage. In the 
course of efforts to evaluate a number of compounds as enzymie in- 
hibitors in the wood gribble, it was discovered that a silver com- 
pound was extremely effective in preventing attack by the wood 
gribble and the shipworm. The results of a 3-year field evaluation 
program conducted both in temperate and semitropical waters in- 
dicate that this compound has provided 100 percent protection during 
this period. 

The progress in physiology and biochemistry just presented is 
cited to show the broad spectrum of scientific research encompassed 
within the Hydrobiology Program. Hydrobiology, like the closely 
related field of oceanography, is not a single scientific discipline. 
It is a multidisciplinary effort extending from taxonomy and the des- 
criptive biological sciences, through ecology and so-called "bio- 
logical oceanography, " well into physiology, biochemistry, biophy- 
sics, and the other modern disciplines of quantitative biology. Also, 
hydrobiological research relies heavily upon modern chemistry, 
physics, mathematics, and the earth sciences for assistance. 

In addition to the progress already cited, the Navy continues 
to obtain a body of data regarding the worldwide distribution and 
population fluctuations of marine organisms responsible for deter- 
ioration and fouling. This information is of direct benefit to the Navy 
in the design and construction of waterfront structures and outboard 
equipnnent, and in the planning of naval operations. Finally, research 
data is being obtained relevant to the control of marine borer damage 
and fouling on a number of classified high priority naval projects. 

2. Prediction and control of biological particulates interfering 
with the propagation of acoustic signals underwater: Ever since it 
was discovered during World War II that the false bottom echoes 
or deep scattering layer being picked up on sonar was due to marine 
organisms, the Navy has been vitally concerned with learning more 
about the role of marine biological particulates in the transmission 
^nd reception of sound underwater. The Hydrobiology Program has 
yielded basic information implicating marine biological particulates 
in a number of ways as follows: Marine organisms, even very 
small ones ranging in size from a few millimeters to less than one 
millimeter in length, may cause sound reverberation or attenuation 
if present in sufficient numbers. Larger marine animals may ex- 
hibit acoustic target characteristics similar to the characteristics 
of operational targets, i.e., the so-called "false target" problem. 

254 



Marine animal sound ennitters may produce sounds which greatly 
increase the ambient sound level as in the case of snapping shrimp, 
barnacles, etc. , or they may emit sounds which may be confused 
with sounds produced by surface or underwater vehicles. Also, 
sedentary marine organisms, i.e., fouling animals and plants, 
may either camouflage a target, rendering it less susceptible to 
acoustic detection as in the instance of soft fouling masses covering 
a bottom mine, or it may increase the acoustic target strength of 
an xxnderwater object as in the case of barnacle and mussel growth 
on rubber- or plastic-covered equipments. The immediate objective 
of the Hydrobiology Program has been to provide the Navy with a 
body of information which will enable it to predict the degree and 
type of marine biological interference which it is likely to encounter 
in any environmental and geographical locality of current or poten- 
tial operational interest. The program has been quite successful 
in meeting this requirement except for one aspect; namely, the 
need to obtain data on deep ocean biological sound producers. How- 
ever, this problem is being overcome by the establishment recent- 
ly of a permanent underwater bioacoustic station to which will be 
added shortly an underwater television system. Both the acoustic 
and video pickups will be located in the Florida Straits on the 
bottom of the Gulf Stream. They will be cable-connected to a 
marine laboratory located on the island of Binnini in the Bahamas 
and will enable scientists to monitor and record sounds produced 
by relatively deepwater animals which either live in the Florida 
Straits or migrate along the Gulf Stream. When completed, this 
installation will represent the world's first permanent deepwater 
biological acoustic- video research station. 

The problem of control of marine particulates of bioacoustic 
importance is much more complex and requires a knowledge of the 
biology and behavior of these forms. This is a long-term project 
involving taxonomy, chemistry, ecology, physiology, and acoustics. 
However, good progress is being made in acquiring a body of 
fundamental information on this subject. 

The problems of control of marine deterioration and fouling 
as well as the problem of marine biological interference with 
underwater sound propagation have been presented in some detail 
in order to illustrate the scope of the Hydrobiology Program. 
In addition, a number of other problems of concern to the Navy may 
be mentioned briefly. 

3. Control of and protection against poisonous, venomous, and 
carnivorous marine animals: The Navy continues to be confronted 
with the problem of protecting underwater swimmers as well as 
survivors at sea against sharks, barracuda, moray eels, and other 

255 



carnivorous animals. In addition, it is necessary to develop means 
for protecting naval personnel against a wide variety of venomous 
and poisonous organisms vi^hich may be encountered in the course of 
naval operations. The Hydrobiology Program is yielding informa- 
tion on the seasonal and geographic distribution of obnoxious marine 
forms which enables the Navy to consider this problem during the 
planning of naval operations. In addition, the scientists engaged in 
hydrobiological research are conducting physiological, biochemical, 
and pharmacological investigations to develop means for repelling 
or deterring dangerous marine forms as well as to evolve thera- 
peutic measures for treating personnel injured by such animals. A 
number of compounds and techniques have been discovered which 
show promise of aiding in the control of this problem. 

4. Prediction and control of marine bioluminescence: In cer- 
tain geographic areas during certain seasons there occurs tremen- 
dous growths of populations of marine plants and animals which 
emit visible light when stimulated mechanically. This phenomenon 
has resulted in rendering surface vessels, submarine and mine 
fields detectable from the air. During World War II, a number of 
ships and torpedo boats were detected and attacked because of the 
bioluminescent wakes resulting from mechanical stimulation of 
light-emitting organisms. The Hydrobiology Program is providing 
the Navy with data regarding the geographic distribution, type, and 
seasonal occurrence of bioluminescence. This data is important in 
the planning of naval operations. In addition, research is being con- 
ducted to establish the biochemical and physiological mechanisms of 
bioluminescence in the hope that it may become possible to develop 
means for controlling this phenomenon. 

The limitations of space prevent a complete discussion of the 
other hydrobiological problems of interest to the Navy. However, 
they are listed as follows: 

5. Prediction and control of populations of fishes of commer- 
cial and sports importance occurring in areas in which the Navy is 
conducting underwater acoustic or explosive tests. 

6. Prediction and control of populations of marine organisms 
which could be susceptible to radioactive contamination as a result 
of exposure to underwater nuclear explosions. 

7. Prediction and control of marine organisms interfering 
with mine warfare, mine countermeasures, as well as submarine 
and anti-submarine warfare operations. This is a classified re- 
search phase of the Hydrobiology Program. 

B. The second major objective of the Hydrobiology Program is 
to provide the Navy with means for utilizing or emulating marine 



256 



biological phenomena towards the improvement of materials, com- 
ponents, equipments, per sonnel performance, and systems. Some 
of the important research activities being conducted under this 
phase of the program are as follows: 

1. Studies of the hydrodynamic characteristics and boundary 
layer control of marine animals: These studies afford an opportun- 
ity to obtain basic information which will be useful in the design 
and construction of new hulls for surface ships and subnnarines. 

2. Research on the mechanisms of propulsion of miarine ani- 
mals: Data is being obtained to indicate that many marine organ- 
isms possess propulsive mechanisms which are not only highly 
efficient but which are silent, presenting no detectable hydrody- 
namic turbulence. This is a phenomenon of considerable applied 
interest to the Navy. 

3. Marine animal communications and navigation: It has been 
established that many kinds of marine animals are able to detect 
and identify targets and "navigate" towards these targets over 
great distances with extrenne accuracy. Further, it has been as- 
certained that many of these forms are able to engage in apparently 
secure underwater communications exchanges. The Hydrobiology 
Program is yielding data which will lead to the evolution of new 
concepts of target identification, long-range underwater navigation, 
and underwater communications. Ultimately, it is hoped that the 
fundamental information will be used for the design and develop- 
ment of mechanical and electronic analogues of direct value to 

the Navy. 

4. Physiological and biochemical evaluation of deep diving 
abilities of marine animals: Many marine animals including whales, 
porpoises, seals, as well as a variety of fishes are able to dive 
very rapidly to relatively great depths and surface just as rapidly 
without developing the "bends" or other diseases associated with 
human divers. It is hoped that the information being obtained from 
this phase of the program will be helpful in developing means for 
protecting many divers and underwater swimmers against these 
occupational hazards. 

5. Photosynthetic gas exchangers: One of the important ' 
problems in the area of submarine habitability is the need for de- 
veloping innproved means for maintaining a viable atmosphere and 
getting rid of toxic gases. Plants including algae are able to pro- 
duce oxygen ajid consume carbon dioxide through the process of 
photosynthesis. Research is being conducted which is aimed at 
elucidating these exceedingly complex reactions. In addition, in- 
vestigations are being conducted on the nutritional requirements, 

the physiology and the biochemistry of algae in an effort to determine 

257 



the feasibility of establishing photo synthetic gas exchanges for use 
aboard submarines. 

6. Artificial gills: As described in paragraph five above, the 
Navy is interested in developing improved mecheuiisms for main- 
taining an adequate atmosphere aboard a submarine. Many types of 
large marine animals dwell in the deep ocean which is supposedly 
very poor in dissolved oxygen content. Nevertheless, these forms 
are able to thrive in this environment. This suggests that the or- 
ganisms may have low metabolic requirements or highly efficient 
gas exchange mechanisms for extracting oxygen from the water and 
disposing of carbon dioxide back into the water. Efforts are being 
made to characterize these systems to the point where it would be 
possible to determine their value as a basis for the development of 
artificial gills. 

7. Utilization of marine biological products: It has been ob- 
served that certain marine animals and plants produce substances 
which either repel other forms or inhibit their normal physiological 
activities. Many of these substances are being collected and examin- 
ed in terms of their biochennical composition. Also, the physiologi- 
cal and pharmacological characteristics are being investigated. Ul- 
timately, it is hoped that some of these biologically active substances 
will prove to be of practical value as shark repellents or deterrents, 
as antibiotics, as marine preservatives, as well as in other ways of 
interest to the Navy. 

8. Utilization of marine animals and plants in naval operations 
(classified). 

Now that we have considered the Navy's interests in hydrobio- 
logical research as well as the nature and scope of the Hydrobiology 
Program, let us review some of the requirements for maintaining 
an optimum level of scientific activity in this field. In general there 
are two requirements: 

1. The essential need to maintain a free research atmosphere 
unfettered by "kibitzing" from the sponsoring organization: At 
first hand this concept may appear as a contradiction of the state- 
ments previously presented in this paper. However, if we examine 
the modus operandi of the Hydrobiology Program, we find that it is 
quite in harmony with this concept. The design and plans for this 
program represent the exclusive responsibility of the Office of 
Naval Research, i.e. , the general mosaic of the research needs 
and objectives are established and maintained by the Office of Naval 
Research. However, once the objectives are established, the indivi- 
dual investigations are selected and activated from a large number of 
iinsolicited proposals received from dedicated scientists located for 



258 



the most part in universities or other nonprofit research institu- 
tions. In a smaller number of instances proposals are received 
from scientists affiliated with industrial organizations. In no in- 
stance is a proposal solicited. Indeed, generally the scientists 
submitting the basic research proposals are unaware of the Navy's 
applied programmatic interests in hydrobiology. The result is a 
happy wedding of the intellectual interests of the scientists and the 
consumer interests of the Navy. In the first instance, the investi- 
gator is free to carry on research sponsored by the Office of Naval 
Research which represents his personal scientific selection. In the 
second instance, because of the care used in selecting basic research 
for Office of Naval Research sponsorship, the Navy obtains the 
fundamental data which it needs for its own purpose. Thus, under 
this system the research program manager in the Office of Naval 
Research has the major responsibility of fitting together the re- 
search pieces of the "jigsaw puzzle" to construct a Hydrobiology 
Program mosaic which is of significance to the Navy. 

2. There is a pressing need to provide the scientists engaged 
in hydrobiological research with improved research facilities and 
equipment. It is important in this regard to recognize that the great 
majority of the scientists conducting research in this field are not 
affiliated with oceanographic institutions. Most of them are assoc- 
iated with biology departments of universities or with marine bio- 
logical field stations. In a great many cases seagoing research 
ships are not available to them. Also, in a disturbingly large 
number of instances the research ships which are made available for 
their use are available for relatively short periods, and often on 
a not-to-interfere basis. Also, it is important to note that most 
of the oceanographic research ships are suitable only for a narrow 
range of biological researches -- primarily for survey types of 
biological collecting. As a result, it is exceedingly difficult for 
.the research biologist to conduct so-called "standard station in- 
vestigations, " that is, to investigate the population dynamics and 
biological activities of marine organisms in a given locality for 
extended periods or over several seasons. Another important 
problem quite closely related to the scarcity of suitable research 
ships is the lack of specialized equipment. There is a pressing 
need for inrjproved collecting devices. Recently, the Office of Na- 
val Research pioneered in the development of an automatic plank- 
ton collector which could be mounted on the hull of a submarine. 
This device, known as the Gizmo I, was used quite successfully 
on the U. S. S. Sea Dragon during its circumpolar cruise. This has 
provided the scientific community with a valuable series of bio- 
logical collections obtained from middepths and from a variety 

259 



of oceanic environments. More devices of this kind are urgently- 
needed. Similarly, there exists a need for deep ocean devices which 
will enable the biologist to study the physiological behavior of large 
animals in situ in view of the impossibility of bringing large, deep 
ocean dwelling animals to the surface in suitable condition for study. 

Finally, there is a need for recognizing the important scientific 
contributions which can be made by limnologists and freshwater bio- 
logists in improving our knowledge of the oceans. Many of the scien- 
tists currently engaged in oceanic research were originally trained 
in departments of limnology and at freshwater laboratories. Lakes 
and ponds can be useful research models for investigating biological 
phenomena which are closely analogous to biological conditions in 
the oceans. Additional research facilities and scientific equipment 
which might be made available for limnological research could bear 
handsome dividends in improving our knowledge of the oceans. 

In conclusion, we would wish to emphasize that there is an ur- 
gent need for improved instrumentation for marine biological re- 
search, but we feel that before we consider improving the current 
instruments it is necessary that we evolve new concepts of instru- 
mentation. Therefore, we would want to ask ourselves the question: 
Are we content to continue to improve equipment which operates on 
proceeding at a few knots at the most? Are we content to instrument 
only specially designed research ships or are we prepared to proceed 
toward the development of radically new sampling and measuring de- 
vices that can operate at high speeds from a ship of opportunity? We 
are of the opinion that the latter is a direction which we must serious- 
ly consider. 



MR. TED SMITH (Packard Bell Computer): 1. Of the 20-odd trans- 
ducer types mentioned for survey vessels, indicate the number which 
provide output in the following ranges: to 10 v. d. c. , to 1 v. d. c. , 
OtolOmv.d.c, Imv.d.c. orless. 2. What are the normal analog 
amplifier bandwidths necessary for transducer amplification? 3. Are 
differential inputs to the amplifiers needed? What is the common nnode 
frequency and what CMR is necessary? (See also page 225.) 

MR. G. JAFFE (HO): The answers to Mr. Smith's questions ar-e of 
a general nature and are as follows: 1. The output of the transducers 
will be in a range to 5 volts d. c . or a. c. , maximum. 2. The nor- 
mal cLnalog amplifier bandwidths are within the range, to 30, 000 
c.p.s., maximum. 3. There is a possibility that differential inputs 
to amplifiers might be needed if the signal is to be amplified at the 



260 



terminal end. If so, then the common miode frequency will be 60 
c.p. s. and the CMR necessary will be the greatest that is practi- 
cally possible to obtain. 



MR. ROBERT M. SPIEGEL (Polorad Electronics): 1. Cannot 
Omega's 8-mile ambiguity be resolved by audio modulation of the 
carrier? Z. What firms are developing equipment? 3. Cannot the 
problem of large distance from shore for fixed stations fornning 
part of navigational systems be overcome by permanently anchor- 
ing buoys or "electronic lighthouse" vessels for navigational refer- 
ence purposes? 

LIEUTENANT COMMANDER R. P. DINSxMORE ( USCG): 1. In the 
Omega program a ZOO-cycle FSK modulation originally was includ- 
ed to resolve the 8-mile ambiguity. This is a complex circuit, 
however, and was dropped about two years ago on the basis that 
its complexity outweighs its usefulness. 2. Commercial firms 
presently developing Omiega receivers are Motorola and I. T. & T. 
The Naval Research Laboratory also is conducting developmental 
research. 3. The large power requirements (30 kw, ) and elabo- 
rate antenna array obviates the use of buoys in a Loran or other 
similar chain. Further, Loran is only semi-automatic and re- 
quires constant manual monitoring and synchronization. The use 
of an anchored ship is possible although antennas, maintenance, 
and positional requirements make such consideration marginal. 
Coast Guard experience with lightships indicates a station keep- 
ing error which would be greater than the accuracy of a high 
performance system. A moored shipboard transmitter whose 
position is automatically determined and synchronized to two 
other stations in a chain is feasible but has not been considered 
to date. 



MR.- R. E. TRIPPENSEE (Wildlife Supply Company): Are re- 
search pressure tanks available -- small size -- where -- price? 

MR. J. M. SNODGRASS (SIO): Yes. The smallest size that I am 
aware of is rated nominally at 100 ml. The dimensions of the 
small chamber are 1-1/4 in. (inside diameter) by 5 in. (inside 
length). This particular one may be obtained in two pressure 
ranges, one 12, OOOp.s.i. at a nominal 650 F. maximum, or 
30, 000 p. s.i. at 650° F. maximum. They are available all the 
way up to what may be called plant- size reactors, which are, 
for instance, 12 ft. inside depth by 12 in. inside diameter. I 

261 



would be pleased to refer you to two sources of supply: one. 
Autoclave Engineers, 2930 West ZZnd St., Erie, Pennsylvania; 
the next is the American Instrument Company, Inc., 8030 Georgia 
Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland. Either company is well able 
to supply you with almost any size vessel which you wish and work 
to any pressure within reason up to 30, 000 p. s. i. or even 100, 000 
p.s.i. The latter company has tended to specialize in "super pres- 
sure systems" working in the 100, 000 p. s. i. range. As far as 
price is concerned, the smaller sizes probably can be obtained for 
less than $100, though the price goes up relatively rapidly to one 
3-1/2 in. (inside diameter) by 13 in. deep, capable of working to 
30, 000 p. s. i. , will cost approximately $800. 



MR. MORRIS WEISS (Barnes Engineering Company): Mr. Schule 
talked about infrared scanners for horizontal temperature nnea- 
surement and for ice survey programs. Could we have more speci- 
fic information here? 

MR. J. J. SCHULE, JR. (HO): The obtaining of an accurate hori- 
zontal picture of the sea surface temperature pattern has proven 
to be of great importance in the ASWEPS program. With the Air- 
borne Radiation Thermometer we now can measure sea surface 
temperature quite accurately from an aircraft, but only along a 
line directly beneath the aircraft track. The object of making ex- 
periments with an infrared scanner would be to broaden the scope 
of these measurements by using the scanning device to provide 
a horizontal presentation of the sea surface temperature gradient, 
while establishing an absolute temperature reference with the Air- 
borne Radiation Thermometer. In this way a more accurate de- 
lineation of small scale temperature features can be obtained; 
these featvires have proven to be of great interest to us. 

It also seems probably that infrared scanning techniques can 
be used effectively in Arctic ice reconnaissance. Most such re- 
connaissance is usually carried out visually; the data, therefore, 
not only contain a considerable amount of subjectivity, but recon- 
naissance is precluded during the winter months. The nature of 
the temperature structure in Arctic sea ice and adjacent open 
water areas makes it appear feasible to use infrared techniques 
to obtain objective data on a year-round basis. This, of course, 
would not solve the problem of providing an all-weather capability, 
but it woxild be a step in the right direction. 



262 



MR. MORRIS WEISS (Barnes Engineering Company): Please 
comment on the function of "airborne" data gathering in the ocean- 
ographic picture. What variables do you expect to measure from 
the air ? 

MR. A. C. VINE (WHOI): To date there have not been many kinds 
of survey-type measurements made from the air. Perhaps the 
most successful have been infrared measurements of the sea sur- 
face to discover and delineate areas and boundaries between water 
masses of different temperatures. A great deal of valuable magnet- 
ic work has been done from the air and more will be done. Sea 
state observations with low flying radar is another measurement. 
Acoustic observations, such as, ambient noise, water depth, 
reverberation, etc. , can probably be made from aircraft except 
costs, including sonobuoys, seem high compared with those made 
from ships. 

The monitoring of a buoy line or field from a plane on at least 
an experimental basis seems to be indicated. 



263 



APPENDIX B 

NON-INDUSTRIAL MARINE SCIENCE LABORATORIES AND OFFICES OF THE 
UNITED STATES, MEMBERS OF THE ICO AND ITS PANELS, AND OTHER 

INTERESTED PERSONS 



The following lists were compiled from the original ICO list and from appendix B of 
Chapter 11 of Oceanography 1960 - 1970 . The laboratories are arranged alphabetically by 
institution or by Government Bureau. Where the name of the institution or Bureau is not 
part of the address, it is enclosed in parentheses. Unless otherwise indicated, correspon- 
dence should be directed to the Director of civilian laboratories and to the Commanding 
Officer of military activities and laboratories. 



Marine Science Laboratories and Offices 



Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Philadelphia 
Department of Limnology 
19th and The Parkway 
Philadelphia 3, Pennsylvania 



Air Force Cambridge Research 

Laboratory (CRZG) 
Terrestrial Sciences Laboratory 
L. G. Hanscom Field 
Bedford, Massachusetts 



Agricultural and Mechanical College 

of Texas 
Departnnent of Oceanography and 

Meteorology 
College Station, Texas 

Agricultural and Mechanical College 

of Texas 
Fort Crockett Marine Laboratory 
Bldg. 311, Fort Crockett 
Galveston, Texas 

U. S. Air Force 

Aeronautical Chart and Information 

Center 
Second and Arsenal Streets 
St. Louis 18, Missouri 

Air Force Cambridge Research 

Laboratories (LRTE) 
L. G. Hanscom Field 
Bedford, Massachusetts 

U. S. Air Force 

Office of the Surgeon General, 

Headquarters 
3800 Newark Street NW 
Temporary Building 8 
Washington 25, D. C. 
Attn: Dr. George M. Leiby, AFCSG- 1 



Alabama Marine Laboratory 
Bayou La Batre, Alabama 

Alaska Department of Fish and Game 
Subport Building 
Juneau, Alaska 

Alaska Department of Fish and Game 
Kitoi Bay Research Station 
Kodiak, Alaska 

Annerican Geophysical Union 
1515 Massachusetts Ave. NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

American Museum of Natural History 
Department of Fishes and Aquatic 

Biology 
Central Park West at 79th Street 
New York 24, New York 

American Society of Limnology and 
Oceanography 

Dr. George H. Lauff, Secretary- 
Treasurer 

University of Michigan 

Department of Zoology 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Amherst College 
Department of Physics 
Amherst, Massachusetts 



265 



Arctic Institute of North America 
1530 P Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Arctic Research Laboratory 
Point Barrow, Alaska 



Auburn University 

Department of Civil Engineering 

Auburn, Alabama 

Bears Bluff Laboratories 
Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina 



Armor Research and Foundation 
10 West 35th Street 
Chicago 10, Illinois 
Attn: J. E. Bridges 

U. S. Arnny Corps of Engineers 

(3410) 
Army Map Service 
Washington 25, D. C. 

U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 
Beach Erosion Board 
5201 Little Falls Road 
Washington 16, D. C. 

U. S. Army Engineer 
Waterways Experiment Station 
P. O. Box 631 
Vicksburg, Mississippi 

U. S. Army Engineer District 

Los Angeles 
Corps of Engineers 
P. O. Box 17277, Foy Station 
Los Angeles 17, California 
Attn: River & Harbor Planning 
Section 

U. S. Army 

Geodesy Intelligence and Mapping 
Research Development Agency 
Fort Belvoir, Virginia 

Atlantic States Marine Fisheries 

Commission 
200 East College Avenue 
Tallahassee, Florida 
Attn: Ernest Mitts, Secretary- 
Treasurer 

Atomic Energy Commission 
Division of Biology and Medicine 
Washington 25, D. C. 
Attn: Dr. I. E. Wallen, Marine 
Biologist 

Atomic Energy Commission 
Environmental and Sanitary 

Engineering Branch 
Division of Reactor Development 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Battelle Memorial Institute 
Department of Economics and 

Information Research 
505 King Avenue 
Columbus 1, Ohio 

Beaudette Foundation for Biological 

Research 
1597 Calzada Road 
Santa Ynez, California 

Bermuda Biological Station 
St. George's West 
Bermuda 

Bowdoin College 
Department of Biology 
Brunswick, Maine 

Brooklyn College 
Department of Geology 
Brooklyn 10, New York 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Chief, Division of Biological Research 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
P. O. Box 640, 1220 E. Washington 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
P. O. Box 1155 
Auke Bay, Alaska 

Bureau of Connmercial Fisheries 

Biological Laboratory 

Pivers Island 

Beaufort, North Carolina 

Bureau of Connmercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
P. O. Box 280 
Brunswick, Georgia 



266 



Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory, 
Bldg. 302 
Fort Crockett 
Galveston, Texas 

Bureau 6f Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
Gulf Breeze, Florida 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
P. O. Box 3830, 2570 Dole Street 
Honolulu 12, Hawaii 



Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Columbia Fisheries Program Office 
P. O. Box 4332 
Portland 8, Oregon 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Chief, Branch of Exploratory Fishing 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Exploratory Fishing and Gear 

Research Base 
5 Research Drive 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 



Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

Biological Laboratory 

P. O. Box 271 

La JoUa, California 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
Milford, Connecticut 

Bureau of Comnnercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
Oxford, Maryland 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
P. O. Box 6121, Point Loma Station 
San Diego 6, California 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
2725 Montlake Boulevard East 
Seattle 2, Washington 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
450-B Jordan Hall 
Stanford, California 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
Bldg. 74. Naval Weapons Plant 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

Biological Laboratory 

West Boothbay Harbor, Maine 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

Biological Laboratory 

P. O. Box 6 

Woods Hole, Massachusetts 



Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Exploratory Fishing and Gear 

Research Base 
P. O. Drawer B 
1231 Bay Street 
Brunswick, Georgia 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Exploratory Fishing Base 
State Fish Pier 
Gloucester, Massachusetts 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Exploratory Fishing and Gear 

Research Base 
P. O. Box 2481 
Juneau, Alaska 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Exploratory Fishing and Gear 

Research Base 
239 Frederick Street 
Pascagoula, Mississippi 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Exploratory Fishing and Gear 

Research Base 
2725 Montlake Boulevard E. 
Seattle 2, Washington 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Fish Passage Research Program 
Bldg. 67, U. S. Naval Air Station 
Seattle 15, Washington 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Ichthyological Laboratory 
National Museum, Room 71 
Washington 25, D. C. 



267 



Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Marine Md.mmal Biological Laboratory 
U. S. Naval Air Station 
Seattle 15, Washington 



Director 
Bureau of Mines 
Washington 25, D. 



C. 



Bureau of Ships 
Librarian, Code 335 
Washington Z5, D. C. 

(Bureau of Ships) 

U. S. Naval Radiological Defense 

Laboratory 
San Francisco 24, California 



(Bureau of Naval Personnel) 

Department of Meteorology and Oceanography 

U. 5. Naval Postgraduate School 

Monterey, California 



(Bureau of Ships) 

U. S. Naval Underwater Ordnance 

Station 
Newport, Rhode Island 



Chief, Bureau of Naval Weapons 
Department of the Navy 
Washington 25, D. C. 
Attention : FASS 

(Bureau of Naval Weapons) 
Fleet Weather Central 
Monterey, California 

(Bureau of Naval Weapons) 

U. S. Naval Explosive Ordnance 

Disposal Technical Center 
U. S. Naval Propellant Plant 
Indian Head, Maryland 



(Bureau of Ships) 

U. S. Naval Underwater Sound 

Laboratory 
Fort Trumbull 
New London, Connecticut 

(Bureau of Ships) 

U. S. Navy Electronics Laboratory 

Point Lonna 

San Diego 52, California 

(Bureau of Ships) 

U. S. Navy Mine Defense Laboratory 

Panama City, Florida 



(Bureau of Naval Weapons) 

U. S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory 

White Oak 

Silver Spring, Maryland 



(Bureau of Ships) 

U. S. Naval Radiological Defense 

-Laboratory (Code 912) 
San Francisco 24, California 



(Bureau of Naval Weapons) 

U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station 

China Lake, California 

(Bureau of Naval Weapons) 

U. S. Naval Ordnance Testing Station 

3202 East Foothill Boulevard 

Pasadena, California 

Attn: Code P8051 

(Bureau of Naval Weapons) 

U. S. Naval Torpedo Station, Code 311 

Keyport, Washington 

(Bureau of Naval Weapons) 
U. S. Navy Weather Research Facility 
Bldg. R-48, Naval Air Station 
Norfolk, Virginia 

(Bureau of Ships) 

David Taylor Model Basin, Code 580 

Washington 7, D. C. 



Bureau of Yards and Docks 
Office of Research, Code 70 
Washington 25, D. C. 

(Bureau of Yards and Docks) 
U. S. Naval Civil Engineering 

Laboratory 
Materials Division, Code L52 
Port Hueneme, California 
Attn: D. F. Griffin, Director, 
Materials Division 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 

Wildlife 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 

Wildlife 
Atlantic Marine Game Fish Research 

Center 
Sandy Hook Marine Laboratory 
P. O. Box 428 
Highlands, New Jersey 



268 



Bureau of Sport Fisheries and 

Wildlife 
Chief, Branch of Fishery Research 
Div-ision of Sport Fisheries 
Washington 25, D. C. 

California Academy of Sciences 

Golden Gate Park 

San Francisco 18, California 

California Academy of Sciences 
Department of Geology 
Golden Gate Park 
San Francisco 18, California 

California Institute of Technology 
Department of Geological Sciences 
Pasadena 4, California 

California Institute of Technology 
Kerckhoff Marine Laboratory 
101 Dahlia Street 
Corona del Mar, California 

California (State) Department of 

Fish & Game 
Eureka Laboratory 
127 G. Street 
Eureka, California 



i^niei of Naval Operations, Office of the 

(OP 09B5) 
The Pentagon 
Washington 25, D. C. 

(Chief of Naval Operations) 
Technical Advisor for Earth Sciences 

(OP - 07T14) 
Deputy Chief of Naval Operations 

(Development) 
Room 5E621 
The Pentagon 
Washington, D. C. 

Clark University 
Department of Chemistry 
Worcester, Massachusetts 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 

(Ref. 362) 
Department of Commerce 
Washington 25, D. C. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 
Office of Oceanography 
Washington 25, D. C. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 
Washington 25, D. C. 



California State Department of 

Fish and Game 
Hopkins Marine Station 
Pacific Grove, California 

California State Dept. of Fish and 

Game 
Marine Resources Laboratory 
411 Burgess Drive 
Menlo Park, California 

California State Department of 

Fish and Game 
Marine Resources Library 
State Fisheries Laboratory 
511 Tuna Street 
Terminal Island Station, 
San Pedro, California 



U. S. Coast Guard 

Floating Units Division (Sta. 7-5) 

Washington 25, D. C. 

U. S. Coast Guard 
International Ice Patrol 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

College of Charleston 

Fort Johnson Marine Biological 

Laboratory 
Route 1 
Charleston, South Carolina 

Colorado State University 
Department of Civil Engineering 
Fort Collins, Colorado 



Cape Haze Marine Laboratory 
9501 Blind Pass Road 
Sarasota, Florida 



269 



Columbia University 
Hudson Laboratories 
145 Palisade Street 
Dobbs Ferry, New York 

Columbia University 

Lamont Geological Observatory 

Palisades, New York 

Columbia University 

Lamont Geological Observatory 

Geophysical Field Station 

St. George's, Bermuda 

Connecticat College 

Botany Departnnent 

New London, Connecticut 

Connecticut College 
Zoology Department 
New London, Connecticut 



Florida State University 
Oceanographic Institute 
Tallahassee, Florida 

The Franklin Institute 
Electrical Engineering Division 
Bio-Instrumentation Laboratory 
Philadelphia 3, Pennsylvania 
Attn: C. W. Hargens 

U. S. Geological Survey 
Departnnent of the Interior 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries 

Institute 
James B. Higman, Executive 

Secretary 
1 Rickenbacker Causeway, 

Virginia Key 
Miami 49. Florida 



Connecticut, State of 
Board of Fisheries and Game 
State Office Building 
Hartford, Connecticut 

Cornell University 
Department of Conservation 
Fernow Hall 
Ithaca, New York 
Attn: Dr. Edward C. Raney, 
Professor of Zoology 

Dartmouth College 
Geology Dept. 
Hanover, New Hampshire 
Attn: Mr. Silsky 

Duke University 
Marine Laboratory 
Beaufort, North Carolina 



Gulf Coast Research Laboratory 
Ocean Springs, Mississippi 

Gulf States Marine Fisheries 

Commission 
9il Canal Street 
New Orleans 16, Louisiana 
Attn; W . Dudley Gunn, Director 

Harvard University 
Biological Laboratories 
16 Divinity Avenue 
Cambridge 38, Massachusetts 

Harvard University 
Graduate School of Business 

Administration 
Baker Library 
Soldiers Field 
Boston 63, Massachusetts 



Florida State Board of Conservation 
Marine Fishery Organization 
Tallahassee, Florida 

Florida State Board of Conservation 

Marine Laboratory 

Post Office Drawer F 

St. Petersburg 31, Florida 

Florida State University 
Marine Laboratory 
Alligator Harbor, Florida 



Harvard University 
Museum of Comparative Zoology 
Cambridge 38, Massachusetts 
Attn: Miss Jessie Bell MacKenzie, 
Librarian 

Haskins Laboratories 
305 East 43rd Street 
New York 17, New York 
Attn: Dr. L. Provasoli 



270 



Hawaii, State of 

Department of Land and Natural 

Resources 
Division of Fish and Game 
P. O. Box 5425 
Honolulu 14. Hawaii 

Humboldt State College 
Marine Fisheries Laboratory 
Areata, California 

Humboldt State College 

Oceanography 

Areata, California 

Attn; Dr. James A. Cast 

Indiana University 
Department of Botany 
Bloomington, Indiana 



International Oceanographic 

Foundation 
Dr. F. G. Walton Smith, 

Vice President 
1 Rickenbacker Cj-useway, 

Virginia Key 
Miami 49, Florida 

International Pacific Halibut 

Comnnission 
University of Washington 
Fisheries Hall No. 2 
Seattle 5, Washington 

International Pacific Salmon 

Fisheries Commission 
Box 30 

New Westminster , B. C, 
Canada 



Institute for Defense Analysis 
The Pentagon 
Washington 25. D. C. 



John G. Shedd Aquarium 
1200 South Lakeshore Drive 
Chicago 5, Illinois 



Institute of Oceanography and 

Marine Biology 
P. O. Box 432 
Oyster Bay, New York, New York 



Johns Hopkins University 
Chesapeake Bay Institute 
121 Maryland Hall 
Baltimore 18, Maryland 



Instrument Society of America 
Penn Sheraton Hotel 
530 William Penn Place 
Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania 

Inter -American Tropical Tuna 

Commission 
Field Laboratory 
700 Tuna Street 
Terminal Island, California 



The Johns Hopkins University 
Applied Physics Laboratory 
1861 Georgia Avenue 
Silver Spring, Maryland 
Attn: George Seielstad 

Lehigh University 
Marine Science Center 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 
Attn: Dr. Keith E. Chave 



Inter -American Tropical Tuna 

Commission 
Headquarters Laboratory 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
La JoUa, California 

Intergovernmental Oceanographic 

Committee 
UNESCO 

Place de Fontenoy 
Paris 7^, 
France 
Attn: Secretary 



(Leland Stanford University) 
Hopkins Marine Station 
Pacific Grove, California 

Lerner Marine Laboratory 
1211 DuPont Building 
Miami 32, Florida 

Louisiana State University 
Coastal Studies Institute 
Baton Rouge 3, Louisiana 



271 



Louisiana (State) Wild Life and 

Fisheries Commission 
Wild Life and Fisheries Building 
400 Royal Street 
New Orleans 16, Louisiana 

Lubec Oceanographic Centre 
Lubec, Maine 

Maine Department of Sea and Shore 

Fisheries 
Fisheries Research Station 
Boothbay Harbor , Maine 



National Academy of Sciences 

Connnnittee on Oceanography 
2101 Constitution Avenue NW 
Washington 25. D. C. 

National Academy of Sciences - 

National Research Council 
Committee on Undersea Warfare 
2101 Constitution Avenue NW 
Washington 25, D. C. 

National Bureau of Standards 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Maine Department of Sea and Shore 

Fisheries 
State House 
Augusta, Maine 

Marine Biological Laboratory 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

Marine Fisheries Engineering 

Research Institute, Inc. 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

Marine Studios, Inc. 
Marineland, Florida 

Marmeland of the Pacific 

Palos Verdes Estates, California 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Department of Geology 
Cambridge 39, Massachusetts 
Attn: R. R. Shrock, 24-302 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Department of Geophysics 
Cambridge 39, Massachusetts 

Massachusetts, State of 

Department of Natural Resources 

Division of Marine Fishes 

15 Ashburton Place 

Boston 8, Massachusetts 

Attn: Frederick C. Wilbour, Jr. 

Michigan State Department of 

Conservation 
Institute for Fisheries Research 
Division of Fisheries 
University Museums Annex 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Milisaps College 
Department of Geology 
Jackson 10, Mississippi 



National Fisheries Institute 
Ibl4 20th Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

National Institutes of Health 
Radiation Safety Officer 
Bethesda, Maryland 
Attn: Dr. Howard Andrews 

U. S. National Museum 
Division of Fishes 
Washington 25, D. C. 

National Oceanographic Data Center 
Washington 25, D. C. 

National Research Council 

The AMSOC Committee - Mohole 

Project 
2101 Constitution Avenue NW 
Washington 25, D. C. 

(Naval Weather Service) 

Fleet Weather Facility, San Diego 

NAS, North Island 

San Diego 3-5, California 

Attn: CDR Frederick G. Robinson 

Naval Weather Service 
Naval Receiving Station 
Washington 25. D. C. 

Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 
Attn: CDR T. K. Treadwell, 
Code 1005 

Navy Hydrographic Office 
Instrumentation Division 
Suitland. Maryland 

Navy Hydrographic Office 
Marine Surveys Division 
Suitland, Maryland 



272 



Navy Hydrographic Office 
Oceanographic Analysis Div. 
Suitland, Maryland 

Navy Hydrographic Office 
Oceanographic Prediction Division 
Suitland, Maryland 

New Jersey (State) Di\ision of 

Fish and Game 
230 West State Street 
Trenton, New Jersey 

New Jersey Oyster Research Laboratory 
Bivalve, New Jersey 

(New Jersey, State of) 
Oyster Research Laboratory 
New Jersey Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station 
Rutgers University 
New Brunswick, New Jersey 

New Jersey Division of Shell Fisheries 
234 West State Street 
Trenton, New Jersey 

New York Aquarium 
Brooklyn 24, New York 

New York (State) 
Conservation Department 
Division of Fish and Game 
State Office Building 
Albany 1, New York 

New York (State) Conservation 

Department 
Marine Research 
65 W. Sunrise Highway 
Freeport, New York 

New York University 
College of Engineering 
Research Division 
University Heights 
New York 53, New York 
Attn: Dr. Harold K. Work 

New York University 
Department of Meteorology and 

Oceanography 
University Heights 
New York 53, New York 



New York Zoological Society 
The New York Aquarium 
Coney Island 
Brooklyn 24, New York 

North Carolina State College 
Department of Zoology 
P. O. Box 5215 
State College Station 
Raleigh, North Carolina 

Northwestern University 
Department of Geology 
Evanston, Illinois 

Office of Naval Research 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Office of Naval Research (Code 405) 
Director, Naval Analysis Group 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Office of Naval Research 
Geophysics Branch 
Washington 25, D. C. 

(Office of Naval Research) 

Librarian 

Naval Research Laboratory 

Washington 25, D. C. 

(Office of Naval Research) 
U. S. Navy Underwater Sound 

Reference Laboratory 
P. O. Box 8337 
Orlando, Florida 

(Office of Naval Research) 
Sound Division, Code 5541 
Naval Research Laboratory 
Washington 25, D. C. 
Attn: Mr. Matthew Flato 

Oregon Fish Commission 
307 State Office Building 
Portland 1, Oregon 

Oregon Fish Commission 
Research Headquarters 
Route 1, Box 31A 
Clackamas, Oregon 

Oregon Fish Commission 
Research Laboratory 
859 Olney Avenue 
Astoria, Oregon 



273 



Oregon Fish Commission 
Research Laboratory 
P. O. Box 529 
Charleston, Oregon 

Oregon Fish Commission 
Shellfish Research Laboratory 
250 S. W. Bay Blvd. 
Newport, Oregon 

Oregon Fish Commission 
Research Laboratory 
P. O. Box 392 
Oakriilge, Oregon 

Oregon State Unisersity 
Department of Oceanography 
Corvallis, Oregon 

Oregon State University 
Yaquina Bay Fishery Laboratory- 
Star Route East 
Newport, Oregon 

Pacific Lutheran College 
Department of Biology 
Tacoma 44, Washington 

Pacific Marine Fisheries Commission 
741 State Office Building 
1400 S. W. Fifth Avenue 
Portland 1, Oregon 
Attn: Alphonse Kemmerich,. 
Executive Director 

Pacific Union College 

Mendocino Biological Field Station 

Angwin, California 

Pennsylvania State University 
College of Mineral Industries 
Department of Geology 
Mineral Sciences Building 
University Park, Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania State University 
Ordnance Research Laboratory 
P. O. Box 30 
University Park, Pennsylvania 

Pomona College 
Marine Laboratory 
Department of Zoology - 

Seaver Lab. 
Ciaremont, California 



Public Health Service 
Radiological Health Laboratory 
1901 Chapman Avenue 
Rockville, Maryland 

Public Health Service 

Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering 

Center 
4676 Columbia Parkway 
Cincinnati 26, Ohio 

Public Health Service 
Southeastern Radiological Health 

Laborator y 
Division of Radiological Health 
P. O. Box 61 
Montgomery 1, Alabama 

Research Triangle Institute 
Post Office Box 490 
Durham, North Carolina 

Rutgers University 
Department of Zoology 
New Brunswick, New Jersey 
Attn: Dr. Harold H. Haskin 

San Jose State College 
Oceanography Program 
Natural Science Area 
San Jose, California 
Attn: Dr. S. A. El Wardani 

Small Business Administration 
Research anJ Development Section 
900 North Lombardy Street 
Richmond 20, Virginia 

Smithsonian Institution 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Society of Exploration Geophysicists 
Chairman, Subcommittee on 

Oceanography 
P. O. Box 446 
La Habra, California 

Southwest Research Institute 

P. O. Box 2296 

San Antonio 6, Texas 

Stanford Research Institute 
808 17th Street NW 
Suite 300 
Washington 6, D. C. 



274 



Stanford Research Institute 
Control Systems Laboratory 
Engineering Sciences Division 
Memo Park. California 

Stevens Institute of Technology 

Davidson Laboratory 

Ship Hydrodynamics Division 

Castle Point Station 

71 1 Hudson Street 

Hoboken, New Jersey 

Texas Christian University 
Department of Biology 
Fort Worth Z9, Texas 

Texas (State) Game and Fish 

Commission 
Austin, Texas 

Texas (State) Game and Fish 

Commis sion 
Marine Laboratory 
P. O. Box 11 17 
Rockport, Texas 

Tiburon Oceanographic Institute 

Box 451 

Tiburon, California 

Tulane University 

Department of Zoology 

New Orleans, Louisiana 

Attn; Eugene Copeland, Chairman 

University of Alaska 
Douglas Marine Station 
Box 185 
Douglas, Alaska 

University of Alaska 
Institute of Marine Sciences 
College, Alaska 
Attn: Dr. K. M. Rae 

University of California 
College of Engineering 
Department of Civil Engineering 
Division of Hydraulic and Sanitary 

Engineering 
Berkeley 4. California 
Attn: Professor R. L. Wiegel 

University of California 
Wave Research Laboratory 
Richmond Field Station 
Richmond 4, California 



University of California at 

Santa Barbara 
Department of Biological Sciences 
University Branch 
Goleta. California 

(University of California, San Diego) 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
La Jolla. California 

University of California at San Diego 
Institute of Marine Resources 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
La Jolla, California 

University of California at San Diego 
Marine Physical Laboratory 
San Diego 52, California 

University of Chicago 

Departmt-nt of Geophysical Sciences 

Chicago il. Illinois 

Attn: Dr. Robert L. Miller 

University of Connecticut 
Marine Research Laboratory 
Noank. Connecticut 

University of Delaware 
Bayside Laboratory 
P. O. Box 514 
Lewes, Delaware 

University of Delaware 
Marine Biology Laboratory 
Department of Biological Sciences 
Newark, Delaware 

University of Florida 
Coastal Engineering Laboratory 
College of Engineering 
Gainesville, Florida 

University of Florida 
Marine Laboratory 
Cedar Key, Florida 

University of Georgia 
Georgia Marine Institute 
Sapelo Island, Georgia 

University of Hawaii 
Department of Zoology 
Honolulu, Hawaii 

University of Hawaii 
Hawaii Marine Laboratory 
Honolulu 14, Hawaii 



275 



University of Kansas 
Department of Geology 
Lawrence, Kansas 

University of Maine 

1 12 Boardman Hall 

Orono, Maine 

Attn: Dr. Thomas H. Curry 

University of Maryland 
Chesapeake Biological Laboratory 
Natural Resources Institute 
P. O. Box 38 
Solomons, Maryland 

University of Maryland 
Department of Zoology 
College Park, Maryland 
Attn; Dr. George Anastos 

University of Miami 
The Marine Laboratory 
Institute of Marine Science 
I Rickenbacker Causeway 
Miami 49, Florida 

University of Michigan 
Department of Civil Engineering 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

University of Michigan 
Department of Zoology 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

University of Minnesota 
Department of Geology 
Minneapolis 14, Minnesota 

University of Minnesota 
Institute of Technology 
Minneapolis 14, Minnesota 

University of North Carolina 

The Institute of Fisheries Research 

Library 
Morehead City, North Carolina 

University of Oregon 

Oregon Institute of Marine Biology 

Charleston, Oregon 

University of the Pacific 
Pacific Marine Station 
Dillon Beach, Marin County, 
California 

University of Puerto Rico 
Institute of Marine Biology 
Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 



Uni\ersity of Rhode Island 
Narragansett Marine Laboratory 
Graduate School of Oceanography 
Kingston, Rhode Island 

University of Southern California 
Allan Hancock Foundation 
Los Angeles 7, California 
Attn: Dr. Leslie A. Chambers 

University of Texas 
Defense Research Laboratory 
Austin, Texas 
Attn: Dr. McKiney 

University of Texas 
Institute of Marine Science 
Port Aransas, Texas 

University of Washington 
Applied Physics Laboratory 
1013 Northeast 40th Street 
Seattle 5, Washington 

University of Washington 
College of Fisheries 
Fisheries Center 
Seattle 5, Washington 

University of Washington 
Department of Oceanography 
Seattle 5, Washington 

University of Washington 
Fisheries Research Institute 
Fisheries Hall No. Z 
Seattle 5, Washington 

University of Washington 
Friday Harbor Laboratory 
Johnson Hall 
Seattle 5, Washington 

University of Washington 
Laboratory of Radiation Biology 
Fisheries Center 
Seattle 5, Washington 

University of Wisconsin 
Department of Meteorology 
Madison, Wisconsin 
Attn; Dr. Robert A. Ragotikie 

Walla Walla College 
Biological Station 
Anacortes, Washington 



276 



Waaia Walla College 
Department of Biology 
College Place, Washington 

Virginia Institute of Marine Science 
Virginia Fisheries Laboratory 
Gloucester Point, Virginia 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute 
Department of Geological Sciences 
Blacksburg, Virginia 

Washington (State) Department of 

Fisheries 
4015 20th Avenue W. 
Fishermen's Terminal 
Seattle 99, Washington 

Washington (State) Department of 

Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
Fisheries Center 
University of Washington 
Seattle 5, Washington 

Washington (State) Department of 

Fisheries 
Bowmans Bay Marine Research 

Station 
Route 3, Box 541 
Anacortes, Washington 

Washington (State) Department of 

Fisheries 
Coastal Research Laboratory 
905 £. Heron Street 
Aberdeen, Washington 

Washington (State) Department of 

Fisheries 
Columbia River Research 

Laboratory 
1408 Franklin Street 
Vancouver, Washington 



Washington University 
Department of Geology and 

Geological Engineering 
St. Louis, Missouri 

U. S. Weather Bureau 
Washington 25, D. C. 

U. S. Weather Bureau 

Division of Meteorological Research 

Washington 25, D. C. 

U. S. Weather Bureau 
Division of Observations and 

Facilities 
Washington 25, D. C. 

U. S. Weather Bureau 
Instrumental Engineering Division 
Washington 25, D. C. 

U. S. Weather Bureau 
Office of Planning 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Woods Hole Oceanographic 

Institution 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

Woods Hole Oceanographic 

Institution 
International Ice Patrol 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

World Life Research Institute 
22022 Center Street 
Reche Canyon 
Colton, California 

Yale University 

Bingham Oceanographic Laboratory 

Box 2025, Yale Station 

New Haven, Connecticut 



Washington (State) Department of 

Fisheries 
State Shellfish Laboratory 
Box 158 
Ocean Park, Washington 

Washington (State) Department of 

Fisheries 
State Shellfish Laboratory 
Star Route #2 
Brinnon, Washington 



277 



.Interagency Committee on Oceanography 
I., COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP 



DEFENSE 

Honorable Dr. James H. Wakelin, 
Jr., Chairman, Assistant Secre- 
tary of the Navy for Research & 
Development. 

CDR Steven N. Anastasion, USN, 
Assistant to Chairman. 

COMMERCE 

RADM H. Arnold Karo, Director, 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

INTERIOR 

Mr. Donald L. McKernan, Director, 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 
Dr. John N. Wolfe, Director, 
Division of Biology and Medicine, 
Environmental Sciences Branch: 

*Dr . I. Eugene Wallen. 

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 
Dr. Harve J. Carlson, Assistant 
Director for Biological and 
Medical Sciences. 

*Dr. John Lyman. 



HEALTH. EDUCATION, AND 

WELFARE 

Mr. Harry G. Hanson, Associate 
Chief, Bureau of State Services, 
Public Health Service. 

*Dr. R. Orin Cornett. 

TREASURY 

RADM Donald McG. Morrison, 
USCG, Director of Operations, 
U. S. Coast Guard 

*CAPT Edgar V. Carlson, USCG. 

STATE 

Dr. Walter G. Whitman, Science 
Advisor, Department of State. 

*COL William R. Sturges. 

BUREAU OF BUDGET 

Mr. Enoch L. Dillon (Observer). 

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY 

Dr. Athelstan F. Spilhaus (Observer). 

*Mr. Richard C. Vetter 

ICO SECRETARY 

Mr. Robert B. Abel, Assistant 
Research Coordinator, Office of 
Naval Research. 



II. ICO WORKING GROUP 



ICO 

Mr. Robert B. Abel, Chairman. 



COMMERCE 

Dr. Harris B. Stewart, Jr., U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

INTERIOR 

Mr. Howard H. Eckles, Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries. 



* Alternate . 



NAVY 

CDR T. K. Treadwell, USN, 
Hydrographic Office. 

Dr. Arthur E. Maxwell, Office of 
Naval Research. 

CDR Steven N. Anastasion, USN, 
Office of the Assistant Secretary 
of the Navy for Research and 
Development. 

CDR R. J. Alexander, USN, Office 
of the Chief of Naval Operations. 



278 



TREASURY 

LCDR R. P. Dinsmore, U. S. 
Coast Guard. 



NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 
Dr. John Lyman. 



ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 
Dr. I). Eugene Wallen, Division of 
Biology and Medicine. 



III. OCEAN SURVEY ADVISORY PANEL 



COMMERCE 

Dr. Harris B. Stewart, Jr., 
Chairman, U. S. Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey. 

Mr. Jack C. Thompson, Weather 
Bureau. 

*CAPT Max G. Ricketts, U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Mr. Vito L. Russo (Observer), 
Maritime Administration. 

INTERIOR 

Mr. Joseph E. King, Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries. 

*Mr. Howard H. Eckles. 



TREASURY 

CAPT E. V. Carlson, U. S. Coast 
Guard. 

*LCDR R. P. Dinsmore, U. S. 
Coast Guard 

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 
Dr. I. Eugene Wallen (Observer). 

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY 

Dr. Columbus O'Donnell Iselin 

(Observer). 

*Mr. Richard C. Vetter. 

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 
Dr. David D. Keck (Observer). 



Mr. James Trumbull (Observer), 
U. S. Geological Survey. 



'■'Dr. John Lyman. 



NAVY 

LCDR J. A. Adelman, USN, Hydro- 
graphic Office. 

*CDR R. J. Alexander, USN, Office 
of the Chief of Naval Operations. 

Dr. Arthur E. Maxwell, Office of 
Naval Research. 



IV. OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH PANEL 



NAVY 

Dr. Arthur E. Maxwell, Chairman , 
Office of Naval Research. 



COMMERCE 

Mr. Theodore V. Ryan, U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



Mr. Boyd E. Olson, Hydrographic 
Office. 



■=Dr. Harris B. Stewart, Jr. 



279 



INTERIOR 

Mr. Vernon E. Brock, Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries. 

*Mr. Howard H. Eckles. 

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 

Dr. I. Eugene Wallen, Division of 
Biology and Medicine. 



NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 
Dr. Richard G. Bader. 

*Dr. John Lyman. 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
Dr. Fenner A. Chace, Jr. 



NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY 
*Mr. Richard C. Vetter. 



V. OCEANOGRAPHIC SHIPS PANEL 



NAVY 

CDR R. J. Alexander, USN, 
Chairman, Office of Chief of 
Naval Operations. 

Mr. Feenan D. Jennings, Office 
of Naval Research. 

CDR F. L. Slattery, Hydrographic 
Office. 

*Mr. Bernard C. Byrnes. 

LCDR Eli Vc-nning, Jr.. USN, 
Bureau of Ships. 

COMMERCE 

CAPT John C. Mathisson, U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



INTERIOR 

Mr. Robert C. Wilson, Bureau 
of Commercial Fisheries. 

*Mr. Joseph E. King. 

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY 
Dr. Paul M. Fye (Observer). 

*Mr. Richard C. Vetter. 

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 
Dr . John Lyman 

'■'Dr. Dixy Lee Ray 



*CDR R. Darling. 

Mr. L. C. Hoffmann, Maritime 
Administration. 

''Mr. Vito L. Russo. 



VI. TRAINING AND MANPOWER PANEL 



NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 
Dr. Bowen C. Dees, Chairman. 

-Dr. K. R. Kelson. 

HEALTH, EDUCATION AND 
WELFARE 

Dr. Richard O. Cornett, Office 

of Education. 



NAVY 

Mr. James W. McGary, Office 
of Naval Research. 

Mr. A. R. Gordon, Jr., Hydro- 
graphic Office. 



='=Dr . Henry H. Armsby 



280 



INTERIOR 

Dr. James L. Chamberlain, 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 

*Mr. Ralph P. Silliman. 

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 
Mr. G. W. Courtney (Observer), 
Division of Biology and Medicine. 



NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY 
Dr. Gordon A. Riley (Observer). 

*Mr. Richard C. Vetter. 



VII. EQUIPMENT & FACILITIES PANEL 



INTERIOR 

Mr. Donald L. McKernan, 
Chairman, Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries. 

*Mr. Howard H. Eckles. 

COMMERCE 

Mr. Anthony J. Goodheart, U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

*Mr. Theodore V. Ryan. 

NAVY 

Mr. Feenan D. Jennings, Office 
of Naval Research. 



TREASURY 

LCDR R. P. Dinsmore, U. S. 
Coast Guard. 

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 
Dr. I. Eugene Wallen, Division 
of Biology and Medicine. 

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY 
Mr. AUyn C. Vine (Observer). 

*Mr. Richard C. Vetter. 

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 
Dr. R. G. Bader. 



Mr. Gilbert Jaffe, Hydrographic 
Office. 



■■Dr. Dixy Lee Ray. 



*CDR T. K. Treadwell, USN. 



VIII. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS PANEL 



COMMERCE 

Dr. Harris B. Stewart, Jr., U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

INTERIOR 

Mr. Vernon E. Brock, Bureau 
of Commercial Fisheries. 

NAVY 

Dr. Arthur E. Maxwell, Office 
of Naval Research. 

CDR R. J. Alexander, Office of 
Chief of Naval Operations. 

STATE 

COL W. R. Sturges. 

*Mr. W. S. Sullivan. 



ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION 
Dr. I. Eugene Wallen, Division 
of Biology and Medicine. 

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
COMMITTEE ON OCEANOGRAPHY 
Dr. Paul M. Fye. 

*Mr. Richard C. Vetter. 

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 
Dr. John Lyman. 

*Dr. Richard G. Bader. 



281 



Interested Persons 



Australian Embassy 
Naval Attache 
2001 Connecticut Ave. NW 
Washington 8, D. C. 

Captain Paul S. Bauer, USN (Ret.) 
House Merchant Marine & Fisheries 

Commission 
Old House Office Building 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Dr. Walter A. Chipman 
Laboratorire de Radioactivite Marine 
Musee Oceanographique 
Principaute de Monaco 

French Embassy 

Chief, Materiel French Military 

Mission 
2164 Florida Avenue NW 
Washington 8, D. C. 



Office of Patent Counsel 
Code 1104 

Naval Research Laboratory 
Washington 25, D. C. 

United Kingdom Scientific Mission 
Office of the Scientific Attache 
1907 K St. NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

U. S. S. R. Embassy 
Assistant Naval Attache 
2552 Belmont Rd. NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Jerome B. Wiesner, Chairman 
Federal Council for Science and 

Technology 
Executive Office Bldg. 
Washington 25, D. C. 



282 



APPENDIX C 

INDUSTRY LIST 

GOVERNMENT-INDUSTRY SYMPOSIUM ON 

OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTATION 

August 16-17, 1961 



Paul O. Abbe, Inc. 
Little Falls, New Jersey 

Abrams Instrument Corporation 
606 East Shiawassee Street 
Lansing 1, Michigan 

ACF Electronics Division 
ACE Industries, Inc. 
River dale, Maryland 

ACF Electronics Division 
ACF Industries, Inc. 
11 Park Place 
Paramus, New Jersey 

ACF Industries, Inc. 
750 Third Avenue 
New York 17, New York 
Attn: R. W. Montgomery 



Aerojet-General Corporation 
Oceanics Division 
P. O. Box 296 
Azusa, California 

Aerojet-General Corporation 
P. O. Box 527 
Monterey, California 
Attn: Leslie A. Welge 

Aeronutronic 

Ford Motor Company 

Ford Road 

Newport Beach, California 

Aeronutronic 
Ford Motor Company 
1200 Wyatt Building 
Washington, D. C. 
Attn: J. D. Movius 



John A. Acs 

24045 West Outer Drive 

Melvindale, Michigan 

Adcole Corporation 

186 Massachusetts Avenue 

Cambridge 39, Massachusetts 

Advance Instrument Corp. 
Z829 - 7th Street 
Berkeley, California 

Advanced Technology Laboratories 
Division of American Standard 
1700 K Street NW #301 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Aero Geo Astro Corp. 
Edsall and Lincolnia Road 
Alexandria, Virginia 

Aero Instrument Company 
Division of Northrop Corporation 
11975 Sherman Way 
North Hollywood, California 



Aero Service Corporation 
210 E. Courtland Street 
Philadelphia 20, Pennsylvania 

Airborne Instruments Laboratory 
A Division of Cutler -Hammer , Inc. 
Comae Road 

Deer Park, Long Island, New York 
Attn: Harry M. Stephey, Manager, 
Military Marketing 

Airborne Instruments Laboratory 
Research & Systems Engineering Division 
Walt Whitman Road 
Melville, New York 
Attn: Rodney F. Simons 

Airpax Electronics, Inc. 

P. O. Box 8488 

Fort Lauderdale, Florida 

Airtronics, Inc. 
5221 River Road 
Washington 16, D. C. 
Attn: Mrs. Margery Cain 



283 



Alden Electronic & Impulse Recording 

Equipment Company, Inc. 
Westboro, Massachusetts 

All American Engineering Company 
DuPont Airport t Lancaster Avenue 
Wilmington 5, Delaware 

Allied Research Associates, Inc. 

43 Leon Street 

Boston 15, Massachusetts 

Alpine Geophysical Associates, Inc. 
55 Oak Street 
Norwood, New Jersey 

Alpine Geophysical Associates, Inc. 
2418 Tangley 
Houston 5, Texas 

American Bosch-Arma Corporation 

Arma Division 

Garden City, New York 

Attn: E. J. O'Connell, Representative 

American Bosch-Arma Corporation 
Suite 401 

1000 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

American Chain & Cable Co. , Inc. 
Acco Equipment Division 
York, Pennsylvania 

American Electronic Laboratories, Inc. 

Virginia Division 

1643 Lee Highway 

Fairfax, Virginia 

Attn: J. R. Jahoda, Vice President 



American Machine and Foundry Company 
Alexandria Division 
1025 North Royal Street 
Alexandria, Virginia 

American Machine and Foundry Company 
Electrical Products Group 
1701 K Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

American Research and Manufacturing 
920 Halpine Avenue 
Rockville, Maryland 

American Systems, Inc. 
1625 East 126th Street 
Hawthorne, California 

American Systems, Inc. 
Perkin-Elmer Corporation 
1625 Eye Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Ampex Corporation 
218 Universal Building 
Washington 9, D. C. 
Attn: William Glass 

Anachemia Chemicals, Ltd. 
Champlain, New York 

Ansonia Wire and Cable Company 
111 Martin Street 
Ashton, Rhode Island 

Ansonia Wire and Cable Company 
333 Bond Building 
1404 New York Avenue 
Washington 5, D. C. 



American Instrument Co. , Inc. 
8030 Georgia Avenue 
Silver Spring, Maryland 



Arco Engineering Company 
1000 16th Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 



American Machine and Foundry Company 
1 1 Bruce Place 
Greenwich, Connecticut 
Attn: S. Silverman 



Armour Research Foundation of 

Illinois Institute of Technology Center 
10 West 35th Street 
Chicago 16, Illinois 



American Machine and Foundry Company 
Research and Development Division 
689 Hope Street 
Springdale, Connecticut 

American Machine and Foundry Company 
7501 Natchez 
Niles, Illinois 
Attn: B. Johnson 



Askania Werke 

Division of Continental Elektroindustrie 

A. G. 
U. S. Branch 
4913 Cordell Avenue 
Bethesda 14, Maryland 

Associated Engineers, Inc. 
P. O. Box 628 
Springfield, Massachusetts 



284 



Astra, Inc. 

Box 226 

Raleigh, North Carolina 

Hydro Systems Division 

Astropower 

2968 Randolph Avenue 

P. O. Box 500 

Costa Mesa, California 

Atlantic Research Corporation 
Shirley Highway & Edsall Road 
Alexandria, Virginia 

Atlas Compass & Manufacturing Company 
Vashon Island, Washington 

Auerbach Corporation 
1634 Arch Street 
Philadelphia 3, Pennsylvania 

Automated Controls 
1815 Magnolia Road 
Alder wood Manor, Washington 

Autometric Corporation 

1501 Broadway 

New York 36, New York 

Autonetics 
P. O. Box R-3 
Anaheim, California 
Attn: Library 

Autonetics 

Division of North American Aviation 

Dept. 3085, Bldg. 2 

9150 E. Imperial Highway 

Downey, California 

AVCO Corporation 

Research and Development Division 

201 Lowell Street 

Wilmington, Massachusetts 

AVCO Corporation 

750 Third Avenue 

New York 17, New York 

Avien, Inc. 
58-15 Northern Blvd. 
Woodside 77, New York 
Attn: Lawrence H. Kilian 

Avien, Inc. 

Hydro- Mechanical Division 
125 Gazza Boule%'ard 
Farmingdale, New York 



Baldwin- Lima-Hamilton Corp. 
Electronics Div. 

42 Fourth Ave. 

Waltham 54, Massachusetts 
Attn: H. T. Lowell, Jr. 

Baldwin- Lima-Hamilton 
1000 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington, D. C. 

D. Ballauf Manufacturing Company, Inc. 
619-21 H Street NW 
Washington 1, D. C. 

Barkley &t Dexter Laboratories, Inc. 
50 Frankfort Street 
Fitchburg, Massachusetts 
Attn: Ray Tetrault 

Barnes Engineering Company 
30 Commerce Road 
Stamford, Connecticut 

Barnes & Reinecke, Inc. 
230 East Ohio Street 
Chicago 11, Illinois 

Bartlett Laboratories, Inc. 
113 North College Avenue 
Indianapolis 6, Indiana 

Bartlett Laboratories, Inc. 
2022 Columbia Road, NW 
Washington 9, D. C. 

Bay State Electronics Corporation 

43 Leon Street 

Boston 15, Massachusetts 

Beckman & Whitley, Inc. 
973 San Carlos Avenue 
San Carlos, California 

Beckman Instruments, Inc. 
8519 Stevenswood Road 
Baltimore 7, Maryland 

Belden Manufacturing Company 

P. O. Box 341 

Richmond, Indiana 

Attn: F. O. Weirich, Engineering Manager 

Belfort Instrument Company 
4 North Central Avenue 
Baltimore 2, Maryland 

Belock Instrument Corporation 
112-13 - 14th Avenue 
College Point 56, New York 



285 



The Bendix Corporation 
Bendix-Pacific Division 
11600 Sherman Way 
North Hollywood, California 
Attn: R. E. Colander 

Bendix Systems Division 
The Bendix Corporation 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

The Bendix Corporation 
Fisher Building 
Detroit 2, Michigan 

The Bendix Corporation 
Bendix Research Division 
Southfield, Michigan 

Benson- Lehner Corporation 
2601 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington 8, D. C. 

Bergen Wire Rope Company 
1234 Gregg Street 
Lodi, New Jersey 



Borg-Warner Corporation 
Manager of Engineering 
Borg-Warner Controls 
3300 Newport Boulevard 
Santa Ana, California 

Borg-Warner Corporation 
Research Center 
Des Plaines, Illinois 

Boston Insulated Wire and Cable Co. 

Bay Street 

Boston 25, Massachusetts 

BP (North America) Limited 

620 Fifth Avenue 

New York 20, New York 

Brad Foote Gear Works, Inc. 
1304 South Cicero Avenue 

Cicero 50, Illinois 

The Bristol Company 
5439 Harford Road 
Baltimore 14, Maryland 



Bio-Dynamics, Inc. 

1 Main Street 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

The Bissett-Bernnan Corporation 
2941 Nebraska Avenue 
Santa Monica, California 



William M. Brobeck & Associates 
1920 Park Boulevard 
Oakland 6, California 
Attn: Reg Robinson, Jr. 

BrowneU & Company, Inc. 
Moodus, Connfcticut 



The Boeing Company 

Org. - 2 - 5484 

Mail Stop 21-97 

Box 3707 

Seattle 24, Washington 

Attn: Charles M. Proctor 

Mission Equipment 

Advanced Marine Systems Organization 

2-1748 
Mail Stop 46-74 
The Boeing Company 
P. O. Box 3707 
Seattle 24, Washington 
Attn: Bob Gregory 

Bolt Associates 
78 Danbury Road 
Wilton, Connecticut 



Budd Electronics 

A Division of the Budd Company, Inc. 

45-22 Queens Street 

Long Island City 1, New York 

Budd Electronics Division 

The Budd Company 

1000 Connecticut Avenue NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 

Attn: Harold P. Belcher 

Bulova Research &i Development 
Laboratories 
Division of Bulova Watch Company, Inc. 
62-10 Woodside Avenue 
Woodside 77, New York 

Burroughs Corporation 
6071 - 2nd Boulevard 
Detroit, Michigan 
Attn: J. K. Lindley 



286 



Burroughs Corporation 
1145 19th Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Burroughs Laboratories 

Box 873, 

Paoli, Pennsylvania 

Cadallac Plastic & Chemical Company 
15111 Second Avenue 
Detroit 3, Michigan 

The California Company (Library) 
A Division of California Oil Company 
800 The California Company Building 
New Orleans 12, Louisiana 

California Research Corporation 

La Habra Laboratory 

P. O. Box 446 

La Habra, California 

California Research Corporation 

200 Bush Street 

San Francisco 20, California 

Ray Cantwell Company 
9321 Fresno Road 
Bethesda 14, Maryland 



Chesapeake Instrument Corporation 
Shadyside, Maryland 



William F. Clapp Laboratories, 
Washington Street 
Duxbury, Massachusetts 

Clevite Ordnajice 
Division of Clevite Corporation 
540 East 105th Street 
Cleveland 8, Ohio 
Attn: Mr. T. Lynch, General 
Manager 

Cohu Electronics, Inc. 

Kin Tel Division 

5725 Kearny Villa Road 

P. O. Box 623 

San Diego 12, California 

Cohu Electronics, Inc. 
Massa Division 
280 Lincoln Street 
Hingham, Massachusetts 

Coleman Electronics, Inc. 
133 E. 162nd Street 
Gardena, California 
Attn: Loren W. Hill 



Inc. 



Carlon Products Corporation 
Chamberlin Road 
Aurora, Ohio 



Collins Radio Company 
Central Bid Registry 
Dallas, Texas 



C-E-I-R, Inc. 
Arlington Research Center 
1200 Jefferson Davis Highway 
Arlington 2, Virginia 

Central News Agency of China 
1046 National Press Bldg. 
Washington, D. C. 

Centroid Corporation 
126 Jackson Street 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Century Geophysical Corporation 
515 South Main 
Tulsa i, Oklahoma 



Colvin Laboratories, Inc. 
364 Glenwood Avenue 
East Orange, New Jersey 

Commercial Engineering Corporation 
5605 Ashbrook 
Houston 36, Texas 

Computer Control Co. , Inc. 

Western Division 

2251 Barry Avenue 

Los Angeles 64, California 

Concord Control, Inc. 
1282 Soldiers Field Road 
Boston 35, Massachusetts 



Chatham Marine Electronics 

Laboratory, Inc. 
420 Main Street 
Chatham, Massachusetts 



Conductron Corporation 
343 So. Main Street 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 



287 



Conesco 

40 Massachusetts Avenue 

Arlington 74, Massachusetts 

Consolidated Electrodynamics Corporation 
360 Sierra Madre Villa 
Pasadena, California 

Consolidated Electrodynamics Corporation 
Government Liaison Office 
764 - 23rd Street South 
Arlington 2, Virginia 

Consolidated Net and Twine Company 
Fishermen's Terminal 
Seattle 99, Washington 

Consolidated Systems Corporation 
1500 South Shamrock Avenue 
Monrovia, California 

Construction Aggregates Corporation 
120 South LaSalle Street 
Chicago, Illinois 

Reconnaissance Section 
Cook Technological Center 
6401 Oakton Street 
Morton Grove, Illinois 

Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc. 

of Cornell University 
Applied Physics Department 
4455 Genessee Street 
P. O. Box 235 
Buffalo 21, New York 

Costello & Company 

2740 S. La Cienega Boulevard 

Los Angeles 34, California 

Craftsweld Equipment Corporation 

2626 Jackson Avenue 

Long Island City 1, New York 

Cubic Corporation 

5575 Kearney Villa Road 

San Diego 11, California 

Curliss- Wright Corporation 

Electronics Division 

35 Market Street 

East Paterson, New Jersey 

Cur tiss -Wright Corporation 
Wright Aeronautical Division 
Wood-Ridge, New Jersey 



Curtiss-Wright Corporation 
821 - 15th Street NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Dalmo Victor Company 
Division of Textron, Inc. 
1515 Industrial Way 
Belmont, California 

Dalmo Victor Company 
Suite 404 

1000 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Danforth/White 

Division of the Eastern Company 

Portland, Maine 

Data Controls Systems, Inc. 
30 Rose Street 
Danbury, Connecticut 
Attn; Carl P. Smith 

Data Publications 

1831 Jefferson Place NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 

DATEX Corporation 
420 Broad Avenue 
Palisades Park, N. J. 

DATEX Corporation 
4435 Wisconsin Avenue 
Washington 16, D. C. 

Weston Instruments 
Daystrom, Incorporated 
614 Frelinghuysen Avenue 
Newark 14, New Jersey 

Daystrom, Incorporated 
Central Research Laboratory 
620 Passaic Avenue 
West Caldwell, New Jersey 

Daystrom, Incorporated 
229A Manchester Road 
Poughkeepsie, New York 

The Defense Management Report 

1000 Franklin Avenue 

Garden City, L. I. , New York 

Desco Diving Equipment & Supply Company 
212 N. Broadway 
Milwaukee 2, Wisconsin 



288 



G. C. Dewey Corporation 
, ZOZ E. 44th Street 
New York, New York 

Di-Conex 

F. O. Box 637 

Moss Point, Mississippi 

Digital Equipment Corporation 
Maynard, Massachusetts 

Digitrols 

8 Industry Lane 

Cockeysville, Maryland 

Dit-Mco, Inc. 

Systems Engineering Division 

911 Broadway 

Kansas City 5, Missouri 

Dittmore-Freimuth Corporation 
2517 East Norwich Street 
Milwaukee 7, Wisconsin 

Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc. 
ASW and Armament Section 
3855 Lakewood Boulevard 
Long Beach, California 

Douglas Aircraft Co. , Inc. 
Combat Engineering 
Aircraft Division 
Long Beach, California 

Dresser Electronics 
SIE Division 
10201 Westheimer 
Box 22187 
Houston 27, Texas 

Dresser Research 

Division of Dresser Industries, Inc. 

P. O. Box 2656 

Tulsa 1, Oklahoma 

DuKane Corporation 
St. Charles, Illinois 

Dunlap & Associates, Inc. 
429 Atlantic Street 
Stamford, Connecticut 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. , Inc. 
Wilmington 98, Delaware 

Dyna-Empire, Inc. 

10 75 Stewart Avenue 

Garden City, L. I. , New York 



Dynalectron Corporation 
1510 H Street NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Dynatech Corporation 

17 Tudor Street 

Cambridge 39, Massachusetts 

Dynatech Corporation 
Suite 301 
1700 K Street 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Eastern Air Devices, Inc. 
385 Central Avenue 
Dover, New Hampshire 

Eastman Kodak Company 
Apparatus and Optical Division 
400 Plymouth Avenue North 
Rochester 4, New York 
Attn: Advanced Planning Group 

Eberbach Corporation 

P. O. Box 1024 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc. 
160 Brookline Avenue 
Boston 15, Massachusetts 

Edo Corporation 
1310 - Ulth Street 
College Point 56, New York 
Attn Ralph Romaine, Sales 

Edo Corporation 
1725 K Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Electric Boat Division 
General Dynamics Corporation 
Groton, Connecticut 

Electric Boat 

R&D Department, Computer Application 

Center 
Groton, Connecticut 

Electro-Chemical Corporation 
6744 East Marginal Way South 
Seattle 8, Washington 

Electrodynamic Instrument Corporation 
1841 Old Spanish Trail 
Houston 25, Texas 

Electro-Kinetics Corporation 
909 Border Avenue 
Torrance, California 



289 



Electro-Mechanical Research, Inc. 
P. O. Box 3041 
Sarasota, Florida 

Electro-Mechanical Research, Inc. 
1730 K Street NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

The Electro Nuclear Systems Corporation 
8001 Norfolk Avenue 
Bethesda 14, Maryland 

Electro-Oceanics 
1249 Melba Road 
Encinitas, California 

Electronic Associates, Inc. 
Long Branch, New Jersey 

Electronic Engineering Company of 

California 
1601 E. Chestnut Avenue 
P. O. Box 58 
Santa Ana, California 

Electronic News 
Sheraton Bldg. , Room 1100 
711 - 14th Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Electro-Technical Laboratories 
Division of Mandrel Industries, Inc. 
5234 Glenmont 
Houston 36, Texas 



Extruded Plastics, Inc. 
New Canaan Avenue 
Norwalk, Connecticut 

Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc. 
1625 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corp. 

Special Products Division 

5550 Harbor Street 

Los Angeles 22, California 

Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corp. 
Dumont Military Electronics Department 
Defense Products Division 
750 Bloomfield Avenue 
Clifton, New Jersey 

Fairchild Camera &i Instrument Corp. 
300 Robbins Lane 
Syosset, L. I. , New York 

Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp. 
1625 I Street NW (Suite 809) 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Fairchild Stratos Corporation 
Aircraft-Missiles Division 
Hagerstown, Maryland 

Fairchild Stratos Corporation 
Electronic Systems Division 
Wyandanch, L. I. , New York 



The Emerson Electric Manufacturing Co. 

322 Palm Avenue 

Santa Barbara, California 

Star Division, Emerson Electric 

322 Palm Avenue 

Santa Barbara, California 



Fairchild Stratos Corp. 

Stratos Division 

Bay Shore, New York 

Farrand Optical Company, Inc. 
Bronx Blvd. 8t E. 238th Street 
New York 70, New York 



Emertron, Inc. 

1140 East-West Highway 

Silver Spring, Maryland 

Englehard Industries, Inc. 
Military Service Departnnent 
Room 422, Washington Building 
Washington 5, D. C. ._ 
Attn: J. D. Libbey, Jr. 

JSSSUJCE, Inc. 
15 Havens Street 
Elnnsford, New York 



Federal Scientific Corporation 
615 W. 131st Street 
New York 27, New York 

Feedback Contr„'s, Inc. 
8 Erie Drive 
Natick, Mas sachu -setts 
Attn: P. Smith and/or N. 



Brornberg 



Fenbro AssociateL 
Consulting Management Engineers 
4408 East Mitchell Drive 
Phoenix, Arizona 



290 



Fenwal, Incorporated 
) 13 Pleasant Street 
Ashland, Massachusetts 
Attn: Mr. Kenneth S. Brock, Mgr . 
Mkt. Dev. 

Fenwal, Inc. 

Suite 3, Shoreham Building 

Washington 5, D. C. 



The Garrett Corporation 
Flight and Electronic Systems 
9851 Sepulveda 
Los Angeles 45, California 

The Garrett Corporation 
AiResearch Manufacturing Division 
2525 W. 190th Street 
Torrance, California 



Fisheries Instrumentation Laboratory 
12213 Northeast 64th Street 
Kirkland, Washington 



The Garrett Corporation 
1625 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 



Fletcher Aviation Corporation 
2300 W. Flair Drive 
El Monte, California 



Gawler-Knoop Company 
8732 PTower Avenue 
Silver Spring, Maryland 



Flow Corporation 
11 Car leton Street 
Cambridge 42, Massachusetts 



The Gems Company, Inc. 
Sheppard Lane 
Farmington, Connecticut 



Foerst Mechanical Specialities Company 
2407 North St. Louis Avenue 
Chicago 47, Illinois 

A. H. Fogelman Associates, Inc. 
1908 Sunderland Place NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Central Engineering Laboratories 

Food Machinery and Chemical Corp. 

Box 580 

Santa Clara, California 

Attn: F. F. Sako 

Food Machinery and Chemical Corp. 

161 E. 42nd Street 

New York 17, New York 



General Atomic 

Division of General Dynamics Corp. 

P. O. Box 608 

San Diego 12, California 

General Biological Supply House, Inc. 
8200 South Hoyne Avenue 
Chicago 20, Illinois 

General Cable Corporation 
26,1 Constitution Avenue NW 
Washington 1, D. C. 

General Dynamic s/Convair 

Mail Zone 6-186 

San Diego 12, California 

Attn: V. J. Shack. Mail Zone 6-110 



The Foxboro Company 
6229 North Charles Street 
Baltimore 12, Maryland 

Franklin Systems, Inc. 

P. O. Box 3250 

West Palm Beach, Florida 

FulfiUment Corporation of America 
1426 G Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

The Gaertner Scientific Corporation 
1201 Wrightwood Avenue 
Chicago 14, Illinois 



General Dynamics/Electronics - San 

Diego 
3302 Pacific Highway 
P. O. Box 127 
San Diego 12, California 

General Dynamics/Electronics 
Marine Technology Laboratory 
ASW Engineering 
P. O. Box 226 
Rochester 1, New York 

General Dynamics/Oectronics 
ASW Requirements 
1710 H Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 



391 



General Electric Company 
Ordnance Department 
100 Plastics Avenue 
Pittsfield, Massachusetts 

General Electric Company 
Advanced Electronics Center 
Ithaca, New York 

General Electric Company 
Defense Systems Department 
300 South Geddes Street 
Syracuse, New York 

General Electric Company 
Heavy Military Electronics Dept. 
Farrell Road Plant 
Syracuse, New York 

General Electric Company 
Light Military Electronics Dept. 
Utica, New York 



General Mills Electronics Group 
Automatic Handling Equipment Dept. 
1620 Central Ave. 
Minneapolis 13, Minnesota 
Attn; Harold E. Froehlich, 
Engr. Section Head 

General Motors Corporation 
Defense Systems Division 
Santa Barbara, California 
Attn: Dr. J. Frederick Dubus 

General Motors Corporation 
Customer Liaison, Defense Systems Div. 
1600 N. Woodward Avenue 
Birmingham, Michigan 

General Motors Corporation 
Defense Systems Division 
G. M. Technical Center 
12 Mile & Mound Roads 
Warren, Michigan 



General Electric Company 
Room 900 
777 14th Street NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

General Geophysical Company 
750 Houston Club Building 
Houston 2, Texas 

General Instrument Corporation 
Harris ASW Division 
33 Southwest Park 
Westwood, Massachusetts 

General Instrument Corporation 
433 Wyatt Building 
777 I4th Street NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 
Attn; V. B. Terminello 



General Motors Corporation 
Defense Systems Division 
Cafriti Building, Room 702 
1625 Eye Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

General Precision, Inc. 
Kearfott Division 
1500 Main Avenue 
Clifton, New Jersey 

General Precision, Inc. 
Kearfott Division 
1225 McBride Avenue 
Little Falls, New Jersey 

General Precision, Inc. 
50 Prospect Avenue 
Tarrytown, New York 



General Metals Corporation 
36 Columbus Avenue 
San Francisco 11, California 
Attn: William E. Butts 



General Precision, Inc. 
Kearfott Division 
808 17th Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 



General Metals Corporation 
1010 Vermont Avenue NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

General Mills Electronics Group 
1620 Central Avenue 
Minneapolis 13, Minnesota 



General Radio Company 
8055 Thirteenth Street 
Silver Spring, Maryland 

General Scientific Corporation 
30 Rockefeller Plaza 
New York, New York 

General Scientific Corporation 
815 15th Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 



292 



Genisco, Incorporated 

2233 Federal A\-enue 

Los Angeles b4, California 

Geodyne Corporation 
180 Bear Hill Road 
Waltham 54, Massachusetts 

Geodyne Corporation 

28 Water Street 

Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

Geonautics, Inc. 

I34b Connecticut Avenue NW 

Washington b, D. C. 

Viron Division 

Geophysics Corporation of America 

Char -Gale Building 

Anoka, Minnesota 

Geotechnical Corporation 
P. O. Box 28277 
Dallas 28, Texas 

Geotechnical Corporation 
P. O. Box 28277 
3401 Shiloh Road 
Garland, Texas 

Geotronics Labs, Inc. 
1314 Cedar Hill Avenue 
Dallas 8. Texas 

The Geraldines, Ltd. 
90 Compromise Street 
Annapolis, Maryland 

The Gerber Scientific Instrument Company 
P. O. Box 305 
Hartford, Connecticut 

Giannini Controls Corporation 
4435 Wisconsin Avenue 
Washington 16, D. C. 



Goodyear Aircraft Corporation 

Instrumentation Test Operations 

Dept. 486 

1210 Massillon Road 

Akron 15, Ohio 

Attn: B. B. Carpenter 

The Great West Manufacturing Company 
Leavenworth, Kansas 

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation 
Calverton, New York 

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation 

Bethpage, 

Long Island, New York 

Gulf Research and Development Company 
P. O. Drawer 2038 
Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania 
Attn: T. H. O'Donnell 

Gulton Industries, Inc. 
200 Durham Avenue 
Metuchen, New Jersey 
Attn: A. Draneti 

W. & L. E. Gurley 
Station Plaza 
Troy, New York 

William J. Hacker & Company, Inc. 
Sherwood Lane and Passaic Avenue 
Caldwell Township, New Jersey 

Halex, Inc. 

310 E. Imperial Avenue 

El Segundo, California 

Haliburton Company 
Special Products Division 
Duncan, Oklahoma 

Hamilton Watch Company 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 



A. H. Glenn & Associates 
P. O. Box 26337 
Chef Menteur Station 
New Orleans 26, Louisiana 

Glotex Importers Company 
15 East 26th Street 
New York 10, New York 

GM Manufacturing Company 
12 East 12th Street 
New York 1, New York 



Hastings-Raydist, Inc. 
1500 Newcomb Avenue 
Hampton, Virginia 

Hathaway Machinery Company, Inc. 
Fairhaven, Massachusetts 

The Hays Corporation 
E. 8th St. 

Michigan City, Indiana 
Attn: William S. Dixon, V. P. , 
Mar ke t - De ve lopm ent 



293 



The Hayward Company 

50 Church Street 

New York 7, New York 

Hazleton Laboratories, Inc. 

Box 30 

Falls Church, Virginia 

Hellige, Inc. 

877 Steward Avenue 

Garden City, New York 

ET. H. Herron, Jr. 
(free lance writer) 
F. O. Box 57 
Fanwood, New Jersey 

Hoffman Electronics Corporation 
Military Products Division 
3740 South Grand Avenue 
Los Angeles 7, California 

Hogan Faximile Corporation 
635 Greenwich Street 
New York, New York 

Hormon Associates 
941 Rollins Avenue 
Rockville, Maryland 

HRB-Singer, Inc. 

Science Park 

P. O. Box 60 

State College, Pennsylvania 

Hughes Aircraft Company 
P. O. Box 2097 
Fullerton, California 

Hughes Aircraft Company 

Communications Division 

P. O. Box 90902 

Airport Station, Bldg. 110, Mail 

Station 100 
Los Angeles 9, California 
Attn: C. McLoon 

Hughes Aircraft Company 
1612 K Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Humble Oil & Refining Company 
Geophysical Research Section 
Box 2180 
Houston 1 , Texas 



Humble Oil & Refining Company 
Marine Division 
P. O. Box I5I2 
Houston 1, Texas 
Attn: J. D. Rogers 

Hyaline Plastics Corporation 
1019 North Capitol Avenue 
P. O. Box 523 
Indianapolis 6, Indiana 

Hycon Mctnufactur ing Company 
1030 S. Arroyo Parkway 
Pasadena, California 

Hycon Manufacturing Company 
700 Royal Oaks Drive 
Monrovia, California 
Attn: R. A. Ballweg, Jr. 

Hydronautics, Inc. 
200 Monroe Street 
Rockville, Maryland 

Hydro-Space Technology, Inc. 
Clinton Road and Route 46 
West Caldwell, New Jersey 

Hytech Corporation 

G Street Pier 

San Diego 1, California 

Imperial Electronic Systems 
8530 Roland Street 
Buena Park, California 

Industrial Instruments, Inc. 
89 Commerce Road 
Cedar Grove, New Jersey 

International Business Machines 
Communications Center 
7220 Wisconsin Avenue 
Bethesda, Maryland 
Attn: B. Bernstein 

International Business Machines 
Connmand Control Center 
Kingston, New York 
Attn: Engineering Library 

International Business Machines 
Federal Systems Division 
nil Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 



294 



Interstate Electronics Corporation 
707 E. Vermont Ave. 
Anaheim, California 
Attn: D. A. Armstrong 

Itek Laboratories 

A Division of Itek Corporation 

10 Maguire Road 

Lexington 73, Massachusetts 



Krohn-Hite Corporation 
580 Massachusetts Avenue 
Cannbridge 39, Massachusetts 

Laboratory for Electronics 
Theory Group 

1075 Commonwealth Avenue 
Boston 15, Massachusetts 
Attn: Dr. Robert L. Sternberg 



ITT Federal Laboratories 
390 Washington Avenue 
Nutley 10, New Jersey 



LaCoste &i Romberg 
6606 North Lamar 
Austin 5, Texas 



Jackson & Moreland, Inc. 
1825 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington 9, D. C. 

Jansky and Bailey, Inc. 
A Division of Atlantic Research Corp. 
Shirley Highway & Edsall Road 
Alexandria, Virginia 

The C. O. Jelliff Mfg. Corporation 
Southport, Connecticut 

Joy Manufacturing Company 
Electrical Products Division 
338 South Broadway 
New Philadelphia, Ohio 

Kaar Engineering Corporation 
2995 Middiefield Road 
P. O. Box 1320 
Palo Alto, California 

Kahl Scientific Instrument Corporation 

P. O. Box 1166 

£1 Cajon, California 



La Motte Chemical Products Company 
Chestertown, Maryland 

Land-Air, Inc. 

7444 West Wilson Avenue 

Chicago 3 1, Illinois 

Land -Air, Inc. 
1510 H Street NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Leach Corporation 
18435 Susana Road 
Compton, California 

Leach Corporation 
1700 K Street NW 
Suite 307 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Lear, Incorporated 

Advance Engineering Division 

110 Ionia NW 

Grand Rapids 2, Michigan 

Attn: Ralph C. Raabe 



Kaiser Industries Corporation 

300 Park Avenue 

New York 22, New York 



Ledeen, Inc. 

Giiman Road & Garvey Avenue 

El Monte, California 



KoUsman Instrument Corporation 
80-08 - 45th Avenue 
Elmhurst 73, New York 



S. S. Lee Associates, Inc. 
2521 Ennals Avenue 
Wheaton, Maryland 



KPT Manufacturing Company 
Roseland, New Jersey 

Krohn-Hite Corporation 
8218 Wisconsin Avenue 
Bethesda, Maryland 
c/o C. E. Snow Company 



Leeds &i Northrup Company 
Research and Development Dept. 
Dickerson Road 
North Wales, Pennsylvania 

Leeds and Northrup Company 
4901 Stenton Avenue 
Philadelphia 44, Pennsylvania 



295 



Lees Instrument Research, Inc. 
35 Cambridge Parkway 
Cambridge 42, Massachusetts 

E. Leitz, Inc. 

468 Park Avenue South 

New York 16, New York 

Leupold &t Stevens Instruments, Inc. 
4445 N. E. Glisan Street 
Portland 13, Oregon 

Librascope 

Division of General Precision, Inc. 

808 - I7th Street NW, Suite 314 

Washington, D. C. 

Attn: John M. Frye 

Lidgerwood Manufacturing Company 

57 Dey Street 

New York, New York 

Ling-Altec Research Division 
Ling-Temco- Vought, Inc. 
1859 South Manchester Avenue 
P. O. Box S-1 
Anaheim, California 

Ling-Temco- Vought, Inc. 

P. O. Box 5003 

Dallas 22, Texas 

Attn: Hcirry Sanders, Director, 

Corporate ASW Engineering 

The Linen Thread Company, Inc. 
Blue Mountain, Alabama 



Lithium Corporation of America, 

500 Fifth Avenue 

New York 36, New York 

Arthur D. Little Company 

Acorn Park 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Litton Industries 

336 North FoothiU Road 

Beverly Hills, California 

Litton Industries 
I8I07 Sherman Way 
Reseda, California 

Litton Industries, Inc. 
Westrex Company 
540 West 58th Street 
New York 19, New York 



Inc. 



Litton Industries 
1625 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Litton Systems, Inc. 
Maryland Division 
2900 Caivert Road 
College Park, Maryland 

Lockheed Aircraft Corjjoration 
7225 80 A-1 
P. O. Box 551 
Burbank, California 
Attn: G. W. Papen 

Lockheed Aircraft Corporation 
ASW and Ocean Systems 
2555 N. Hollywood Way 
Burbank, California 

Lockheed Aircraft Corporation 
Lockheed Nuclear Products 
1500 Northside Drive NW 
Atlanta 18, Georgia 

Lockheed California Company 
Ocean Systems 
Burbank, California 

Lockheed Electronics Company 
Avionics &t Industrial Products Div. 
6201 Randolph Street 
Los Angeles 22, California 

Lockheed Electronics Company 
Military Systems 
U. S. Highway 22 
Plainfield, New Jersey 
Attn: Dr. E. M. Pritchard 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Company 
3251 Hanover Street 
Palo Alto, California 

Loral Electronics Corporation 
825 Bronx River Avenue 
New York 72, New York 
Attn: Underwater Technology and 
Oceanography Division 

Loral Electronics Corporation 
1710 H Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Macalaster-Bicknell Corp. 

243 Broadway 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 



296 



J. Ray McDermott & Company, Inc. 

Saratoga Building 

New Orleans 12, Louisiana 

Attn: R. N. Crews, Vice President 

J. Ray McDermott & Company, Inc. 
Washington Office 
1725 Eye Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

McDonnell Aircraft Corporation 

P. O. Box 516 

St. Louis 66, Missouri 

McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 
1189 National Press Building 
Washington 4, D. C. 



Markey Machinery Company, Inc. 
85 So. Horton Street 
Seattle 4, Washington 

The Marquardt Corporation 
2709 N. Carey Avenue 
Pon-iona, California 
Attn: A. P. Vigliotta 

The Marquardt Corporation 
16555 Saticoy Street 
Van Nuys, California 

The Marquardt Corporation 
Suite 210 
1729 H Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 



MacLeod Instrument Corporation 
4250 N.W. 10th Avenue 
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 



Marsh & Marine Manufacturing Co. 
5123 Gulfton Drive 
Houston 36, Texas 



Inc. 



Magnavox Company 
2131 Bueter Road 
Fort Wayne 4, Indiana 
Attn: K. L. Hutchinson 

Mandrel Industries, Inc. 
5134 Glenmont Drive 
Houston 36, Texas 



Marshalltown Manufacturing Company 
Dial Thermometer Division 
Marshalltown, Iowa 

Martin Marietta Corporation 

ASW Department (G 3104) 

Electronic Systems and Products Division 

Baltimore 3, Maryland 



MEG Products 

Division Mandrel Industries, Inc. 

1238 Weller 

P. O. Box 3115 

Seattle 14, Washington 

Marine Acoustical Services 
1974 N.W. South River Drive 
Miami 35, Florida 



Martin Marietta Corporation 
Aerospace Division 
1701 K Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Maser Optics, Inc. 
(Trident Division) 
89 Brighton Avenue 
Boston 34, Massachusetts 



Marine Advisers 

P. O. Box 1963 

La Jolla, California 



Maxson Electronics Corporation 

475 Tenth Avenue 

New York 18. New York 



Marine Construction & Design Company 
2300 W. Commodore Way 
Seattle 99, Washington 



Maxson Electronics Corporation 
801 - 19th Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 



Marine Geophysical Services Corporation 
2418 Tangley 
Houston 5, Texas 



M & E Marine Supply Company 
P. O. Box 601 
Camden, New Jersey 



Marine Machine Works 
2021 Avenue B 
Galveston, Texas 



Meleney Engineering Company 
828 Mills Building 
Washington 6, D. C. 



297 



Melpar, Inc. 

Applied Science Division 

1 1 Galen Street 

Watertown 72, Massachusetts 



Minneapolis -Honeywell Regulator Co. 
Industrial Products Group 
Wayne & Windrim Avenues 
Philadelphia 44, Pennsylvania 



Melpar, Inc. 

3000 Arlington Boulevard 

Falls Church, Virginia 

Attn: R. E. Miller, Vice President 



Minneapolis -Honeywell Regulator Co. 
Seattle Development Laboratory 
5303 Shilshole Ave. NW 
Seattle 7, Washington 



Mergenthaler Linotype 
Systems Sales Department 
29 Ryerson Street 
Brooklyn, New York 

M F Electronics Corporation 

118 E. 25th Street 

New York 10, New York 

Microdot, Inc. 

220 Pasadena Avenue 

South Pasadena, California 

Milgo Electronics Corporation 
7620 N.W. 36th Avenue 
Miami 47, Florida 

Miller -Dunn Company, Inc. 
2517 N.W. 21st Terrace 
Miami, Florida 

Milletron, Inc. 

454 Lincoln Highway East 

Irwin, Pennsylvania 

Milligal Geoscience Laboratory 
50 Frankfort Street 
Fitchburg, Massachusetts 
Attn: Ray Tetrault 

Millipore Filter Corporation 
Bedford, Massachusetts 

Trans-Vision Division 
Mil-Print Incorporated 
4200 North Holton Street 
Milwaukee 1, Wisconsin 

Miner & Miner Consulting Engineers, Inc. 
910 - 27th Avenue 
P. O. Box 548 
Greely, Colorado 

Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Company 
Aeronautical Division 
2600 Ridgway Road 
Minneapolis 13, Minnesota 



Minneapolis -Honeywell Regulator Co. 
Federal Services Group 
4926 Wisconsin Avenue NW 
Washington 16, D. C. 

Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co. 
Mincom Division 
425 - I3th Street NW 
Penn Building 
Washington 4, D. C. 

Missiles &t Rockets Magazine 
1001 Vermont Avenue NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Mission Instruments Company 
2836 Deer Park Drive 
San Diego 10, California 

Mite Corporation 
1624 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Morse Diving Equipment Company, Inc. 

51 Sleeper Street 

Boston 10, Massachusetts 

F. L. Moseley Company 
409 N. Fair Oaks Avenue 
Pasadena, California 

Motec Industries, Inc. 
Hopkins, Minnesota 

Motorola, Inc. 

Western Center, Military Electronics Div. 

8201 East McDowell Road 

Scottsdale, Arizona 

Motorola, Inc. 

Systems Research Laboratory 
8330 Indiana Avenue 
Riverside, California 

Motorola, Inc. 

Military Electronics Division 

1450 N. Cicero Avenue 

Chicago 51, Illinois 

Attn: K. M. Gentry 



298 



National Canners Association 
1133 - 20th Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 
Attn: George E. Steele, Jr. 

National Engineering Science Company 
711 Soqth Fair Oaks Avenue 
Pasadena, California 

National Engineering Science Company 
1001 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Suite 725 
Washington, D. C. 

National Fisheries Institute 
1614 - 20th Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

National Lead Company 
Nuclear Service Department 
111 Broadway 
New York 6, New York 

National Marine Consultants, Inc. 
1500 Chapala Street 
Santa Barbara, California 

Navigation Computer Corporation 
Valley Forge Industrial Park 
Norristown, Pennsylvania 

Navy, The Magazine of Sea Power 
401 Mills Building 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Newark Wire Cloth Company 
351 Verona Avenue 
Newark 4, New Jersey 

New England Trawler Equipment Company 
291 Eastern Avenue 
Chelsea 50, Massachusetts 

Nichols Net and Twine Company 

Rural Route 3 

Bend Road 

East St. Louis, Illinois 

Nielsen Associates 
P. O. Box 1 
Rockville, Maryland 

Non- Linear Systems, Inc. 

P. O. Box 728 

Del Mar, California 



Nor air 

Division of Northrop Corp. 
1730 K Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Engineering Data Section 
North American Aviation, Inc. 
4300 East 5th Avenue 
Columbus 16, Ohio 

North American Aviation, Inc. 
Engineering Data Section 
4300 East 5th Avenue 
Columbus 16, Ohio 
Attn: Mr. Gaylord (D-56) 

Nor th American Aviation, Inc. 
Rocketdyne Division 
808 - 17th Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Nortronics 

Division of Northrop Corporation 
500 East Orangethorpe Avenue 
Anaheim, California 

Attn: F. W. Vinch, Vice President & 
Manager 

Nortronics 

Division of Northrop Corporation 

Electronic Systems & Equipment Dept. 

Research Park 

Palos Verdes Estates, California 

Nortronics 

Division of Northrop Corporation 

Precision Products Department 

77 "A" Street 

Needham 94, Massachusetts 

Ocean Transport Company 

A Subsidiary of Parr -Richmond 

Terminal Company 
No. 1 Drumm Street 
San Francisco 11, California 

Oceanic Instruments, Inc. 

Box 8 

Houghton, Washington 

Oceanic Systems Corporation 

Box 911 

Stony Brook, L. I. , New York 

Oceanics, Inc. 

1 14 East 40th Street 

New York 16, New York 



299 



Oceanographic Engineering Corporation 

4930 Naples Place 

San Diego 10, California 

Ocean Research Equipment, Inc. 
Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts 

Olin Mathieson Chemical Corporation 
Government Service - Chemicals Div. 
1730 K Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Olympic Instruments, Inc. 
Department 66 
Vashon, Washington 

Omnitronics, Inc. 
Subsidiary of Borg-Warner Corp. 
511 North Broad Street 
Philadelphia 23, Pennsylvania 

Operations Research, Inc. 
8605 Cameron Street 
Silver Spring, Maryland 

Orbit Industries, Inc. 
213 Mill Street N. E. 
P. O. Box 278 
Vienna, Virginia 
Attn: R. F. Pontzer 



Penton Publishing Company 
National Press Building 
Washington 4, D. C. 

Pergamon Press, Inc. 
Symposium Publications Division 
122 East 55th Street 
New York 22, New York 

The Perkin-Elmer Corporation 
1625 I Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Philco Corporation 
Scientific Laboratory 
Blue Bell, Pennsylvania 

Philco Corporation 

C & W Division 

4700 Wissahickon Avenue 

Philadelphia 44, Pennsylvania 

Attn: Mr. Bollinger 

Philco Corporation 
Government & Industry Group 
808 - 17th Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Piper Aircraft Corporation 
Lock Haven, Pennsylvania 



Otis Elevator Company 
Defense & Industrial Division 
35 Ryerson Street 
Brooklyn 5, New York 

Otis Engineering Corporation 
Box 14416 
Dallas 35, Texas 



PneumoDynamics Corporation 
1301 E. El Segundo Boulevard 
El Segundo, California 

PneumoDynamics Corporation 
Systems Engineering Division 
4936 Fairmont Avenue 
Bethesda 14, Maryland 



Pacific Automation Products, Inc. 
1200 Air Way 
Glendale 1, California 
Attn: J. D. Duff 

Pacific Fisherman 
71 Columbia Street 
Seattle 4, Washington 



PneumoDynamics Corporation 
One Farragut Square South 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Polarad Electronics Corporation 
43-20 Thirty-fourth Street 
Long Island City 1, New York 
Attn H. Zimmerman 



Packard Electric Company 
General Motors Corporation 
Warren, Ohio 



Popular Mechanics 

1224 National Press Building 

Washington, D. C. 



Pan American Petroleum Corporation 
P. O. Box 591 
Tulsa, Oklahoma 



Power Instruments Corporation 

235 Oregon Street 

El Segundo, California 



300 



Pratt & Whitney Company, Inc. 

Charter Oak Boulevard 

West Hartford 1, Connecticut 

Precision Instrument Company 
1011 Commercial Street 
Sj.n Carlos, California 

Precision Thermometer & Instrument Co. 
1434 Brandywine Street 
Philadelphia 30, Pennsylvania 

Prodelin, Incorporated 
Kearny, New Jersey 

Puget Sound Workshop 
3311 - 110th S. E. 
Bellevue, Washington 

Quantum, Incorporated 
Lufbery Avenue 
Wallingford, Connecticut 

Radiation, Inc. 
1715 Eye Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Radiation Systems, Inc. 
440 Swann Avenue 
Alexandria, Virginia 

Radio Corporation of America 
Airborne Command and Control Div. 
P. O. Box 588 
Burlington, Massachusetts 

Radio Corporation of America 
Industrial Electronic Products 
Camden 2, New Jersey 

Radio Corporation of America 

M & SR 

Moorestown, New Jersey 

Radio Corporation of America 
David Sarnoff Research Center 
Princeton, New Jersey 

Radioplane, A Division of Northrop 

Corporation 
8000 Woodley Avenue 
Van Nuys, California 
Attn: G. Muinch - Area 2 

Raytheon Company 
Submarine Signal Di\'ision 
P. O. Box 360 
Newport, Rhode Island 
Attn: R. W. Colby 



Reed Research, Inc. 
1048 Potomac Street NW 
Washington 7, D. C. 

Reeves Instrument Company 

Roosevelt Field 

Long Island, New York 

Reeves Instrument Company 
1826 Jefferson Place NW 
Washington, D. C. 

REF Dynamics 

393 Jericho Turnpike 

Mineola, New York 

Military Department 
Remington Rand Univac 
2121 Wisconsin Avenue, NW 
Washington 7, D. C. 
Attn: D. D. Bourland, Jr. 

Republic Aviation Corporation 

Conklin Street 

Farmingdale, L. I. , New York 

Research Management Corporation 
1625 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Richfield Oil Corporation 
5900 Cherry Avenue 
Long Beach 5, California 
Attn: Mr. R. O. Pollard 

Rixon Electronics, Inc. 
2121 Industrial Parkway 
Montgomery Industrial Park 
Silver Spring, Maryland 

M. Rosenblatt & Son, Inc. 

Naval Architects & Marine Engineers 

350 Broadway 

New York 13, New York 

Ross Laboratories, Inc. 
124 Lakeside Avenue 
Seattle 22, Washington 

Salt Lake Stamp Company 
380 West 2nd South 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

Sanborn Company 
175 Wyman Street 
Waltham 54, Massachusetts 



301 



Sanders Associates, Inc. 
Burlington, Massachusetts 

Sanders Associates, Inc. 

95 Canal Street 

Nashua, New Hampshire 

Sanders Associates, Inc. 
Fairchild Avenue 
Plainview, L. I. , New York 

Sandia Corporation 
P. O. Box 5800 
Albuquerque, New Mexico 

Sangamo Electric Company 

11th &t Converse Streets 

Springfield, Illinois 

Attn; Herbert M. Johnson, Chief Engineer , 

Advance Research t Development, Sonar 

Schlumberger Well Surveying Corporation 
P. O. Box 307 
Ridgefield, Connecticut 

E. Fred Schueler 
30 Albemarle Road 
Waltham 54, Massachusetts 

Science Service 
1719 - N Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Scientific Service Laboratories, Inc. 
P. O. Box 175 
Dallas 21, Texas 

Scott Aviation Corporation 
Safety Equipment Division 
207 Erie Street 
Lancaster, New York 

Scovill Manufacturing Company 

99 Mill Street 

Waterbury 22, Connecticut 

Sea-Space Systems, Inc. 

2101 Rosita Place 

Palos Verdes, California 

Seiscor 

6200 East 41st Street 

Box 1590 

Tulsa 1, Oklahoma 

Sennicon, Inc. 

300 Sweetwater Avenue 

Bedford, Massachusetts 



Servo Corporation of America 
1001 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Servonic Instruments, Inc. 
1644 Whittier Avenue 
Costa Mesa, California 

Sheffield Publishing Company, Inc. 
Undersea Technology 
640 Washington Building 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Shell Development Company 
Emeryville, California 

Shell Development Company 
P. O. Box 481 
Houston 1, Texas 

J. H. Shepherd Son & Company 
P. O. Box 145 
Elyria, Ohio 

S-I Electronics, Inc. 
103 Park Avenue 
Nutley, New Jersey 

Sierra Research Corporation 
P. O. Box 22 
Buffalo 25, New York 

Simplex Wire & Cable Company 
79 Sidney Street 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Sinclair Research, Inc. 
P. O. Box 3006 
Whittier Station 
Tulsa, Oklahoma 

Socony Mobil Oil Company, Inc. 
P. O. Box 900 
Dallas 21, Texas 

Southwestern Connputing Service, Inc. 
910 South Boston 
Tulsa 19, Oklahoma 

Space Components, Inc. 
1040 Potomac Street NW 
Washington 7, D. C. 

Space Technology Laboratories, Inc. 

One Space Park 

Redondo Beach, California 



302 



Space Technology Laboratories, Inc. 
1625 I Street NW 
Washington b. D. C. 

Sparton Corporation 
422 Washington Bldg. 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Sparton Electronics 
Division of Sparton Corporation 
2400 E. Michigan Avenue 
Jackson, Michigan 



Studebaker -Packard Corporation 

Room 505 

1725 K Street NW 

Washington, D. C. 

Submarine Research Laboratories 

104 Colby Road 

North Quincy, Massachusetts 

Superior Cable Corporation 
P. O. Box 480-A 
Hickory, North Carolina 



Specialty Electronics Development Corp. 
131-01 - 39th Avenue 
Flushing 54, New York 

Spectran Electronics Corporation 
146 Main Street 
Maynard, Massachusetts 

Spencer -Kennedy Laboratories, Inc. 
1320 Soldiers Field Road 
Boston 35, Massachusetts 

Sperry Gyroscope Company 
Division of Sperry Rand Corporation 
Great Neck, L. I. , New York 
Attn: W. R. Griswold 



Sylvania Electronic Products, Inc. 
100 First Avenue 
Waltham 54, Massachusetts 
Attn: Library 

System Development Corporation 
2500 Colorado Avenue 
Santa Monica, California 

System Development Corporation 
1725 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Systems Engineering Laboratories 

P. O. Box 9148 

Fort Lauderdale, Florida 



Sperry Rand Research Center 
North Road 

Sudbury, Massachusetts 
Attn: Guenther Knapp 

The Sport Fishing Institute 
Bond Building 
Washington 5, D. C. 

A. M. Starr Net Company, Inc. 

12 Summit Street 

East Hampton, Connecticut 

Sterling Engineering Company 
Newark, New Jersey 

Stroudsburg Engine Works, Inc. 
63 North Third Street 
Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania 

Studebaker -Packard Corporation 
635 S. Main Street 
South Bend 27, Indiana 



Tacoma Boat Building Company, Inc. 
132 Sitcum Waterway 
Tacoma 2, Washington 

Robert Taggert, Incorporated 
400 Arlington Boulevard 
Falls Church, Virginia 

W. A. Taylor & Company 
7300 York Road 
Baltimore 4, Maryland 

Technical Products Company 

6670 Lexington Avenue 

Los Angeles 38, California 

Attn: R. C. Moody, Engineering Mgr. 

Tecknicon Engineering Associates 
187 Garibaldi Avenue 
Lodi, New Jersey 

Tektronix, Inc. 
4205 Evergreen Lane 
Annandale, Virginia 



303 



Telecomputing Corporation 
1725 1 Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 
Attn: Malcolm C. Tucker 



Thiokol Chemical Corporation 
Suite 300 - Hill Building 
839 17th Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 



Tele -Dynamics 

Div. of American Bosch-Arma 
5000 Parkside Avenue 
Philadelphia 31, Pennsylvania 



John I. Thompson & Company 
1118 22nd Street NW 
P. O. Box 3531 
Washington, D. C. 



Telemetering Corporation of America 
8345 Hayvenhurst Avenue 
Sepulveda, California 

Telemetering Corporation of America 
17Z4 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington 9, D. C. 

Telephonies Corporation 

Park Avenue 

Huntington, L. 1. , New York 

Texaco Experiment, Incorporated 
P. O. Box 1-T 
Richmond 2, Virginia 

Texaco, Inc. 

Marine Department 

135 E. 42nd Street 

New York, New York 

Attn: F. I. Owen, Manager, Operations 

Texas Instruments, Incorporated 
Geosciences Department 
P. O. Box 35084 
Air Lawn Station 
Dallas 35, Texas 

Texas Research Associates 
1701 Guadalupe Street 
Austin I, Texas 

Texas Research & Electronic Corporation 
Meadows Building 
Dallas, Texas 

Textran Corporation 

Box 9207 

Austin 17, Texas 

Thiokol Chemical Corporation 
Bristol Division 
Bristol, Pennsylvania 
Attn: Contract Office 



Tracerlab, Inc. 

Contract Sales 

226 Massachusetts Avenue NE 

Washington 2, D. C. 

Transister Applications, Inc. 
47 McGrath Highway 
Somerville, Massachusetts 

Trans-Sonics, Inc. 

P. O. Box 328 

Lexington 73, Massachusetts 

Trident Engineering Associates 
P. O. Box 1442 
Annapolis, Maryland 

G. K. Turner Associates 
2524 Pulgas Avenue 
Palo Alto, California 

W. S. Tyler Company 
3615 Superior Avenue 
Cleveland 14, Ohio 

Undersea Technology Magazine 
19040 Mauna Loa Avenue 
Glendora, California 
Attn: Robert G. Bates 

West Coast Editor 

The Underwater Defense Letter 
1722 Wisconsin Avenue NE 
Washington, D. C. 

Underwater Sports 

2219 Biscayne Boulevard 

Miami, Florida 

Underwater Systems, Inc. 
2446 Reedie Drive 
Wheaton, Maryland 



304 



Unified Science Associates, Inc. 
826 South Arroyo Parkway 
Pasadena, California 

Union Carbide Corporation 
270 Park Avenue 
New York 17, New York 
Attn: Don Cameron 

United Aircraft Corporation 
East Hartford 8, Connecticut 

United Aircraft Corporation 
Norden Division 
Helen Street 

Norwaik, Connecticut 

United Aircraft Corporation 
Research Dept. , Building 1 
Hamilton Standard Division 
Windsor Locks, Connecticut 

United ElectroDynamics, Inc. 
200 Allendale Road 
Pasadena, California 



Universal Match Corporation 

Armament Division 

472 Paul Avenue 

St. Louis 35, Missouri 

Vare Industries, Inc. 
128 West First Avenue 
Roselle, New Jersey 

Varian Associates 
611 Hansen Way 
Palo Alto, California 

Varian Associates 
1725 K Street, NW 
Suite 809 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Vector Manufacturing Company, Inc 
Division of Oceanography 
Southampton, Pennsylvania 

Video Engineering Company 
Riggs Road at First Place NE 
Washington 11, D. C. 



United Geophysical Corporation 
2650 East Foothill 
Pasadena, California 



Videonics 

One Main Street 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 



United Research, Inc. 

138 Alewife Brook Parkway 

Cambridge 38, Massachusetts 

United Shoe Machinery Corporation 

Harmonic Drive Division 

Balch Street 

Beverly, Massachusetts 

U. S. Divers Company 
3323 West Warner Avenue 
Santa Ana, California 

U. S. Rubber Company 

Inflatable Products and Transportation 

Containers 
10 Eagle Street 
Providence 1, Rhode Island 

United States Underseas Cable Corp. 
3900 Wisconsin Avenue NW 
Washington 16, D. C. 

Universal ESCO Corporation 
Research Center 
705 W. North St. 
Raleigh, North Carolina 



Vitro Corporation of America 
Silver Spring Laboratory 
14000 Georgia Avenue 
Silver Spring, Maryland 

Vitro Laboratories 

200 Pleasant Valley Way 

West Orange, New Jersey 

Vought Range Systems 

Div. of Chance Vought Corporation 

680 Ala Moana 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

Waddell Dynamics, Inc. 

4364 Twain 

San Diego 20, California 

Wallace & Tiernan, Inc. 
25 Main Street 
Belleville 9, New Jersey 

Wallin Optical Systems, Inc. 
18523 Ventura Boulevard 
Tarzana, California 



305 



Washington Associates 
1624 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 
Attn: RADM P. D. Gallery, 
USN (Ret. ) 

The Washington Post 
Washington, D. C. 

Washington Science Trends 
998 National Press Building 
Washington 4, D. C. 

Washington Technological Associates, 

Incorporated 
979 Rollins Avenue 
Rockville, Maryland 
Attn: J. J. Mulquin 

Welex Division 
Halliburton Company 
Box 1658 
Houston, Texas 

Welex Electronics Corporation 
Suite 201, Solar Bldg. 
16th k K Streets NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Westco Research 

Division of the Western Company 

7128 Envoy Court 

Dallas 7, Texas 



Westinghouse Electric Corporation 
Ordnance Department 
3601 Washington Building 
P. O. Box 1797 
Baltimore 3, Maryland 

Research Library 

Westinghouse Electric Corporation 

Research Laboratories 

Churchill Boro 

Pittsburgh 35, Pennsylvania 

Westrex Company - Marine 

Instrumentation Dept. 
Division of Litton Systems, Inc. 
540 West 58th St. 
New York, New York 

C. H. Wheeler Manufacturing Company 
411 Washington Street 
Alexandria, Virginia 

C. H. Wheeler Manufacturing Company 

19th & Lehigh 

Philadelphia 32, Pennsylvania 

White Avionics Corporation 
25 West Pennsylvania Avenue 
Towson 4, Maryland 

White Avionics Corporation 
Terminal Drive, Plain View 
Long Island, New York 



The Western Company 
1624 I Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Western Development Laboratories 
Link Division, General Precision, Inc. 
1451 California Avenue 
Palo Alto, California 



L> G. White & Company 
880 Bonifant Street 
Silver Spring, Maryland 

L. V. Whitney & Son Underwater 

Instruments 
1987 Corralitos Drive 
San Luis Obispo, California 



Western Gear Corporation 
P. O. Box 192 
Lynwood, California 



Wiancko Engineering Company 
255 North Halstead Avenue 
Pasadena, California 



Western Gear Corporation 
830 Washington Building 
Washington 5, D. C. 



Wildlife Supply Company 
2200 S. Hamilton Street 
Saginaw, Michigan 



Western Geophysical Company of America 
933 North La Brea Avenue 
Los Angeles 38, California 



Wiley Electronic Products Company 
2045 W. Cheryl Drive 
Phoenix, Arizona 



Wilkins-Ander son Company 
4525 W. Division Street 
Chicago 51, Illinois 



306 



Windsor Dynamics, Inc. 

P. O. Box 5500 

Sherman Oaks, California 

Xerox Corporation 
1725 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 



307 



APPENDIX D 

LIST OF ATTENDEES AT THE 

GOVERNMENT-INDUSTRY SYMPOSIUM ON OCEANOGRAPHIC 

INSTRUMENTATION 

AUGUST 16 - 17, 1961 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Abel, Robert B. 

Office of Naval Research 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Abrams, B. W. 
Head, Torpedo Section 
Clevite Ordnance 
540 East 105th Street 
Cleveland 8, Ohio 

Acs, John A. 

Senior Engineer 

Product Development Engineering Co. 

24045 West Outer Drive 

Melvindale, Michigan 

Adams. W. R. F. 
Assistant Vice President 
General Cable Corporation 
261 Constitution Ave. NW 
Washington 1, D. C. 

Adamson, Bliss A. 

Adelman, J. , LCDR, USN 

Head, Oceanographic Programs Branch 

Navy Hydrographic Office 

Suitland, Maryland 

Alberts, Carl D. 
Product Planning Engineer 
Ordnance Department 
General Electric Co. 
100 Plastics Ave. 
Pittsfield, Massachusetts 



AUsman, Paul T. 

Chief Mining Engineer 

Bureau of Mines 

U. S. Department of the Interior 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Anastasion, Steven N. , CDR, USN 
Special Assistant to the Assistant-Secretary 
of the Navy (Research and Development) 
The Pentagon, Room 4E732 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Anderson, Carl C. 

Chief Petroleum Engineer 

Bureau of Mines 

U. S. Department of the Interior 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Anderson, W. 
Texas Instruments, Inc. 
1925 K Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Anderson, William W. 

Laboratory Director 

U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

Biological Laboratory 

P. O. Box 280 

Brunswick, Georgia 

Andrews, E. 

Project Manager, Advanced Design 

Sanders Associates, Inc. 

95 Canal St. 

Nashua, New Hampshire 



Alexander, R. J.. CDR, USN 

Head, Oceanographic Progranns Branch 

{OP-716) 

Office of Chief of Naval Operations 

The Pentagon 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Arens, Clem E. 

Operations Division 

Coast & Geodetic Survey 

U. S. Department of Commerce 

Washington 25, D. C. 



309 



Armstrong, Malcolm 

Manager of Sales 

Lithium Corp. of America, Inc. 

Hydro-Space Technology, Inc. 

121 Clinton Road 

CaldweU, New Jersey 

Arnold, Henry A. 
Assistant to Chief Scientist 
United Aircraft Corporation 
East Hartford, Connecticut 

Arnold, P. 

Specialist - Technological Forecasting 

Pratt & Whitney Co., Inc. 

Charter Oak Blvd. 

West Hartford 1, Connecticut 



Arseneault, A. J 
RDT & E Office 
EOD Technical Center 
Indianhead, Maryland 



Jr., LCDR 



Ayers, James R. 
Waterfront Structures 
Bureau of Yards and Docks 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Ayers, Dr. John C. 
Professor of Zoology 
Department of Zoology 
University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Bailey, Loren A. 

Vice President and Chief Engineer 
United States Underseas Cable Corp. 
2001 Wisconsin Avenue NW 
Washington 7, D. C. 

Baisch, Donald 

Engineer, Electronic Systems Division 

Telecomputing Corp. 

1725 I Street NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 



Asbury, George 
Atlantic Research Corp. 
Shirley Highway & Edsall Road 
Alexandria, Virginia 

Aschenbrenner , Bert C. 

Head, Systems Department 

Autometric Corp. 

1501 Broadway 

New York 36, New York 

Atkins, William 

United Machine 

23l6 Jefferson-Davis Highway 

Alexandria, Virginia 

Aument, George C. 
Market Analyst 
Industrial Products Division 
Hamilton Watch Co. 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania 

Austin, George B. 

U. S. Navy Mine Defense Laboratory 

Code 723 

Panama City, Florida 

Avil, H. J. , Jr. 
Electronic Engineer 
Targets & Decoys Section 
Clevite Ordnance 
540 East I05th St. 
Cleveland 8, Ohio 



Baker, Hugh 
Militronics, Inc. 
1108 Oronoco St. 
Alexandria, Virginia 

Baker, Raymond W. 

Product Planner 

Submarine Signal Operations 

Raytheon Company 

P. O. Box 360 

Newport, Rhode Island 

Ballinger, Edward P. 
Denison Engineering Division 
Columbus 16, Ohio 

Baltzer, Dr. O. J. 

President and Technical Director 

Textran Corporation 

P. O. Box 9207 

Austin 17, Texas 

Barnard, George L. 

Washington Technological Associates, Inc. 

979 Rollins Avenue 

Rockville, Maryland 

Baron, Barry J. 
ASW Study Manager 
Loral Electronics Corp. 
825 Bronx River Avenue 
New York 72, New York 



310 



Barry, David T. 

Manager, Marine Science Programs 

Texas Instruments, Geosciences Department 

P. O. Box 35084, Airlawn Station 

Dallas 35, Texas 

Barton, Robert W. 
Assistant General Manager 
Systenns Research Laboratory 
Motorola, Inc. 
8313 Indiana Avenue 
Riverside, California 

Bascom, WiUard 

The AMSOC Committee - Mohole Project 

National Academy of Sciences 

2l0l Constitution Ave. NW 

Washington, D. C. 

Basin, Dr. Michael A. 

Manager, Undersea Warfare Dept. 

Hughes Aircraft Company 

Bldg. 384, MS. B-105 

Box 2097 

FuUerton, California 

Bassett, N. S. 

Federal Services Group 

Minneapolis -Honeywell Regulator Co. 

4926 Wisconsin Ave. NW 

Washington l6, D. C. 



Beeton, Dr. Alfred M. 

Fishery Research Biologist 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

Biological Laboratory 

P. O. Box 640 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Beiser, George 

American Research & Manufacturing 

920 Halpine Ave. 

Rockville, Maryland 

Bell, Charles R. 

Project Engineer 

J. Ray McDermott & Co., Inc. 

2nd Floor - Saratoga Bldg. 

New Orleans, Louisiana 

Bell, Daniel C. 

Project Manager 

Systems Management Division 

Western Gear Corp. 

P. O. Box 192 

Lynwood, California 

Bell, M. W. J. 

Project Engineer - Missiles 

Advanced Engineering 

North American Aviation, Inc. 

4300 E. Fifth Ave. 

Columbus 16, Ohio 



Bates, Martin R. 
Chief, Analysis Section 
Sierra Research Corporation 
P. O. Box 22 
Buffalo 25, New York 

Bauer, Paul S. , CAPT, USN(Ret.) 
House Merchant Marine & Fisheries 

Committee 
Old House Office Building 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Beardsley, George F. , Jr. 

Systems Analyst, Ocean Systems 

Organization 5511 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. 

3251 Hanover St. 

Palo Alto, California 

Beckman, Robert J. 
Digital Equipment Corp. 
Maynard, Massachusetts 



Beller, William 
Missiles & Rockets Magazine 
lOOl Vermont Avenue NW 
Washington 5, D. C 

Belvin, Dan L. 

Bennett, Harry D. 
Applied Science Representative 
International Business Machines Corp. 
nil Connecticut Ave. NW 
Washington b, D. C. 

Bennett, Roy F. 

General Marketing Manager 

Geophysical Division 

Dresser Electronics 

P. O. Box 22187 

Houston 42, Texas 

Beno, J. H. (393/B118) 
Hughes Aircraft Co. 
P. O. Box 2097 
FuUerton, California 



311 



Benson, Professor Bruce B. 
Department of Physics 
Amherst College 
Amherst, Massachusetts 



Bly, Donald A. 

Manager, Industrial Products Research 

Hamilton Watch Company 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania 



Benson, Howard H. J., Jr. 
Vitro Silver Spring Laboratory 
14000 Georgia Avenue 
Silver Spring, Maryland 

Bernstein, J. - G 3104 
The Martin Co. 
Baltimore 3, Maryland 

Berry, William L. 

Senior Scientist 

Milligal Geoscience Laboratory 

50 Frankfort Street 

Fitchburg, Massachusetts 

Bertholf, L. B. 
Head, Oceanographic Branch 
Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 

Best, Harold 

Chief Electronic Engineer 

Vare Industries 

128 West First Ave. 

Roselle, New Jersey 

Bevis, Charles M. 

Assistant Manager 

Tacoma Boatbuilding Co. , Inc. 

132 Sitcum Waterway 

Tacoma 2, Washington 

Bissett, Thomas B. 
Executive Vice President 
The Bissett-Berman Corp. 
2941 Nebraska Ave. 
Santa Monica, California 

Blaisdell, W. C, President 
States Electronics Corporation 
(Bludworth Marine Division) 
9b Gold Street 
New York 38, New York 

Blake, Dr. F. G. 

Supervisor, Geophysics Branch 

California Research Corp. 

P. O. Box 446 

La Habra, California 



Bohan, Walter 

Staff Engineer 

Cook Technological Center 

Cook Electric Company 

6401 Oakton Street 

Morton Grove, Illinois 

Bomzer, Herbert W. 
Autometric Corp. 
1501 Broadway 
New York 36, New York 

Bondon, Lewis A. 
14 South Park Street 
Montclair, New Jersey 

Boodman, Dr. David M. 

Staff Member, Operations Research Section 

Arthur D. Little Co. 

Acorn Park 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Bordon, Clifford C. 

Curtiss- Wright, Electronics Division 

35 Market St. 

East Paterson, New Jersey 

Bosshart, Robert F. 

Section Manager 

Cook Technological Center 

Cook Electric Co. 

6401 Oakton St. 

Morton Grove, Illinois 

Botzum, John 

Penton Publishing Company 
The National Press Bldg. 
Washington, D. C. 

Bourne, Harry K. 

United Kingdom Scientific Mission 

Office of the Scientific Attache 

1907 K Street NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 

Boutross, Albert 
Project Engineer 
Federal Scientific Corp. 
615 W. 131st St. 
New York 27, New York 



312 



Bowditch, Robert Steven 

Cooperate Planner - Technological 

Radioplane 

Div. of Northrop Corp. 

8000 Woodley Ave. 

Van Nuys, California 

Boyer, G. L. , Manager 
Navy Engineering 
International Business Machines 
Space Guidance Center 
Oswego, New York 

Boyle, Charles 
Section Engineer 
Sparton Electronics 
Jackson, Michigan 

Boyle, R. J. 

Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co. 
Seattle Development Laboratory 
5303 Shilshole Avenue NW 
Seattle 7, Washington 

Brabrant, Charles E. 

Chief, Electronics Section 

Branch of Systems Development & Resear-ch 

Geological Survey 

GSA Building, 19th & F Streets, NW 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Brady, C. E. 

Manager, Advanced Undersea Warfare 

Engineering 
General Electric 
Advanced Electronic Center 
Ithaca, New York 

Brady, F. T. 

Marketing Representative 

Westinghouse Electric Corp. 

Ordnance Dept. 

Box 1797 

Baltimore 3, Maryland 

Brainard, Edward C. II 
President 
Braincon Corp. 
Box 312 

Marion, Massachusetts 



Braman, Dr. Robert S. 

Research Chemist 

Armour Research Foundation of Illinois 

Institute of Technology 
Technology Center 
10 West 35th St. 
Chicago 16, Illinois 

Branch, Mrs. Jean L. 

Secretary-Treasurer 

Consolidated Net and Twine Co. , Inc. 

Fishermen's Terminal 

Seattle 99, Washington 

Branch, WiUard H. 

President 

Consolidated Net and Twine Co. , Inc. 

Fishermen's Terminal 

Seattle 99, Washington 

Brantley, W. Lawrence 
Manager, Washington District 
Giannini Controls Corp. 
4435 Wisconsin Avenue 
Washington 16, D. C. 

Brekke, Ray 
Sales Engineer 
Western Gear Corp. 
830 Washington Bldg. 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Bretschneider , Dr. Charles L. 

Senior Staff 

National Engineering Science Company 

Suite 725 

1001 Connecticut Ave. NW 

Washington b, D. C. 

Brett, George W. 

Geologist 

Branch of Mineral Classification 

Geological Survey 

Department of the Interior 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Bridge, Richard 

Naval Research Laboratory 

Code 7114 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Brock, Vernon E. * 

Laboratory Director 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

Biological Laboratory 

734 Jackson Place NW 

Washington 25, D. C. 



313 



Eroding, Robert A. 
Technical Vice President 
Century Geophysical Corporation 
515 South Main Street 
Tulsa 3, Oklahoma 

Bronstein, Fred 

Kollsmah Instrument Corporation 

80-08 - 45th Avenue 

Elmhurst 73, New York 

Brownyard, Dr. T. L. 
Head, Nuclear Weapons Effects & 
Underwater Phenomena Section 
Bureau of Naval Weapons 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Bryan, Dr. George M. 

Technical Staff 

Genisco, Inc. 

2233 Federal Avenue 

Los Angeles 64, California 

Bryant, R. C. 

Director, Electromechanical Division 
Atlantic Research Corporation 
Shirley Highway and Edsall Road 
Alexandria, Virginia 



Busser , John H. 

The Franklin Institute of the State of 

Pennsylvania 
Electrical Engineering Division 
Bio-Instrumentation Laboratory 
Philadelphia 3, Pennsylvania 

Butt, Harvey R. 

Manager, Radiomarine Marketing Relations 

Radio Corporation of America 

1725 K Street NW 

Washington 4, D. C. 

Caldwell, Charles E. 
Geophysical Sales Manager 
Electrodynamic Instrument Corp. 
1841 Old Spanish Trail 
Houston 25, Texas 

Caldwell, Joseph M. 
Beach Erosion Board 
5201 Little Falls Road NW 
Washington 16, D. C. 

Callahan, Vincent 
The Under-Water Defense Letter 
1722 Wisconsin Ave. NW 
Washington, D. C. 



Buell, M. W. 

Code 3514, Marine Surveys Division 
Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 

Buescher, Robert H. 
Director of Engineering 
Litton Industries 
Maryland Division 
4900 Calvert Road 
College Park, Maryland 

Bumpus, William W. 

Manager, Government Liaison Office 

Consolidated Electrodynamics Corp. 

764 - 23rd St. South 

Arlington 2, Virginia 

Bush, Dr. J. 

Oceanographer 

General Electric Company 

Defense Systems Departinent 

Box 1122 

Syracuse, New York 



Camp, Leon W. 

Director, Applied Research 

Pacific Division 

Bendix Aviation Corporation 

1 IbOO Sherman Way 

North Hollywood, California 

Canipanella, Angelo J. 

Senior Engineer 

HRB-Singer, Inc. 

Science Park 

P. O. Box 60 

State College, Pennsylvania 

Campani, John 
REF Dynamics 
393 Jericho Turnpike 
Mineola, New York 

Campwell, Ray 

American Research & Manufacturing 

920 Halpine Ave. 

Rockville, Maryland 



314 



Cantwell, Raymond 
Ray Cantwell Company 
9321 Fresno Road 
Bethesda 14, Maryland 

Manufacturer's representative for: 

The Gems Co., Inc. 

Canup, Robert 
Texaco Experiment, Inc. 
P. O. Box 1-T 
Richmond Z, Virginia 

Captiva, Francis 
Exploratory Fishing Base 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Pascagoula, Mississippi 

Carley, Glenn R. 

Special Consultant 

Naval Ordnance Test Station 

Pasadena, California 

Carlson, E. V., CAPT, USCG 
Chief, Floating Units Division 
U. S. Coast Guard Headquarters 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Carlson, Q. H. 
Head, Submarine Section 
Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 

Carlton, P. J. 

Marine Systems Division 

Alpha Corporation 

820 East Arapaho Road 
Richardson, Texas 

Carpenter, A. B. 
Washington representative 
Electronics Division 
Curtiss-Wright Corporation 

821 - 15th Street NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Carpenter, B. B. 

Head, Instrumentation Test Operations 

Dept. 
Goodyear Aircraft 
1210 Massillon Rd. 
Akron 15, Ohio 



Carragher, Harry 

Telemetering Corporation of America 
1724 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington 9, D. C. 

Carter, R. W. 

Chief, Research Section, Surface Water 

Branch 
Water Resources Division 
Geological Survey 
Department of the Interior 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Cawley, J. H. 

General Atomic 

Div. General Dynamics 

P. O. Box 608 

San Diego 12, California 

Chang, Quong Y. 

Senior Research Specialists 

Research and Development Group 

The Marquardt Corporation 

2709 N. Garey Ave. 

Pomona, California 

Chelminski, Stephen 
Bolt Associates 
78 Danbury Rd. 
Wilton, Connecticut 

Chew, Frank 

Gulf Coast Research Laboratory 

Ocean Springs, Mississippi 

Chipman, Dr. Walter A. 
Laboratorie de Radioactivite Marine 
Musee Oceanographique 
Principaute de Monaco 

Churchill, L. S. 
Supervisory Engineer 
Lockheed Electronics Company 
Military Systems/Stavid Division 
Plainfield, New Jersey 

Ciapp, Charles C. 

Harmonic Drive Division 

United Shoe Machinery Corporation 

Balch Street 

Beverly, Massachusetts 



Carpenter, John 
The Foxboro Company 
6229 North Charles Street 
Baltimore 12, Maryland 



315 



Clark, John R. 

Assistant Chief 

Sandy Hook Marine Laboratory 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries & Wildlife 

P. O. Box 428 

Highlands, New Jersey 

Clayton, Curtis 

United Aircraft Corporation 

Norden Division 

Helen Street 

Norwalk, Connecticut 

Coates. L. D. , RADM, USN * 
Chief, Office of Naval Research 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Cohen, Dr. Daniel M. 
Laboratory Director 
Ichthyological Laboratory 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Room 71, National Museum 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Cohen, S. G. 

President - Chief Engineer 

EssGee, Inc. 

15 Havens Street 

Elmsford, New York 

Coil, J. A., Jr., CDR, USN 
Head, Applied Sciences Branch 
Bureau of Ships 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Collins, Thomas W., Jr. 
Development Planning Analyst 
North Annerican Aviation 
International Airport 
Los Angeles, California 

Colson, Edward A. 

Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier, Inc. 

160 Brookline Avenue 

Boston 15, Massachusetts 

Cornell, Sidney 
Vice President 
Centroid Corp. 
1 26 Jackson St. 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 



Corwin, Elbert F. , Head 
Scientific Services Branch 
Meteorological Management Division 
Bureau of Naval Weapons 
Department of the Navy 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Cosier, Arthur S. , Jr. 
"^ /o Dunlap Associates, Inc. 
429 Atlantic Street 
Stamford, Connecitcut 

Couper, B. King * 
Code 342C 
Bureau of Ships 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Cox, Thomas O. 

General Manager 

Aero Instrument Co. 

Department of Radioplane 

A Div. of Northrop Corporation 

11975 Sherman Way 

North Hollywood, California 

Crane, Melvin L. 

Office of Patent Counsel 

Code 1104 

Naval Research Laboratory 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Cretzler, Don J. 

President 

Hytech Corporation 

G Street Pier 

San Diego, California 

Crosby, K. G. , CAPT, USCG 

Crossen, James M. * 
Electronic Equipment Specialist 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Biological Laboratory 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

Cummings, George B. 
Assistant to the President 
Telephonies Corp. 
16 Nathan Hale Drive 
Huntington, L. I. , New York 

Curry, Dr. Thomas H. 

Associate Dean, College of Technology 

University of Maine 

Orono, Maine 



316 



Gushing, T. W. 
Englehard Industries, Inc. 
1 1 3 As tor Street 
Newark, New Jersey, 

Dakin, Ray 

Telemetering Corporation of America 
8345 Hayvenhurst Avenue 
Sepulveda, California 

Dare, Captain Eugene 
The Martin Company 
1701 K Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Davidson, Dr. William L. 

Asst. to the Vice President - Research 

FMC Corp. 

161 E. 42nd Street 

New York 17, New York 

Davis, Clifford H. 
Northrop Corporation 
Norair Division 
1001 E. Broadway 
Hawthorne, California 

de Bruyn, Peter R. 

Programs Division 

Itek Laboratories 

Division of Itek Corporation 

Lexington 73, Massachusetts 

Decker, Wilbur E. 

Application Engineer 

The Marquardt Corporation 

16555 Saticoy Street 

Van Nuys, California 

de Geofroy, Dr. Louis 

Partner 

Bolt Associates 

78 Danbury Rd. 

Wilton, Connecticut 

de Graffenried, Albert 

Staff Scientist, Plainview Facility 

Sanders Associates, Inc. 

Fairchild Avenue 

Plainview, L. I., New York 

Delenk, Dr. W. N. 

Director of Engineering 

Braincon Corp. 

Box 31Z 

Marion, Massachusetts 



De Lucien, Ronald W. 
National Canners Association 
1133 - 20th St. NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Dermody, John 
Senior Oceanographer 
Department of Oceanography 
University of Washington 
Seattle 5, Washington 

Deshazo, S. G. 

Systems Engineering Laboratories 

4500 N. E. 5th Ave. 

Fort Lauderdale, Florida 

DeTurk, John 

Itek Corporation 

10 Maguire Street 

Lexington 73, Massachusetts 

DeVaney, Thomas E. 

Branch of Federal Aid 

Bureau of Sport Fisheries & Wildlife 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Devine, Paul 

Sr . Sales Engineer 

Washington Technological Associates, Inc. 

979 Rollins Ave. 

Rockville, Maryland 

Dickinson, Charles 

Di-Conex 

P. O. Box 637 

Moss Point, Mississippi 

Diedrichsen, R. T. 
Manager, Sonar Laboratory 
Dresser Electronics 
P. O. Box 22187 
Houston, Texas 

Dillen, William R. 

Oceanographic Systems Engineering 

representative 
Lockheed Aircraft 
1000 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington o, D. C. 

Dingee, Alexander, Jr. 

President 

Geodyne Corp. 

180 Bear Hill Road 

Waltham 54, Massachusetts 



317 



Dinsmore, R. P., LCDR, USCG "^ 
Chief Patrols and Scientific Programs 
Branch of Floating Units Division 
U. S. Coast Guard 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Doherty, Mrs. Josephine K. 
Assistant Program Director for 

Environmental Biology 
National Science Foundation 
1951 Constitution Avenue NW 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Domanovsky, Paul 
Project Engineer - ASW 
Chance Vought Corp. 
P. O. Box 5907 
Dallas 22, Texas 



Dubach, H. W. * 

Deputy Director 

National Oceanographic Data Center 

Naval Weapons Plant 

M at 8th Sts. SE 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Dubin, Jack 

Eastern Contracts Manager 
Beckman Instruments, Inc. 
8519 Stevenswood Road 
Baltimore 7, Maryland 

Duncan, H. J. 

Chief, Conservation Division 
Geological Survey 
Department of the Interior 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Donaldson, W. Lyle 

Director, Department of Electronics & 

Engineering 
Southwest Research Institute 
8500 Culebra Road 
San Antonio 6, Texas 



Dupuy, Leon W. 

Special Assistant for Mineral Resource 

Studies of River Basins 
U. S. Bureau of Mines 
Department of the Interior 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Dossey, J. L. 
Sandia Corp., Org. 9111 
P. O. Box 5800 
Albuquerque, New Mexico 

Dow, L. J., RADM, USN (Ret.) 
1200 S. Courtland Road 
Arlington, Virginia 

Downing, Dr. J. Robert 
Technical Director 
Advanced Development Staff 
Kollsman Instrument Corporation 
80-08 - 45th Avenue 
Elmhurst 73, New York 

Dranetz, Abraham I. 
Vice President 
Gulton Industries, Inc. 
212 Durham Avenue 
Metuchen, New Jersey 

Driscoli, Albert B. 

Manager of Marketing 

Automatic Handling Equipment Dept. 

General Mills Electronic Group 

419 North 5th Street 

Minneapolis 1, Minnesota 



Durum, Walton 

Chemist 

Water Resources Division 

Geological Survey, G. S. A. Bldg. 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Dusseau, A. E. , Jr. 
Senior Engineer 
Bendix Systems Division 
The Bendix Corporation 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Dyakin, Vladislav G. (Captain of the 3rd 

Rank) 
Embassy of the Union of the 

Soviet Socialist Republic 
2552 Belmont Rd . NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Earshen, Dr. John 

Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory 

Buffalo 21, New York 

Eberhardt, Robert L. 
Ocean Systems Staff 
Lockheed-California Company 
Burbank, California 



318 



Eckles, Howard H. * 
Chief, Branch of Marine Fisheries 
Division of Biological Research 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Eddy, James E. 
Electronic Technician G-240 
Water Resources Division 
Geological Survey 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Edson, Gerald L. 

Project Engineer 

Western Center, Military Electronics Div. 

Motorola, Inc. 

8201 East McDowell Road 

Scottsdale, Arizona 



Engleman, Captain C. L. 
Route 2 - Box 504 
Washougal, Washington 

Eskite, Wilbur H. 
Space Components, Inc. 
1040 Potomac St. NW 
Washington 7, D. C. 

Ewin, William H. , Regional Manager 

Tektronix, Inc. 

4205 Evergreen Lane 

Annandale, Virginia 

Ewing, J. H. 
Gawler-Knoop Company 
8732 Flower Avenue 
Silver Spring, Maryland 



Edward, J. 

Advanced Systems Engineer 

General Electric Company 

Ordnance Department 

100 Plastics Avenue 

Pittsfield, Massachusetts 

Edwards, James W. 
Electronic Engineer 
Marine Advisers, Inc. 
P. O. Box 1963 
La JoUa, California 

Eichberg, Robert L. 
Manager, Washington Office 
J. Ray McDermott and Co., Inc. 
1725 Eye Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Elliott, Dr. F. E. 

Oceanographer 

General Electric 

Light Military Electronics Dept. 

Advanced Electronic Center 

Ithaca, New York 

Ellison, J. V. 

Associate Scientist, Research Division 

McDonnell Aircraft Corporation 

P. O. Box 516 

St. Louis 66, Missouri 

Ely, Dr. Ralph L. , Jr. 

Head, Isotope Development Laboratory 

Research Triangle Institute 

P. O. Box 490 

Durham, North Carolina 



Ewing, J. R. , Jr. 
13720 Shaker Blvd. 
Cleveland 20, Ohio 



Apt. 203 



Fahy, E. J. , CAPT, USN 

Assistant Chief of Bureau for Research & 

Development 
Bureau of Ships 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Fahy, Thomas R. 

Programs Manager 

Star Division, Emerson Electric 

322 Palm Avenue 

Santa Barbara, California 

Familetti, John D. 
Corporate representative 
Tele-Dynamics Div. 
American Bosch-Arma Corp. 
5000 Parkside Avenue 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Farland, R. J. (Code 3200) 
Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 

Farrington, Lawrence 

Manager, Instrument Division 

Alden Electronic & Impulse Recording 

Equipment Co., Inc. 
Alden Research Center 
Westboro, Massachusetts 

Farris, Franklyn E. , Vice President 

Oceanic Systems Corp. 

P. O. Box 911 

Stony Brook, L. I. , New York 



319 



Feifler, J. 

Senior Engineer 

Westinghouse Electric Corp. 

Air Arm Division 

Box 746 

Baltimore 3, Maryland 

Feiler, Alfred M. 
Vice President 

PneumoDynamics Corporation 
1301 E. El Segundo Boulevard 
El Segundo, California 

Ferro, J. A. 

American Machine & Foundry Company 

7501 No. Natchez 

Niles, Illinois 

Fine, Francis 

Central News Agency of China 
1046 National Press Bldg. 
Washington, D. C. 

Finkelstein, Martin J. 

Chief Engineer 

M. F. Electronics Corporation 

118 East 25th Street 

New York 10, New York 



Flato, Matthew 
Sound Division Code 5541 
Naval Research Laboratory 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Fletcher, Harold K. 

Vice President, General Manager 

Sierra Research Corporation 

P. O. Box 22 

Buffalo 25, New York 

Fog elm an, A. H. 

Pre sident 

A. H. Fogelman Associates, Inc. 

1908 Sunderland Place, NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 

Fonorow, Benjamin H. 

Engineering Specialist, Oceanographic 

Engineering 
Philco Corporation 

A Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company 
4700 Wissahickon Avenue 
Philadelphia 44, Pennsylvania 

Forbes, G. W. 
The Martin Co. 
Baltimore 3, Maryland 



Finkle, Earl 
Senior Engineer 
Oceanics Division 
Aerojet-General Corporation 
P. O. Box 296 
Azusa, California 

Fischer, Dr. Franz 
Systems Engineering 
Mergenthaler Linotype Company 
29 Ryerson Street 
Brooklyn 5, New York 

Fischer, Peter Paul 

Mail Stop 454 

Westinghouse Electric Corporation 

Air Arm Division 

Baltimore 3, Maryland 

Fisher, Sterling 

Technical Assistant to the President 

Electro- Mechanical Research, Inc. 

P. 6. Box 3041 

Sarasota, Florida 



Ford, Dr. James W. 

Head, Applied Physics Department 

Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc. 

of Cornell University 
4455 Genessee Street 
P. O. Box 235 
Buffalo 21, New York 

Ford, Raymond D. 

Regional Sales Engineer 

The Electro Nuclear Systems Corporation 

8001 Norfolk Avenue 

Bethesda, Maryland 

Forster, C. A. 

Design Specialist 

ASW Advanced Design Department 

Electronics Division G 3020 

The Martin Company 

Baltimore 3, Maryland 

Foster, W. A. 
Head, Bathymetry Section 
Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 



320 



Fountain, R. L. 
Reed Research, Inc. 
1048 Potomac Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 



Frost, Dr. Albert D. 
Transister Applications, Inc. 
103 Broad St. 
Boston, Massachusetts 



Fox, Elliott M. 

Washington Technical Representative 

Conductron Corporation 

343 South Main Street 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Foyer, Donald 
Video Engineering Company 
Riggs Road at First Place, NE 
Washington 11, D. C. 

Frantz, David H. , Jr. 

President 

Ocean Research Equipment Connpany 

Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts 

Frautschy, J. D. 

Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

University of California 

La Jolla, California 

Fredrick, Don L. 

Reeves Instrument Company 

Roosevelt Field 

Long Island, New York 

Frelich, Paul D. 

Staff Engineer 

General Instrument Corporation 

Harris A. S. W. Division 

33 Southwest Park 

Westwood, Massachusetts 

Freyling, A. Fred 
Vice President 
Geodyne Corporation 
180 Bear Hill Road 
Waltham 54, Massachusetts 

Fried, M. 

Vice President, Director Contracts Dept. 

Land -Air, Inc. 

1510 H Street NW 

Washington 5, D. C. 

Froehlich, H. E. 

Head, Oceanographic Engr . Section 

The General Mills Electronics Group 

1620 Central Avenue 

Minneapolis 1, Minnesota 



Frost, Col. Robert 
Welex Electronics 
Suite 201, Solar Bldg. 
16th & K Streets NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Frye, J. , 

Librascope 

808 - 17th St. NW 

Suite 304 

Washington, D. C. 

Fulling, Roger W. 

Staff Member 

Development Department 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company 

Wilmington 98, Delaware 

Fusco, R. 

Vice President - Assistant Chief Engineer 

EssGee, Inc. 

Havens Street 

Elmsford, New York 

Fusselman, R. D. , CAPT, USN - 
Department of Defense 
Defense Communications Agency 
Washington IS, D. C. 

Gallery, P. D. , RADM, USN (Ret. ) 
Washington Associates, Inc. 
Industry Advisory Services 
1624 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Garber, T. H. 
Assistant to the President 
Welex Electronics Corp. 
Suite 201, Solar Bldg. 
16th & K Streets NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Game, Ernie 

Underwater Cable Department 

Boston Insulated Wire and Cable Co. 

Bay Street 

Boston, Massachusetts 



321 



Gaskell, Dr. T. F. 

Exploration Research Associate, 

BP Exploration Company Limited, 

BP House, 

Ropemaker Street, 

London E. C. Z., England 

Gentry, K. M. , CAPT. USN (Ret.) 
Associate Director, Research & 

Development 
Military Electronics Division 
Motorola, Inc. 
1450 North Cicero Avenue 
Chicago 51, Illinois 

Ge or g e , W . J . 

BP (North America), ■ Ltd. 

6Z0 Fifth Avenue 

New York 20, New York 

Gerber, H. Joseph 

President 

The Gerber Scientific Instrument Co. 

P. O. Box 305 

Hartford 14, Connecticut 

Giambattista, Frank D. 
Wiley Electronics 
Phoenix, Arizona 

Giatrelis, John D. 
Sales Engineer 
Kearfott Division 
General Precision, Inc. 
808 - 17th Street, NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Gibson, Henry C. , Jr. 

President 

Franklin Systems, Inc. 

P. O. Box 3250 

West Palm Beach, Florida 

Gilfert, James C. 
Engineering Specialist 
North American Aviation, Inc. 
4300 East 5th Avenue 
Columbus 16, Ohio 

Gilheany, J. J. 

Senior Associate 

Trident Engineering Associates, Inc. 

P. O. Box 1442 

Annapolis, Maryland 



Giller, J. B. 
Kron-Hite Corp. 
8218 Wisconsin Ave. 
Bethesda, Maryland 

Gilman, George C. 

Navy, The Magazine of Sea Power 

401 Mills Bldg. 

Washington, D. C. 

Glover, Clyde P. 

Lead Engineer, Undersea Projects Office 

Avco Corporation 

Research and Advanced Development Div. 

201 Lowell Street 

Wilmington, Massachusetts 

Goode, Nathan E. 

Norair 

Division of Northrop Company 

1730 K Street NW 

Washington, D. C. 

Goodheart, Anthony J. * 
Coast and Geodetic Survey 
Department of Commerce 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Gordon, J. E. 

"New England Trawler Equipment Company 
291 Eastern Avenue 
Chelsea 50, Massachusetts 

Gordon, Vincent J. 
Sales Engineer 
Philco Corp. 
Scientific Laboratory 
Blue Bell, Pennsylvania 

Gorembien, Sol 
Hughes Aircraft Co. 
P. O. Box 2097 
FuUerton, California 

Goyette, P. 

Engineer, Preliminary Design 

Sanders Associates, Inc. 

95 Canal St. 

Nashua, New Hampshire 

Graber, Ray E. 

Chief Engineer, Applications Engineering 

Bendix-Pacific Division 

The Bendi'x Corporation 

11600 Sherman Way 

North Hollywood, California 



322 



Grant, J. S. 

Assistant Manager, Technical Sales 

Trident Engineering Associates, Inc. 

P. O. Box 1442 

Annapolis, Maryland 

Grasse, W. W. 
Fairchild Stratos Corporation 
Electronic Systems Division 
Wyandanch, L. I. , New York 

Green, Richard 

Public Health Service 

Dept. of Health, Education & Welfare 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Grumet, Alex 
Scientific Research Staff 
Republic Aviation Corporation 
Farmingdale, L. I. , New York 

Gruner, Garrett 
Design Engineer 
Sparton Electronics 
Jackson, Michigan 

Hall. Jay V. , Jr. 

Chief Engineering Division 

Beach Erosion Board 

5201 Little Falls Road, NW 

Washington 16, D. C. 



Greenbaum, Mrs. Mary J. 

Facilities & Special Programs Section 

Division of Biological and Medical 

Science s 
National Science Foundation 
1951 Constitution Ave. NW 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Greer, W. J. 

President 

Welex Electronics Corporation 

Suite 201, Solar Bldg. 

16th & K Streets NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 

Gridley, Darrin H. 

Vice President, Digital Systems 

The Electro Nuclear Systems Corp. 

8001 Norfolk Ave. 

Bethesda 14, Maryland 

Grieshamnner , R. 

Assistant Chief, Advanced Design Data 

Systems 
Fairchild Stratos Corporation 
Wyandanch, L. I. , New York 

Grogan, Dr. Robert M. 

Manager, Geology Division 

Development Department 

E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Co. , Inc. 

Wilmington 98, Delaware 

Grossimon, H. P. 
Concord Control, Inc. 
1282 Soldiers Field Road 
Boston 35, Massachusetts 



Hamilton, George S. 

Applications Engineer, Systems Sales 

Mergenthaler Linotype Company 

29 Ryerson Street 

Brooklyn 5, New York 

Hamilton, Hugh G. 

President 

Eastern Air Devices, Inc. 

Dover, New Hampshire 

Hamilton, Jack H. 
Vice President, Research 
The Geotechnical Corp. 
P. O. Box 28277 
Dallas 28, Texas 

Hanks, James J. 
Washington Representative 
General Metals Corporation 
1010 Vermont Avenue NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Hannah, Dr. Kenneth W. 
Vice President and Physicist 
Texas Research Associates 
1701 Guadalupe Street 
Austin 1, Texas 

Hansen, Hans 

Chief Engineer 

KPT Manufacturing Co. 

Roseland, New Jersey 

Harcourt, James M. 
Supervisor Government Marketing 
Simplex Wire and Cable Company 
79 Sidney Street 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 



323 



Harper, H. MacDonald 

Oceanographer 

Geonautics, Inc. 

Dupont Circle Bldg. 

1346 Connecticut Avenue, NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 

Harrington, Jeremiah 

Office of Naval Research (Code 491) 

Washington Z5, D. C. 

Hams, William B. D. 

Senior Staff Engineer, Underwater Systems 

Tele -Dynamic s 

5000 Parkside Avenue 

Philadelphia 31, Pennsylvania 

Harrison, C. William 

Engineer 

General Radio Company 

8055 Thirteenth St. 

Silver Spring, .Maryland 

Hatfield, E. J. 

General Electric Co. 

Light Military Electronics Djpt. 

French Road 

Utica, New York 

Hawkins, J. E. 
Executive Vice President 
Seismograph Service Corporation 
P. O. Box 1590 
Tulsa 1, Oklahoma 

Hawkins, T. E. , LCDR, USCG 
Assistant Chief, Electronics Branch 
Aids to Navigation Division 
Coast. Guard 
Washington Z5, D. C. 

Hayes, Mrs. Helen L. 
Biology Branch 
Office of Naval Research 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Hazleton, Dr. Lloyd W. 
Hazleton Laboratories, Inc. 
Box 30 
Fails Church, Virginia 

Heaton, E. F. 

Manager, Preliminary Design Dept. 
Curtiss-Wright Corporation 
Wright Aeronautical Division 
Wood-Ridge, New Jersey 



Heebner, Da\id R. 

Senior Scientist 

Hughes Aircraft Company 

Bldg. b04, M.S. C-ZI3 

Box Z097 

Fullerton, California 

Heitzeberg, Charles H. A. 
Manager, Engineering Analysis 
Armament Division 
Universal Match Corporation 
4407 Cook Avenue 
St. Louis 13, Missouri 

Helser, Lee 

Principal Engineer 

Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp. 

De.fense Products Division 

5 Aerial Way 

Syosset, L. I. , New York 

Hendrix, C. N. G. , CAPT, USN - 
Staff, Commander Joint Task Force 8 
Washington Z5, D. C. 

Henry, Ross W. 

Cable Products 

Packard Electric Co. 

Div. of General Motors Corp. 

Warren, Ohio 

Heroy, Dr. William B., Jr. 

President 

The Geotechnical Corporation 

P. O. Box 28Z77 

Dallas Z8, Texas 



Herrald, A. E. 

Electro- Mechanical Research, 

P. O. Box 3041 

Sarasota, Florida 

Hewatt, Dr. W. G. 
Feray Geological Service 
5415 Palomar Lane 
Dallas, Texas 

Hicker, Dr. L. F. W. 
David Taylor Model Basin 
U. S. Navy Laboratory 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Inc. 



a24 



Hild, Donald 

Applications Engineer 

HRB- Singer, Inc. 

Science Park, P. O. Box 60 

State College, Pennsylvania 

Hildebrandt, John B. 

New Projects Engineer 

Vitro Silver Spring Laboratory 

14000 Georgia Avenue 

Silver Spring, Maryland 

Hildreth, William 
Building 167, Plant B-1 
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation 
Burbank, California 

Hill, Augustus N. 
Instrument Engineer 
Instrumental Engineering Division 
Weather Bureau 
Department of Commerce 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Himes, P. J. 

Senior Subsurface ASW Systems Analyst 

Bureau of Naval Weapons 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Hitt, E. J. 
Project Engineer 
Vought Range Systems 
680 Ala Moana 
Honolulu, Hawaii 

Hogan, John V. 
Hogan Corporation 
635 Greenwich Street 
New York, New York 

Holcombe, W. J. 

Vice President 

General Metals Corporation 

36 Columbus Ave. 

San Francisco 11, California 

Holler, J. R. 

Computer & Guidance Engineering Dept. 

Goodyear Aircraft Corporation 

1210 Massillon Road 

Akron 15, Ohio 



Holmes, John F. 

Staff Engineer 

Under seas Projects Office 

Avco Research & Advanced Development 

Div. 
201 Lowell Street 
Wilmington, Massachusetts 

Horning, Dr. Wendell 

Staff Physicist 

Space Technology Laboratories, Inc. 

One Space Park 

Redondo Beach, California 

Horrer, Paul L. 
Senior Oceanographer 
Marine Advisers, Inc. 
P. O. Box 1963 
La Jolla, California 

Horst, Albert W. 
Chief Engineer 
DuKane Corp. 
St. Charles, Illinois 

Howard, Thomas E. 

Chief, Branch of Mining Research 

Bureau of Mines 

U. S. Department of the Interior 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Howell, Harvey L. 
Senior Project Engineer 
Hydro-Mechanical Division 
Avien, Inc. 
125 Gazza Blvd. 
Farmingdale, New York 

Huckabay, W. B. 

President 

Scientific Service Laboratories, Inc. 

P. O. Box 175 

Dallas 21, Texas 

Hughes, W. Thomas 
Farrand Optical Company 
Bronx Blvd. & E. 238th Street 
New York 70, New York 

Hukee, Russell E. 

Imperial Electronic, Inc. 

8530 Roland St. 

P. O. Box 163 

Buena Park, California 



325 



Hull. E. W. Seabrook 

Editor 

Undersea Technology 

644 Washington Bldg. 

Washington 5, D. C. 

Hunt, Lee M. 
Executive Secretary 
Mine Advisory Committee 
National Academy of Sciences 
National Research Council 
ZlOl Constitution Avenue NW 
Washington Z5, D. C. 

Hunt, P. M. 

Vice President, Engineering 

Orbit Industries, Inc. 

P. O. Box 278 

Vienna, Virginia 

lanuzzi, Anthony P. 

Project Engineer 

Bulova Research &t Development 

Laboratories 
Division of Bulova Watch Company, Inc. 
62-10 Woodside Avenue 
Woodside 77, New York 

Isley, M. J. 

Studebaker -Packard Corp. 
635 S. Main Street 
South Bend 27, Indiana 



Jaques, A. T. 

Naval Ordnance Laboratory 

White Oak 

Silver Spring, Maryland 

Jenkins, Alexander III 

Research Assistant 

Harvard University 

Graduate School of Business Administration 

Soldiers Field 

Boston 63, Massachusetts 

Jenkins, Robert M. 
Sport Fishing Institute 
Bond Building 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Jenkins, Dr. W. A. 

Explosives Dept. - Research 

E. I, du Pont de Nemours & Co. , Inc. 

Wilmington 98, Delaware 

Jennings, V. A., CAPT, USN 
Deputy Hydrographer 
Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 

Johansen, G. N. , RADM, USN (Ret.) 
Washington representative 
Land-Air, Inc. 
1510 H Street NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 



Jackson, Charles E. 
National Fisheries Institute 
1617 - 20th Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Jackson, J. M. 

General Electric Co. 

Heavy Military Electronics Department 

Farrell Road Plant 

Bldg. 1, Room 134 

Syracuse, New York 

Jacobs, Dr. Woodrow C. '■' 

Director 

National Oceanographic Data Center 

Naval Weapons Plant 

M at 8th Street SE 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Jaffe, Gilbert ■■■' 

Director, Instrumentation Division 
U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 



Johnson, Donald C. 
Central Marketing Staff 
Sperry Gyroscope Company 
Division of Sperry Rand Corporation 
Mail Station 3R112 
Great Neck, New York 

Johnson, Herbert M. 
Director of Research 
Sangamo Electric Company 
11th & Converse St. 
Springfield, Illinois 

Johnson, Virgil E. , Jr. 
Hydronautics, Inc. 
200 Monroe St. 
Rockville, Maryland 

Johnson, Walter 
Electronic News 
Sheraton Bldg. 
71 1 - 14th St. NW 
Washington, D. C. 



326 



Johnson, William D. 

Ansonia Wire & Cable Company 

333 Bond Bldg. 

1404 New York Ave. 

Washington 5, D. C. 



Kaufman, Dr. Sidney 

Head, Geophysical Instrunnentation 

Shell Development Company 

P. O. Box 481 

Houston 1, Texas 



Jones, Horace E. R. 
Chief Project Engineer 
Electronics Division 
Electro-Chemical Corporation 
6744 East Marginal Way South 
Seattle 8, Washington 

Joss, John 

Assistant to the Vice President 
Decca Navigator System, Inc. 
1028 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Kahl, Joseph H. 

GM Manufacturing Company 

12 East 12th Street 

New York 1, New York 

Kahl, Michael 

GM Manufacturing Company 

12 East 12th Street 

New York 1, New York 



Kendall, Arthur W. 
Washington representative 
Fairchild Aerial Surveys (Suite 809) 
1625 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 



Kennard, R. G. 
Chief Engineer 
Markey Machinery Co. 
85 South Horton Street 
Seattle 4, Washington 



Inc. 



Kent, Dr. Richard E. 

President National Marine Consultants, 

1500 Chapala Street 

Santa Barbara, California 

Kidder, D. E. 

Studebaker -Packard Corporation 

Room 505 

1725 K Street NW 

Washington, D. C. 



Inc. 



Kahn, Elliott H. 

Manager, Special Projects 

Kollsman Instrument Corporation 

80-08 - 45th Avenue 

Elmhurst 73, New York 

Kamphoefner, Dr. Fred J. 
Manager, Control Systems Laboratory 
Stanford Research Institute 
Engineering Sciences Division 
Menlo Park, California 



Kiefer, William 
Thiokol Chemical Corp. 
Reaction Motors Division 
Denville, New Jersey 

King, Joseph E. 

Assistant Chief 

Branch of Marine Fisheries 

Division of Biological Research 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Kane, Frank M. 
The Western Co. 
1624 I Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Karo, H. Arnold, RADM, USC&GS 

Director 

U. S. Coast & Geodetic Survey 

Department of Commerce 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Kass, Joraan 

Senior Staff Consultant 

Polorad Electronics Corp. 

43-20 - 34th St. 

Long Island City, New York 



Kingsley, Robert H. 

Kinkel, John F. 

Manager of Engineering 

Borg-Warner Controls 

Division of Borg-Warner Corporation 

3300 Newport Blvd. 

Santa Ana, California 

Klaiber, Gerhart 
Electronic Associates, Inc. 
Long Branch, New Jersey 



327 



Knapp, Guenther 

Sperry Rand Research Center 

North Road 

Sudbury, Massachusetts 

Knutson, R. G. 

Director, Advanced Systems 

Research and Development Division 

Autonetics 

Division of North American Aviation, Inc. 

D/3040, Bldg. 241 

3400 E. Anaheim Rd. 

P. O. Box R-3 

Anaheim, California 

Konigsberg, Eph 

Consolidated Electrodynamics Corporation 

Marketing Research Department 

360 Sierra Madre Villa 

Pasadena, California 

Kranish, Arthur 
Washington Science Trends 
998 National Press Bldg. 
Washington 4, D. C. 



Laing, J. T. 

Manager, Ocean Survey Systems 

Westinghouse Electric Corporation 

Ordnance Department 

Box 1797 

Baltimore 3, Maryland 

Lakari, Robert 

Section Head, System Integration Dept. 

Sylvania Electric Products, Inc. 

100 First Avenue 

Waltham 54, Massachusetts 

Lamonds, Dr. H. 

Research & Product Development 

Universal ECSCO Corporation 

705 W. North Street 

Raleigh, North Carolina 

Lane, A. L. 

Manager, Electronics Design Section 

American Machine & Foundry Company 

Alexandria Division 

1025 North Royal Street 

Alexandria, Virginia 



Kriz, Edward M. 

President 

Chesapeake Instrument Corporation 

Shadyside, Maryland 

Kuhlmau, D. A. 
ACFE Division 
ACF Industries, Inc. 
Riverdale, Maryland 

Kuefler, Paul M. 

Vice President and General Manager 

Genisco, Inc. 

2233 Federal Avenue 

Los Angeles 64, California 

LaCoste, Dr. Lucien 
LaCoste and Romberg 
6606 North Lamar Blvd. 
Austin 5, Texas 

Ladd, Robert D. 

Research Management Corp. representing 

American Systems, Inc. and 

Perkin-Elmer Corp. 

1625 Eye Street NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 



Langan, Lee 

Product Manager, Geophysical Instruments 

Varian Associates 

611 Hansen Way 

Palo Alto, California 

Lanham, C. T. , Major General 
Xerox Corporation 
1725 I Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Larue, W. H. 

Abrams Instrument Corporation 
606 East Shiawassee Street 
Lansing 1, Michigan 

Latimer, H. B. 

General Electric Company 

Heavy Military Electronics Dept. 

Court Street Plant 

Syracuse, New York 

Lawrie, Richard W. 
Vice President 
Concord Control, Inc. 
1282 Soldiers Field Road 
Boston 35, Massachusetts 



328 



Leaf, William B. 
Project Engineer 
PneumoDynamics Corp. 
Systems Engineering Division 
4936 Fairmont Avenue 
Bethesda 14, Maryland 

Leahy, C. J. 
District representative 
Ramo-Wooldridge 
905 - 16th St. NW 
Washington, D. C. 



Light, Melvin, Marine Sciences 

Coordinator 
Melpar, Inc., Research Division 
3000 Arlington Blvd. 
Falls Church, Virginia 

Lindveit, Dr. Earl W. 
Washington representative 
Defense Systeins Division 
General Motors Corporation 
1625 Eye Street 
Washington, D. C. 



Leavy, Paul M. , Jr. 

President 

Trident Corp. 

99 First St. 

Cambridge 41, Massachusetts 



Liu, John 

Manager, Marine Technology 
General Dynamics /Electronics 
1400 North Goodman Street 
Rochester 9, New York 



Lees, Dr. Sidney 
Lees Instrument Research, Inc. 
35 Cambridge Parkway 
Cambridge 42, Massachusetts 



Long, M. V. 

Department Head, Instrumentation 
Shell Development Company 
Emeryville, California 



Leiby, George M. , COL, AFCSG-1 

Office of the Surgeon General 

U. S. Air Force 

3800 Newark Street NW 

Temporary Bldg. 8 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Lemmon, Robert A. 
Manager, Washington Office 
Fulfillment Corporation of America 
1426 G Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Leonard, Harry 

Engineer 

C. H. Wheeler Mfg. Co. 

19th & Lehigh Ave. 

Philadelphia 32, Pennsylvania 



Love, Robert W. 

Douglas Marine Laboratories 

University of Alaska 

Box 185 

Douglas, Alaska 

Lowy, Max A. 

Manager, Systems Integration 

Gulton Industries, Inc. 

212 Durham Avenue 

Metuchen, New Jersey 

Luskin, Bernard 

Chief Engr. , Marine Instrumentation 

Litton Industries, Inc. 

Westrex Company 

540 West 58th Street 

New York 19, New Y^rk 



Levy, Sid 

Kiplinger Newsletters 
1729 H Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Lewis, J. G. 

Chief, Branch of Research and Design 

USGS, Topographic Division 

1109 N. Highland Street 

Arlington, Virginia 

Libbey, Joseph D. , Jr. 
Englehard Industries, Inc. 
Military Service Department 
Washington Bldg. 
Washington 5, D. C. 



Lynrian, Dr. John 

Associate Program Director (Oceanography) 

National Science Foundation 

1951 Constitution Avenue NW 

Washington 25, D. C. 

McAdam, Will 

Head, Electrical Section, Research 

Division 
Research and Development Department 
Leeds and Northrup Company 
Dickerson Road 
North Wales, Pennsylvania 



329 



Macalla, John E. 

Regional Sales Manager 

Datex Corporation 

420 Broad Avenue 

Palisades Park, New Jersey 

McArdlp, B. L. 

Manager, Plans and Programs 

Dept. 951, Bldg. 102 

McDonnell Aircraft Corporation 

Lambert - St. Louis Municipal Airport 

Box 516 

St. Louis 66, Missouri 

McCloskey, W. H. 
A. H. Fogelman Associates, Inc. 
Engineering Contract Consultants 
1908 Sunderland PI. NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

McCollum, S. B. 

Field Manager, Mincom Division 

Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company 

425 - 13th St. NW 

Washington 4, D. C. 

MacDonald, Donald J. 
USW Consultant 
Thiokol Chemical Corp. 
839 - 17th St. NW 
Washington, D. C. 

McGary, James W. 
Geophysics Branch 
Office of Naval Research 
Washington 25, D. C. 



McKernan, Donald L. * 

Director, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
and Chairman, Panel on Facilities, 
Equipment & Instrumentation of the 
Interagency Committee on Oceanography 

Washington 25, D. C. 

McKey, Dixie B. 
Technical Consultant 
Milgo Electronic Corporation 
7620 N. W. 36th Street 
Miami 47, Florida 

McLaughlin, Edgar H. 
Eastman Kodak Company 
Apparatus and Optical Division 
400 Plymouth Avenue North 
Rochester 4, New York 

McLellan, Dr. Hugh J. => 

Department of Oceanography & Meteorology 
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas 
College Station, Texas 

McLoon, Charles 

Communications Division 

Hughes Aircraft Co. 

P. O. Box 90902 

Airport Station Bldg. 110, M.S. 100 

Los Angeles 45, California 

McNaughton, Maj. Gen. K. P. 

Vice President 

Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corporation 

1625 I Street NW (Suite 809) 

Washington 6, D. C. 



McGough, R. P. - 108-113 
M & SR 

Radio Corporation of America 
Moorestown, New Jersey 

McGugin, Robert M. 

Secretary 

Brad Foote Gear Works, Inc. 

1341 Balmoral 

Westchester, Illinois 

McHugh, Dr. J. L. * 

Chief, Division of Biological Research 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Washington 25, D. C. 



McRae, William V. 

Eastern Regional Manager 

The Gerber Scientific Instrument Co. 

140 Van Block Ave. 

Hartford 14, Connecticut 

Maddox, Richard 
Senior Project Engineer 
Belden Manufacturing Company 
P. O. Box 341 
Richmond, Indiana 

Magin, George B., Jr. 
Isotope Development Division (E-251) 
Atonnic Energy Commission 
Washington 25, D. C. 



330 



Magnitzky, A. Wayne 

Office of the Chief of Naval Operations 

(OP-07T14) 
Department of the Navy 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Manian, Robert A. 
Advanced Systems Planning 
Loral Electronics Corporation 
1710 H Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Manning, V. R. 

Simplex Wire & Cable Company 

79 Sidney Street 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Mark, Robert 

Airborne Command and Control Division 

Radio Corporation of America 

P. O. Box 588 

Burlington, Massachusetts 

Markey, W. C. 

President 

Markey Machinery Company 

85 South Horton Street 

Seattle 4, Washington 

Markow, G. R. 

Manager - Undersea Warfare 

International Business Machines Corporation 

Command Control Center 

Kingston, New York 

Marks, Wilbur 

Vice President 

Oceanics, Inc. 

114 East 40th Street 

New York 16, New York 

Markusen, David L. 

Section Head, MPG Research 

Minneapolis-HoneyAfl<ell Regulator Company 

2600 Ridgway Road 

Minneapolis 13, Minnesota 

Marteka, Vincent 
Science Service 
1719 N Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Martm, E. H. 
Underwater News 
The National Press Bldg. 
Washington, D. C. 



Martin, H. E. 

Pacific Electronic Magazine 
The National Press Bldg. 
Washington, D. C. 

Martin, Dr. Milton 
Hydronautics, Inc. 
200 Monroe Street 
Rockville, Maryland 

Masterson, Steven A. 

Coordinator 

Anderson-Nichols & Co., Inc. 

150 Causeway St. 

Boston 14, Massachusetts 

Maton, Gilbert L. 

Vice President 

John I. Thompson 8i Co. Engineers 

P. O. Box 3531 

Washington 7, D. C. 

Mattingly, Mary J. 

National Oceanographic Data Center 

Naval Weapons Plant 

M at 8th St. SE 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Maxwell, Dr. Arthur E. * 
Head, Geophysics Branch 
Office of Naval Research 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Maxwell, Bruce W. 
Radiological Health Laboratory 
Public Health Service 
1901 Chapman Avenue 
Rockville, Maryland 

Meade, Robert A. 

Customer Liaison, Defense Systems 

Division 
General Motors Corporation 
1600 N. Woodward Avenue 
Birmingham, Michigan 

Medina, Guillermo 
Scientific and Technical Director 
U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Mee, Thomas R. , Jr. 

Applied Physics Department 

Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc. of 

Cornell University 
4455 Genessee Street 
P. O. Box 235 
Buffalo 21, New York 



331 



Michaud, Raymond J. 
Chief Engineer 
Eastern Air Devices, Inc. 
Dover, New Hampshire 

Miller, Dr. Edward T. 
Geophysical Research Section 
Humble Oil & Refining Company 
P. O. Box 2180 
Houston 1, Texas 

Mills, Bert 

Washington Editor 

Popular Mechanics 

1ZZ4 National Press Building 

Washington 4, D. C. 

Mills, Scott A. 
Requirements Analyst 
Ramo- Wooldr idge 
8400 Fallbrook Ave. 
Canoga Park, California 

Misko, George 

Washington research representative 

North American Aviation Corporation 

Rocketdyne Division 

808 - 17th Street NW 

Washington, D. C. 



Moore, Edward H. 

President 

The Gems Company, Inc. 

Sheppard Lane 

Farmington, Connecticut 

Moore, J. J. 

Chief, Electronics Section 
Texas Research Associates 
1701 Guadalupe Street 
Austin I, Texas 

Moore, J. R. 

Assistant to the President, 

Customer Relations 
Astropower, Inc. 
2068 Randolph Ave. 
Costa Mesa, California 

Moore, R. B. 
ACF Electronics Division 
ACF Industries, Inc. 
Paramus, New Jersey 

Moran, W. , CAPT, USN 

Office of Assistant Secretary of the Navy 

for Research and Development 
The Pentagon 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Mneek, Stanley, DE3C 

U. S. Naval Underwater Ordnance Station 

Newport, Rhode Island 

Moat, Donald E. 
Leeds & Northrup Company 
4901 Stenton Avenue 
Philadelphia 44, Pennsylvania 

Monaghan, Ralph 

Senior Project Supervisor 

Dresser Research 

P. O. Box 2656 

Tulsa, Oklahoma 

Mongan, Charles E. 
Physicist, Consultant 
Telephonies Corporation 
69 Dunster Street 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Monroe, Deloy 

Chief Engineer - ASW 

Sparton Electronics 

Division of Sparton Corporation 

Jackson, Michigan 



Morey, John G. 

Manager, Research Contracts 

Daystrom, Inc. 

Central Research Laboratory 

620 Passaic Avenue 

West Caldwell, New Jersey 

Morgan, Dean O. 
Regional Manager 
Budd Electronics, Inc. 
Connecticut Ave. NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Morrison, Donald McG. , RADM, USCG 
Chief, Office of Operations 
U. S. Coast Guard 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Morscher, Dr. Lawrence 
Naval Analysis Group 
Office of Naval Research 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Moskovits, Dr. George 
Virginia Institute of Marine Science 
Virginia Fisheries Laboratory 
Gloucester Point, Virginia 



332 



Mott-Smith, Dr. Lewis M. 
Laboratory Director 
General Geophysical Company 
2802 Post Oak Road 
Houston 27, Texas 



Murphy, William 
Manager of Engineering 
S-I Electronics, Inc. 
103 Park Avenue 
Nutley, New Jersey 



Movius, John 

Washington representative 

Aer onutronic 

Defense Products Group 

Ford Motor Company 

1200 Wyatt Building 

Washington, D. C. 

Mrozek, Anthony S. 
Vice President - Sales (Defense) 
Borg-Warner Corporation 
IngersoU Kalamazoo Division 
1810 North Pitcher St. 
Kalannazoo, Michigan 

Muffly, Gary 

Section Supervisor, Instrument Division 

Gulf Research & Development Company 

P. O. Drawer 2038 

Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania 



Murray, James M. 

Executive Contracts Representative 

Beckman Instruments, Inc. 

7924 Wisconsin Ave. 

Bethesda 14, Maryland 

Murray, Thomas A. 
Home Town Reports 
2710 Olive Avenue NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Murtha, John 
G. C. Dewey Corp. 
202 E. 44th Street 
New York, New York 

Mussetter, William 
Corps of Engineers 
Army Map Service, 4001 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Mulquin, James J. 

Washington Technological Associates, Inc. 

979 Rollins Avenue 

Rockviiie, Maryland 



Myer, George J. , Jr. 
Technical Representative 
Electronics Associates, Inc. 
Long Branch, New Jersey 



Muncie, M. O. , LCDR, USN 
Office of Naval Research 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Munske, Richard E. 
Managing Editor 
Undersea Technology 
644 Washington Building 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Munson, H. G. 
Defense Electronic Products 
Advanced Military .Systems 
Radio Corporation of America 
David Sarnoff Research Center 
Princeton, New Jersey 



Nace, Dr. Raymond L. 
Associate Chief 
Water Resources Division 
U. S. Geological Survey 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Nation, M. A. 

Consolidated Systems Corporation 
1500 South Shamrock Ave. 
Monrovia, California 

Natter, John 

Project Engineer 

M & E Marine Supply Company 

P. O. Box 601 

Camden, New Jersey 



Murphy, Thomas V. 

Project Engineer, ASW Systems 

North American Aviation Corporation 

4300 East Fifth Avenue 

Columbus 16, Ohio 



Nazary. Mrs. A. B. 

Senior Surface ASW Systems Analyst 
Bureau of Naval Weapons 
Washington 25, D. C. 



333 



Neely, John D. 

Washington Manager, Contract Sales 

Tracerlab, Inc. 

226 Massachusetts Avenue "NE 

Washington 2, D. C. 

Nelkin, Arthur 

Manager, Electro-Acoustics Section 

Westinghouse Electric Corporation 

Research Laboratories 

Churchill Boro 

Pittsburgh 35, Pennsylvania 

Nelson, Arthur L. * 
Supervisory Engineer 
Naval Electronics Laboratory 
San Diego, California 

Nelson, Dr. Bruce W. 
Department of Geological Sciences 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute 
Blacksburg, Virginia 

Nelson, Jerry A. 
Electro-Oceanics 
1249 Melba Road 
Encinitas, California 

Newcombe, Dr. Curtis L. 

U. S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory 

San Francisco 24, California 

Newman, J. H. 
Customer Relations 
Daystrom, Inc. 
229A Manchester Road 
Poughkeepsie, New York 

Nickerson, Russell J. 
R&D Instrumentation Section 
Electric Boat Division 
General Dynamics Corporation 
Groton, Connecticut 

Noble, Gene W. 

Oceanographic Engineering Corporation 

4930 Naples Place 

San Diego, California 

Norgaard, Adm. R. N. 

Washington Representative 

The General Mills Electronics Group 

Solar Building - Suite 506 

1000 - 16th St. NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 



Nowicki, Eugene B. 
Chief, Planning Engineer 
Aero Service Corporation 
210 E. Cortland Street 
Philadelphia 20, Pennsylvania 

O'Brien, Robert E. 

President 

Bio-Dynamics, Inc. 

1 Main Street 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Officer, Dr. Charles B. 

President 

Marine Geophysical Services Corporation 

2418 Tangley 

Houston 5, Texas 

Ohman, John 

Head, Physical Sciences 

Bay State Electronics Corporation 

43 Leon Street 

Boston 15, Massachusetts 

O'Keefe, J. L. , Jr., LT, USN 
Special Projects Office 
Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 

Okleshen, E. J. 

Section Chief, Special Projects 

Advanced Development Engineering 

The Magnavox Company 

2131 Bueter Road 

Fort Wayne 4, Indiana 

Olson, Boyd E. 

Director, Marine Sciences Department 

Navy Hydrographic Office 

Suitland, Maryland 

Olson, Dr. F. C. W. 
Advanced Military Systems 
Radio Corporation of America 
Princeton, New Jersey 

Opitz, C. L. 
Supervisory Engineer 
Lockheed Electronics Co. 
Military Systems/Stavid Division 
Plainfield, New Jersey 

Opland, Homer N. 

Head, Oceanography Department, Oceanics 

Division 
Aerojet-General Corporation 
P. O. Box 296 
Azusa, California 



334 



Oshiver , Albert H. 

Naval Research Laboratory 

Code 7350 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Ott, David 

Manager, Applied Science 

Internuclear Co. 

7 North Brentwood 

Clayton, Missouri 

Owen, F. I. 
Operations Manager 
Texaco, Inc. 
Marine Department 
135 East 42nd Street 
New York lb. New York 

Owsley, W. D. 
Senior Vice President 
Halliburton Company 
Duncan, Oklahoma 

Palumbo, Frank 

Navy Hydrographic Office 

Suitland, Maryland 

Paquette, Dr. R. - 26 
General Motors Corporation 
Defense Systems Division 
Santa Barbara, California 

Parkinson, Dr. R. W. 

Undersea Warfare Department 

Aeronutronic Division 

Ford Motor Company 

Ford Road 

Newport Beach, California 

Parrish, Dr. Jack. A. 
Dunlap & Associates, Inc. 
429 Atlantic Street 
Stamford, Connecticut 

Pauli, Denzil C. 

Manager, Underwater Instrumentation 

PneumoDynamics Corporation 

4936 Fairmont Avenue 

Bethesda 14, Maryland 

Pautzke, Clarence F. 

Commissioner 

Fish and Wildlife Ser\-ice 

Washington 25, D. C. 



Payne, Seth T. 

McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 
1189 National Press Bldg. 
Washington 4, D. C. 

Pearlman, Lester 

Unit Head - Electronics Laboratory 

Kearfott Division, General Precision, Inc. 

1500 Main Avenue 

Clifton, New Jersey 

Peedo, Endel 

President 

Electro- Chemical Corporation 

6744 East Marginal Way South 

Seattle 8, Washington 

Peistrup, C. F. , LCDR, USCG 
Chief, Aids to Navigation Branch 
Testing and Development Division 
U. S. Coast Guard 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Pendleton, Dr. T. A. 

Head. Advanced Technical Development 

Jansky & Bailey Div. 

Atlantic Research Corporation 

Shirley Highway at Edsall Road 

Alexandria, Virginia 

Petak, Joseph 
Colvin Laboratories, Inc. 
366 Glenwood Avenue 
East Orange, New Jersey 

Peterson, Dr. R. A. 

United Geophysical Corporation 

2650 East Foothill 

Pasadena, California 

Petit, Joseph 

Vice President, Engineering 

Oceanographic Engineering Corp. 

4930 Naples Place 

San Diego, California 

Pharo, Lawrence C. 

Ordnance Research Laboratory 

P. O. Box 30 

State College, Pennsylvania 

PhilUpson, Wm. H. , Jr. 

Manager 

Trans- Vision 

Division of Milprint, Inc. 

4200 North Holton Street 

Milwaukee 1, Wisconsin 



335 



Pickering, Norman C. 

Pierce, Charles, RADM, USCfcGS (Ret. ) 
Coast & Geodetic Survey 
Department of Commerce 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Pierce, Firth 

U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station (Code 502) 

China Lake, California 

Pitcher, Harlan E. 

ASW & Armament Section 

Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc. 

3855 Lakewood Blvd. 

Long Beach, California 

Pitts. R. M. , CAPT, USN(Ret.) 

Melpar, Inc. 

3000 Arlington Blvd. 

Falls Church, Virginia 

Ploetz, J. D. , LCDR, USN 

Office of the U. S. Naval Weather Service 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Plotkin, Morris 

Auerbach Electronics Corporation 

1634 Arch Street 

Philadelphia 3, Pennsylvania 

Potter, Norman 

Prichep, Williann 

Specialty Electronics Development 

Corporation 
131-01 39th Ave. 
Flushing 54, New York 

Priest, R. B. 

Project Engineer 

Low Light Level Television Systems 

DuMont Military Electronic Group 

Fairchild Camera and Instrument 

Corporation 
750 Bloomfield Avenue 
Clifton, New Jersey 

Primer, Frank J. 

R&D Department, Computer Application 

Section 
Electric Boat 
Groton, Connecticut 



Pruss, Hugh 

Vice President & Chief Engineer 
Telemetering Corporation of America 
8345 Hayvenhurst Avenue 
Sepulveda, California 

Puchaty, R. J. 
Applications Engineer 
Seismograph Service Corporation 
P. O. Box 1590 
Tulsa 1, Oklahoma 

Putt, Don 

Sterling Engineering Company 

Newark, New Jersey 

Raabe, Ralph 

Field Reseach Engineer 

Lear, Inc. 

Advance Engineering Division 

no Ionia NW 

Grand Rapids 2, Michigan 

Rae, Dr. Kenneth M. 

Director 

Institute of Marine Science 

Universitv of Alajka 

College, Alaska 

Raymond, Samuel O. 

Senior Engineer 

Edgerton, Germeshausen &i Grier, Inc. 

160 Brookline Avenue 

Boston 15, Massachusetts 

Reamy. W. C. 

Meleney Engineering Company 

828 Mills Bldg. 

Washington 6, D. C. 

Reed, Donald E. 
Technical Director 
Reed Research, Inc. 
1048 Potomac Street NW 
Washington 7, D. C. 

Reed, H. B. 

Naval Ordnance Laboratory 

White Oak 

Silver Spring, Maryland 

Reed, O. D. 

Research Manager 

Thiokol Chemical Corporation 

839 - 17th Street NW 
Washington, D. C. 



336 



Reiser, Don 

Aero Geo Astro Corporation 
Lincolnia and Edsall Rds. 
Alexandria, Virginia 

Reitz, Frederick M. 
Director, Instrument Department 
Chesapeake Instrument Corporation 
Shadyside, Maryland 

Remley, M. E. 

Government Products 

American Machine &i Foundry Co. 

1701 K Street NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 

Renner, J. J. 

Head, Systems Engineering 

Jansky & Bailey Div. 

Atlantic Research Corporation 

1339 Wisconsin Avenue, NW 

Washington, D. C. 



Riordan, William F. 

Manager 

Electronic Acoustic Research Division 

The Ennerson Electric Manufacturing Co. 

2913 de la Vina Street 

Santa Barbara, California 

Robb, James L. 

President 

Superior Cable Corporation 

P. O. Box 480-A 

Hickory, North Carolina 

Robbins, Roger W. 
DuKane Corporation 
St. Charles, Illinois 

Roberts, Albert 
Program Coordinator 
General Precision, Inc. 
50 Prospect Avenue 
Tarrytown, New York 



Ricard, James H. 
Staff Systems Analyst 
IBM Systems Center 
7220 Wisconsin Avenue 
Bethesda, Maryland 



Robertson, G. D. 

Director, Advanced Development 

The Magnavox Company 

2131 Bueter Road 

Fort Wayne 4, Indiana 



Rice, Thomas D. 

Special Assistant to the Commissioner 
Fish and Wildlife Service 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Richardson, Dr. William S. ■■' 
Woods Hole Oceanogr aphic Institution 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

Richmond, M. 
Corporate Vice President 
Sanders Associates, Inc. 
Burlington, Massachusetts 



Robinet, Alex J. 

Assistant Manager, Washington District 
Office 
Radiation, Inc. 
1715 Eye Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Robinson, D. B. 

Chief, Research & Development Engineer 

Joy Manufacturing Company 

Electrical Products Division 

338 S. Broadway 

New Philadelphia, Ohio 



Rieff, G. A. 

Sanders Associates, Inc. 

95 Canal Street 

Nashua, New Hainpshire 

Rinkel, Murice O. 
University of Miami 
The Marine Laboratory 
1 Rickenbacker Causeway 
Miami 49, Florida 



Rockwell, Dr. Julius, Jr. 

Fishery Research Biologist and 

Coordinator Government-Industry 
Oceanographic Instrumentation Symposium 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

Biological Laboratory 

2725 Montlake Boulevard 

Seattle 2, Washington 



337 



Rodenhausen, John E. 
Assistant Manager 
Great Valley Laboratory 
Burroughs Laboratories 
Box 873 
Paoli, Pennsylvania 

Rogers, J. D. 

Humble Oil & Refining Company 

Marine Division 

P. O. Box 1512 

Houston 1, Texas 

Rogers, Thomas W . 
Maxson Electronics Corporation 
80 1 - 19th Street NW 
Washington b, D. C. 

Romaine, Ralph O. 

Vice President, Sales 

Edo Corporation 

13-10 Ulth Street 

College Point 5b, New York 

Rosenfeld, Dr. A^riel 

Manager of Research 

Budd Electronics 

43-22 Queens Street 

Long Island City 1, New York 

Rosenthal, Dr. Robert R. 
Chief Chemist 
Industrial Instruments, Inc. 
89 Connmerce Road 
Cedar Grove, New Jersey 

Ross, Malcolm 

Head, Environmental Sciences Section 

Biological Science and Systems Dept. 

General Motors Corporation 

Defense Systems Di\'. 

GM Technical Center 

Warren, Michigan 



Ruhl, E. W. 

Group Leader, Experimental Systems 

Vitro Laboratories 

200 Pleasant Valley Way 

West Orange, New Jersey 

Ruhl, R. C. 

Marketing Manager 

Miller Research Laboratories 

2832 Maisel Street 

Baltimore 30, Maryland 

Runge, A. W. 
Executive Sales Engineer 
Arde-Portland, Inc. 
100 W. Century Road 
Paramus, New Jersey 

Rusling, Robert Y. 

Application Engineer, Military Services 

Market 
Minneapolis -Honeywell Regulator Company 
Industrial Products Group 
Wayne & Windrim Avenue 
Philade Iphia 44, Pennsylvania 

Russell, Roger B. , Jr. 
Project Engineer 
Sierra Research Corp. 
P. O. Box 2.1 
Buffalo 25, New York 

Ruttenberg, Stanley 
Oceanography Consultant 
Washington Associates 
1624 I Street NW 
Washington fa, D. C. 

Ryan, Thomas E. 
Field Engineer 
Datex Corporation 
4435 Wisconsin Ave. 
Washington lb, D. C. 



Rothstein, Jerome 
Chief Scientist 
Maser Optics, Inc. 
89 Brighton Avenue 
Boston 34, Massachusetts 

Ruble, H. E. , CAPT, USN(Ret.) 
c/o Sangamo Electric Company 
Springfield, Illinois 



Ryan, T. V. {C-203) 
Coast and Geodetic Survey 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Ryan, W. R. 

Executive Vice President 

Edo Corporation 

13-10 - 1 11th Street 

College Point 5fa, New York 



Rudomanski, Andrew 
Costello & Co. 

2740 S. La Cienega Boulevard 
Los Angeles 34, California 



338 



Saling. D. M. 
Chief, Electronic Engineer 
Daystrom, Inc. , Electric Division 
229A Manchester Road 
Poughkeepsie, New York 



Schiemer, Edmund W. 

Head, Instrumentation Department 

Chesapeake Bay Institute 

The John Hopkins University 

Baltimore 18, Maryland 



Salisbury, F. C. 
Orbit Industries, Inc. 
P. O. Box 278 

Vienna, Virginia 

Sandberg, Harry 
Hycon Manufacturing Company 
700 Royal Oaks Drive 
Monrovia, California 

Satterthwaite, W. F. 
Halex, Incorporated 
310 East Imperial Highway 
El Segundo, California 

Saville, Thorndike, Jr. 

Assistant Chiei, Research Division 

Beach Erosion Board 

5201 Little Falls Road, NW 

Washington lb, D. C. 

Schaefer, Dr. Willis C. 
Washington representative 
System Development Corporation 
1725 I Street, NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Schefer, M. H. * 

RU - 222 

Bureau of Naval Weapons 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Schenck, Herbert H. 

Executive Vice President & General 

Manager 
United States Underseas Cable Corporation 
3900 Wisconsin Ave. NW 
Washington lb, D. C. 

Scherini, Otto A., RADM, USN(Ret.) 

Vice President 

Airpax Electronics, Inc. 

P. O. Box 8488 

Fort Lauderdale, Florida 

Schetky, Dr. Laurence McD. 
Lees Instrument Research, Inc. 
35 Cambridge Parkway 
Cambridge 42, Massachusetts 



Schlemm, Norman 

Avionics Engineer 

Grumnnan Aircraft Engineering Corporation 

c/o Plant 5 

Bethpage, New York 

Schmalz, Dr. Robert F. 
Geology Department, 112 M.S. 
Pennsylvania State University 
University Park, Pennsylvania 

Schule, J. J. , Jr . * 

Director, Oceanographic Prediction Div. 
U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 

Schwartz, John C. 

Electronics Engineer 

Interstate Electronics Corporation 

Room 648, Pennsylvania Bldg. 

425 - 13th Street NW 

Washington 4, D. C 

Schwartz, Seymore 
Transister Applications, Inc. 
103 Broad Street 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Schwartzbard , Richard 

U. S. Army 

Communications & Development Group 

Washington 25, D. C 

Scott, C. J. 
Concord Control, Inc. 
1282 Soldiers Field Road 
Boston 35, Massachusetts 

Scott, Dr. M. 

Operations Research, Incorporated 

8605 Cameron Street 

SiU'er Spring, Maryland 

Seacord, Daniel F., Jr. 

Staff Technical .Advisor 

Edgerton, Germeshausen &i Grier, Inc. 

160 Brookline Avenue 

Boston 15, Massachusetts 



339 



Seed, Dr. Richard G. 
Semicon, Inc. 
300 Sweetwater Avenue. 
Bedford, Massachusetts 



Shaper, Harry 
Dyna-Empire 
1075 Stewart 
Garden City, L. I. 



New York 



Segesman, F. 

Schlumberger Well Surveying Corporation 

P. O. Box 307 

Ridgefield, Connecticut 

Seibert, Harvey E. 

Flight Test Group Engineer 

General Dynamics/Convair 

Mail Zone 6-186 

San Diego 12, California 

Sellers, Robert C. 

The Defense Management Report 

1000 Franklin Avenue 

Garden City, L. I. , New York 

Senier, Mortimer 

Program Manager, Systems Division 

Kearfott Division 

General Precision, Inc. 

12Z5 McBride Avenue 

Little Falls, New Jersey 

Serim, Feridun K. 

M. Rosenblatt & Son, Inc. 

350 Broadway 

New York 13, New York 

Serotta, Norman 

Manager, Transducer Design Section 

Submarine Signal Operations 

Raytheon Company 

P. O. Box 3b0 

Newport, Rhode Island 

Shaefer, George V., Code P309 
Naval Ordnance Test Station 
3202 E. Foothill Blvd. 
Pasadena, California 

Shamah, A. A. 
Sparton Corp. 
422 Washington Bldg. 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Shandelman, Frank 

Vector Manufacturing Co., Inc. 

Southampton, Pennsylvania 



Sharp, Dr. James M. 
Technical Vice President 
Southwest Research Institute 
8500 Culebra Road 
San Antonio 6, Texas 

Shaw, Jack T . 

Research Scientist, Deep Ocean Research 

Unit 
Minneapolis -Honeywell Regulator Co. 
Military Products Group 
Seattle Development Laboratory 
433 North 34th Street 
Seattle 3, Washington 

Shaw, R. P. 

Mathematician, Research Division 

Philco Corporation 

Blue Bell, Pennsylvania 

Shear, N. 

Advance Systems Division 

Emertron, Inc. 

1140 East- West Highway 

Silver Spring, Maryland 

Shepherd, George R. 
Assistant to the Manager 
Garrett Military Relations 
The Garrett Corporation 
1625 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Shinners, Willard W. 

Chief, Marine Unit 

Observations and Station Facilities Div. 

Weather Bureau 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Shonting, David H. 

Physical Oceanographer 

U. S. Naval Underwater Ordnance Station 

Newport, Rhode Island 

Sikorsky, Albert 
General Instrument Corp. 
43 3 Wyatt Building 
777 - 14th Street NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 



340 



Silkett, John 

Import -Export 

9105 Columbia Blvd. 

Silver Spring, Maryland , 

Silvernnan, Dr. Shirleigh 
Research Director 
Office of Naval Research 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Silverman, Sol 

American Machine & Foundry Company 
Greenwich Engineering Division 
Greenwich, Connecticut 

Simons, Howard 
The Washington Post 
Washington, D. C 

Simons, Rodney F. 

Consultant 

Research and Systems Engineering Div. 

Airborne Instruments Laboratory 

Walt Whitman Road 

Melville, New York 

Simpson, A. Ross 
Manager, ASW Section 
Chicago Center, MED 
Motorola, Inc. 
1450 North Cicero Avenue 
Chicago 51, Illinois 

Sizer, Philip 

Staff Engineer 

Otis Engineering Corporation 

Box 14416 

Dallas 34, Texas 

Slaven, Thomas L. 

Geophysical Supervisor 

Western Geophysical Co. of America 

933 North La Brea Avenue 

Los Angeles 38, California 

Small, Fred A. 

Plans & Operations Directorate 

System Development Corporation 

Z500 Colorado Avenue 

Santa Monica, California 

Smith, Del 
Leach Corporation 
18435 Susana Road 
Compton, California 



Smith, J. R. 
Baldwin- Lima-Hamilton 
1000 Connecticut Avenue NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Smith, Murray Queen 
Data Magazine 
1831 Jefferson Place NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Smith, O. R. 
Research Coordinator 
Welex Division 
Halliburton Company 
Houston, Texas 

Smith, Paul Ferris 

Oceanographer 

Geodyne Corporation 

28 Water Street 

Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

Smith, Theodore J. 
Director of Marketing 
Packard Bell Computer 
1905 Armacost Avenue 
Los Angeles 25, California 

Smith, Waldo 
Executive Secretary 
American Geophysical Union 
1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW 
Washington, D. C. 

Smith, Warner T. 

Vice President - Engineering 

Superior Cable Corporation 

P. O. Box 480-A 

Hickory, North Carolina 

Smith, William H. 

Market Manager, Undersea Technology 

Avien, Inc. 

5815 Northern Blvd. 

Woodside 77, New York 

Smith, William O. 

Water Resources Division 

Room 2215, General Services Bldg. 

U. S. Geological Survey 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Snodgrass, James M. * 
Head, Special Developments Division 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
University of California, San Diego 
La JoUa, California 



341 



Snow, C. E. 
Kron-Hite Corp. 
8218 Wisconsin Ave. 
Bethesda, Maryland 

Snow, Robert M. 

Bay State Electronics Corporation 

43 Leon Street 

Boston 15, Massachusetts 

Snowdon, Donald E. 
Washington representative 
Fenwal, Incorporated 
Suite 3, Shoreham Bldg. 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Snyder, A. E. 

Vice President, Research 

Pratt & Whitney, Inc. 

Charter Oak Blvd. 

West Hartford 1, Connecticut 

Sohr , William C. 

Navy Hydrographic Office 

Suitland, Maryland 

Soloway, Dr. Sidney 

Schlumberger Well Surveying Corporation 

P. O. Box 307 

Ridgefield, Connecticut 

Spiegel, Robert M. 

Polorad Electronics Corporation 

43-20 - 34th Street 

Long Island City, New York 

Spies, Roderick 

Advance Systems Development 

PneumoDynamic s Corporation 

I30I E. El Segundo Blvd. 

El Segundo, California 

Spong, Raymond A. 

R&D Dept. , Computer Application 

Section 
Electric Boat Division 
General Dynamics Corporation 
Groton, Connecticut 

Spratt, Robert E. 
Conservation Division 
Geological Survey 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Stahl, Raymond 

Staff Engineer , Oceanography 

Tele -Dynamics 

Div. of American Bosch-Arma Corporation 

5000 Parkside Avenue 

Philadelphia 31, Pennsylvania 

Stanton, Richard F. 
Manager, Special Projects 
Litton Systems, Inc. 
Maryland Division 
4900 Clavert Road 
College Park, Maryland 

Starr, Robert (C-223) 
Marine Data Division 
Coast & Geodetic Survey 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Steinberg, Edward B. 
Ampex Corporation 
218 Universal Building 
Washington 9, D. C 

Stemler, Walter 
White Avionics Corporation 
25 West Pennsylvania Avenue 
Towson 4, Maryland 

Stephan, E. C. , RADM, USN * 
Oceanographer of the Navy 
Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 

Stevens, Nelson P. 

Division Manager, Exploration Research 

Socony Mobil Oil Company, Inc. 

P. O. Box 900 

Dallas 21, Texas 

Still, D. A. , LCDR, USN 

Assistant for Cable Laying & Hydrographic 

Survey Requirements (Code 370B) 
Bureau of Ships 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Stirling, R. C. 

Assistant for Requirements &t Analysis 

Nautical Chart Division 

U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office 

Washington 25, D. C. 



342 



Stone, J. McWilliams 

Chairman 

DuKane Corporation 

St. Charles, Illinois 

Strasser, Thomas J. 
Hormon Associates 
941 Rollins Avenue 
Rockville, Maryland 

Manufacturer's representative for 

Kin-Tel 



Swift, Gilbert 

Assistant Technical Director 

Dresser Research 

P. O. Box 2656 

Tulsa 1, Oklahoma 

Taggart, Robert 

President 

Robert Taggart, Inc. 

400 Arlington Blvd. 

Falls Church, Virginia 



Strauss, Theodore R. 
Wallace & Tiernan Company 
25 Main Street 
Belleville 9, New Jersey 

Stringer, Louis D. 

Assistant Chief, Branch of Shellfisheries 
Division of Biological Research 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Stringfield, H. L. 

Digitrols 

8 Industry Lane 

Cockeysville, Maryland 

Struble, A. D. 

General Manager 

Sea-Space Systems, Inc. 

2101 Rosita Place 

Palos Verdes Estates, California 

Swain, Robert J., Vice President 
United Electrodynamics, Inc. 
200 Allendale Road 
Pasadena, California 

Swanson, C. F. 
Technical Representative 
Atlantic Research Corporation 
Shirley Highway at Edsall Road 
Alexandria, Virginia 

Swartz, Albert H. 

Assistant Chief, Branch of Fishery 

Research 
Division of Sport Fisheries 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries &i Wildlife 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Taplm, R. H. 

Senior Scientist 

ITT Federal Laboratories 

390 Washington Avenue 

Nutley 10, New Jersey 

Tatge, Robert J. 

Manager, Flight & Electronic System Sales 

AiResearch Manufacturing Division 

The Garrett Corporation 

2525 W. 190th Street 

Torrance, California 

Tetrault, Raymond A. 

Field Engineer 

Barkley & Dexter Laboratories, Inc. 

50 Frankfort Street 

Fuchburg, Massachusetts 

Thielman, E. H. 

Manager, Field Engineering 

Edo Corporation 

1310 - 1 1th 

College Point 56, L. I. , New York 

Thompson, John I. 

President 

John 1. Thompson &i Company, Engineers 

11 18 - 22nd Street NW 

Washington 7, D. C. 

Thomson, Wallace G. 

Vice President, Government Services 

Century Geophysical Corporation 

515 S. Main Street 

Tulsa 3, Oklahoma 

Thrasher, Paul M. 

Staff Systems Analyst 

IBM Communications Center 

Westlake Drive 

Rockville, Maryland 



343 



Thurston, Sidney 
Astropower, Inc. 
2968 Randolph Avenue 
Costa Mesa, California 

Timme, Richard C. 

Vice President 

National Marine Consultants, Inc. 

1500 Chapala Street 

Santa Barbara, California 

Tindall, Kenneth V. 

Treder, Raymond G. 

Art Director - "Trans -Vision" Division 

Milprint, Inc. 

4200 North Holton Street 

Milwaukee 1, Wisconsin 



Van Trees, Robert V. 
Staff Engineer 
Cubic Corporation 
5991 Pagent Lane 
Dayton 24, Ohio 

Varela, Arthur 
Radiation Systems, Inc. 
440 Swann Avenue 
Alexandria, Virginia 

Vetter, Richard C. 
Executive Secretary 
Committee on Oceanography 
National Academy of Sciences 
National Research Council 
2101 Constitution Avenue NW 
Washington 25, D. C. 



Trippensee, Dr. Rueben E. 
Vice President 
Wildlife Supply Co. 
301 E. Pleasant Street 
Amherst, Massachusetts 



Vidale, Dr. Marcello L. 

Staff Member, Operations Research Section 

Arthur D. Little Company 

Acorn Park 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 



Triplett, James E. 
Advanced Design Engineer 
Fairchild Stratos 
Aircraft-Missiles Division 
Hagerstown, Maryland 

Troutman, L. E. 

Assistant Chief Engineer 

Belock Instrument Corporation 

112-03 14th Avenue 

College Point 56, New York 

Trumbull, James V. A. 
Geologic Division 
Geological Survey 
Department of the Interior 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Turner, Ed 

Manager, Advanced Development 

Submarine Signal Operations 

Raytheon Company 

P. O. Box 360 

Newport, Rhode Island 

vanHaagen, Richard H. 

Technical Director 

The Fisheries Instrumentation Laboratory 

of Oceanic Instruments, Inc. 
Box 8 
Houghton, Washington 



Vine, AUyn C. * 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 

Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

Vtorygin, Lev A. 
(Captain of the 3rd Rank) 
Assistant Naval Attache 
U.S.S.R. Embassy 
2552 Belmont Rd. NW 
Washington 8, D. C. 

Waddell, Bill L. 

President 

Waddell Dynamics, Inc. 

4364 Twain Avenue 

San Diego 2, California 

Wakelin, Hon. James H. , Jr. * 
Assistant Secretary of the Navy 
(Research and Development) 
Department of the Navy 
The Pentagon 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Wales, R. Langdon, Assistant Director; 

Engineering 
Marine Equipment Department 
Nortronics, A Division of Northrop 

Corporation 
77 "A" Street 
Needham Heights 94, Massachusetts 



344 



Wallen, Dr. I. Eugene * 
Marine Biologist 
Environmental Sciences Branch 
Division of Biology and Medicine 
Atomic Energy Commission 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Waller, M. Michael 

President 

Vare Industries, Inc. 

128 W. First Avenue 

Roselle, New Jersey 

Ward, Donald H. 

Supervising Research Engineer 

Borg-Warner Corporation 

Physics and Electronics Department 

Roy C. Ingersoll Research Center 

Des Plaines, Illinois 

Weber, Paul 
Senior Engineer 
Bendix Systems Division 
The Bendix Corporation 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Wehe, T. J. (#3104) -^ 
Martin Marietta Corporation 
Electronic Systems and Products 

Division 
Baltiinore 3, Maryland 

Weinstein, Dr. Marvin S. 
Vice President 
Underwater Systems, Inc. 
2446 Reedie Drive 
Wheaton, Maryland 



Weige, Leslie G. 

Aero-Jet General Corporation 

P. O. Box 527 

Monterey, California 

Wellings, Albert A. 

Institute for Defense Analysis 

Department of Defense 

The Pentagon 

Washington 25, D. C. 

Wells, Dr. William H. 
Senior Physicist 
Bendix Research Division 
The Bendix Corporation 
Southfield, Michigan 

Wenk, Dr. Edward, Jr. 
Federal Council for Science and 

Technology 
Room 286, Executive Office Bldg. 
The White House 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Wennerstrom, Carl G. 

Manager and Engineer, Marine Div. 

Brad Foote Gear Works, Inc. 

1309 South Cicero Avenue 

Cicero 50, Illinois 

Wetherington, R. L. 

Research Management Corporation 

representing: 

American Systems, Inc. 

Perkin-Elmer Corporation 
1625 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 



Weiss, H. R. 

Area Manager 

Electro-Mechanical Research, Inc. 

1730 K Street NW 

Washington, D. C. 



Weyl, Dr. Peter K. 

Senior Physicist 

Shell Development Company 

P. O. Box 481 

Houston 1, Texas 



Weiss, Harvey 

Flight Test Instrumentation Engineer 

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation 

c/o Plant 6 

Calverton, New York 



Whicker, Dr. L. F. 

Systems Analysis Group 

U. S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory 

Code DU, Bldg. 90 

Silver Spring, Maryland 



Weiss, Morris 

Head, Instrument Development Group 

Barnes Engineering Co. 

30 Commerce Road 

Stamford, Connecticut 



Whitaker, John C. 
Technical representative 
Aero Service Corporation 
210 E. Courtland Street 
Philadelphia 20, Pennsylvania 



345 



Whitaker, P. F. , Jr. 

Vice President - Military Electronics 

Orbit Industries, Inc. 

P. O. Box 278 

Vienna, Virginia 

White,, W. W. 

Oceanographic Programs Branch 
U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office 
Suitland, Maryland 

Whitmer, Dr. Robert M. 

Space Technology Laboratories, Inc. 

1625 I Street NW 

Washington 6, D. C 

Whymark, R. H. 
Assistant Director 
Arnnour Research Foundation of 
Illinois Institute of Technology 
10 West 35th Street 
Chicago 16, Illinois 



Willig, Frank 

Coordinator, Geophysical Projects 

Office 
Litton Industries 
18107 Sherman Way 
Reseda, California 

Willingham, Michael G. 
Atlantic Research Corporation 
Shirley Highway & Edsall- Road 
Alexandria, Virginia 

Willy, Donald 

Submarine Research Laboratories 

104 Colby Road 

North Quincy, Massachusetts 



Winkler, C. , Jr . , LCDR, 
Commanding Officer 
U.S. S. RED FISH 
c/o Fleet Post Office 
San Francisco, California 



USN 



Williams, Albert J., Jr. 
Science Advisor to Director 
Research & Development Dept. 
Leeds & Northrup 
4901 Stenton Avenue 
Philadelphia 44, Pennsylvania 

Williams, Captain Daniel H. 
The Geraldines, Ltd. 
90 Compromise Street 
Annapolis, Maryland 



Winn, R. H. 

c/o Wolex Electronics Corp. 
Suite 201, Solar Bldg. 
16th & K Sts. NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Witherspoon, John E. 

Group Scientist 

North American Aviation Corp. 

Rocketdyne 

Canoga Park, California 



Williams, Gerald 
Consultant, Oceanography 
Chesapeake Instrument Corp. 
Shadyside, Maryland 



Witthoft, Dr. J. 
Askania- Werke 
4913 CordeU Avenue 
Bethesda, Maryland 



Williams, Leo C. 
Chief, Instrument Branch 
Beach Erosion Board 
5201 Little Falls Road NW 
Washington, D. C. 



Wolf, Dr. Alfred A. 
Director of Research 
Emertron, Inc. 
1140 East-West Highway 
Silver Spring, Maryland 



Williams, Dr. Thomas W. 
Varian Associates 
1725 K Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Willig, D. E. 

ACF Electronics Division 

ACF Industries 

11 Park Place 

Paramus, New Jersey 



Wood, R. W., RADM, USN (Ret.) 
Washington Associates, Incorporated 
Industry Advisory Service 
1624 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C. 

Worzel, Dr. J. Lamar* 
Lamont Geological Observatory 
Columbia University 
Palisades, New York 



346 



Wynne, J. J. 

Eastern Regional Manager 

Dalmo Victor Company 

Suite 404 

1000 Connecticut Ave. NW 

Washington 6, D. C. 

Yentsch, Charles S. * 

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 

Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

Yoran, G. F. 
Mandrel Industries, Inc. 
1624 I Street NW 
Washington 6, D. C 

Young, David B. 
Military Applications Engineer 
General Electric Company 
777 - I4th Street NW 
Washington 5, D. C. 

Zacharias, E. M. , Jr. 

Laboratory Director for Underwater 

Systems 
ACF Electronics Division 
ACF Industries 
I I Park Place 
Paramus, New Jersey 

Zilczer, Dr. Paul 

KoUsman Instrument Corporation 

80-08 45th Avenue 

Elmhurst 73, New York 



347 



APPENDIX E 

REQUIRED OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENT SUIT 
FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC SURVEY VESSELS 

By Captain C. N. G. Hendrix and Working Group 

PREFACE 



In recent conferences and discussions, an attempt has been 
made to determine the oceanographic instrumentation needs of 
oceanogr aphic survey vessels. Although the resulting instrument 
and system descriptions contained herein have been particularly 
oriented toward outfitting oceanographic survey vessels, a number 
of these instruments and systems are considered to have additional 
application to both basic and applied research investigations. 

These descriptions are presented in the combined form of both 
performance and general engineering specifications. This has been 
done intentionally, in order to stimulate the needed and desired 
new thinking and fresh approach that must be applied to oceanogra- 
phic instrumentation. The engineering specifications have been pre- 
sented primarily for information and not to restrict or channel 
thought on how any given problem may best be solved. Likewise, 
the performiance specifications have been presented as guideline 
goals, to be improved where possible. Should the state-of-the- 
art prevent the attainment of one or more of the goals set forth, 
it may be necessary to consider interim solutions. However, in- 
terim instruments or instrunnent systems will have to be indivi- 
dually evaluated on: (1) the inherent merit of the method employed, 

(2) the degree to which the proposal attains the stipulated goal, 

(3) its relationship in time to the achievement of the desired goal, 
and (4) development and production model costs. 

The priorities, which have been tentatively assigned to the 
instruments and instrument systemis described herein, have been 
dictated primarily by the urgency of the requirement for the infor- 
mation that the particular instrument or system can provide. Unit 
and development costs, the current state-of-the-art, and the 
estimated time period required to perfect a particular instrument 
or system have not entered into the setting of these priorities. 
Furthermore, these priorities will not prevent the procurement 



349 



of a fully-developed, low-priority instrument merely because all 
of the higher priority instruments have not yet come into being. 

A general requirement for all instruments and instrument 
systems, excluding those whose sole function is the collection of 
various samiples, is that the data which they collect must be able 
to be read directly into the Master Shipboard Data Logging and 
Processing System. This requirement remains regardless of whe- 
ther the informiation is internally recorded within the instrumient 
or system vehicle or whether the instrument or system transmits 
or telemeters the data directly to the survey vessel. In this 
connection, the final data output of the Master Shipboard Data 
Logging and Processing System must be in proper form for direct 
inclusion in the archives of the National Oceanogr aphic Data Center. 

Modular construction, both of sensors and of consoles, has 
been particularly specified in these instruments and instrument 
systems. This has been done primarily to facilitate field mainten- 
ance and repair; however, it also allows for the different lengths 
of time that may be required to develop any given sensor. Addi- 
tional factors, which have prompted specification of this mode of 
construction, are: 

1. Higher resolutions and accuracies are more economically 
attained with a group of modular sensors, each interchangeable and 
covering a different sensing range; 

Z. A greater demand may be generated for a particular sen- 
sor than the overall demand indicated in these descriptions for the 
total instrument or systems; 

3. Standardization will afford the widest possible sensor appli- 
cation and market, inasmuch as many of these sensors are to be 
utilized in more than one of the described instruments and instru- 
ment systems; 

4. Interchangeable, modular sensors will permit many com- 
panies, who may have neither the interest nor the capability to 
contract for an entire system, to devote their specialized talents 
to development of a particular sensor. This is expected to be 
especially true of companies having a specialized chemical analy- 
sis capability. 

In conjunction with this policy of modular construction, vehicles or 
350 



capsules proposed as components of the described instruments 
or instrument systems must be capable of accommodating the 
standardized sensors and their associated recording or trans- 
mitting units in the groupings stipulated in the accompanying 
instrument descriptions. 

Although projected estimates of the numbers which may be 
utilized have been presented for each instrument or system, in 
order to acquaint industry with the possible extent of the market, 
these numbers are obviously a function of: (1) the unit cost of pro- 
duction models, (2) opportune breakthroughs in the state-of-the- 
art, (3) budgetary considerations of the various agencies that 
may comprise the market, and (4) the individual requirements 
of segments of the national oceanographic community other than 
those concerned principally with survey operations. 

The following are additional general requirements which 
inherently apply to all oceanographic instruments or instrunnent 
systems: 

1. Provision must be included for rapid, accurate, shipboard 
calibration. 

Z. Wherever electronic components are utilized, long elec- 
tronic life must be a basic factor in their design. In this regard, 
military specifications, especially those written for existing 
specialized projects, are not always adequate criteria. 

3. Operation and maintenance of both individual instruments 
and instrument systenns must not be so complicated as to require 
extensive, specialized training for their use. 

4. Instrument and instrument system power requirements 
must not necessitate elaborate voltage and frequency controls. 

5. Possibly the least understood and, yet, the most important 
is the fact that all of these instruments and instrument systems 
must be especially designed to be used at sea. Their construction 
and operation must be reliable, accurate, and compatible with the 
shipboard and marine environment which can be very severe on 
occasions . 

Inasmuch as all of the described instruments and instrument 
systems are to be designed for use aboard oceanographic survey 

351 



vessels, the following general background information is provided 
regarding ship characteristics: 

1. U. S. Navy 

a. AGS 30 and 50 Length : 310 feet 

Beam: 41 feet 
Draft: 14 feet 
Displacemient: Z, 800 tons 

b. AGS 18 Class Length: 2Z1 feet 

Beam: 32 feet 
Draft: 10 feet 
Displacement: 1, 221 tons 

c. AGOR SCB 185 Length : 208 feet 
Class Beam: 37 feet 

Draft: 15 feet 
Displacement: 1, 387 tons 

2. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 

a. Class I Ships Length : 300 feet 

Beam : 48 feet 
Draft: 20 feet 
Displacement: 3, 100 tons 

b. Class II Ships Length : 210 feet 

Beam : 40 feet 
Draft: 15 feet 
Displacement: 1, 300 tons 

c. Class III Ships Length : 150 feet 

Beam: 30 feet 
Draft: 10 feet 
Displacement: 750 tons 

3. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

a. Coastal vessels Length : 40 feet to 75 feet 

Beam: (various) 
Draft: (various) 
Displacement: 150 tons (approx. ) 



352 



b. Short-range, 

offshore vessels 



Length : 75 feet to 125 feet 

Beam: (various) 

Draft: (various) 

Displacement: 600 tons (approx. ) 



c. Extended-range, 
ocean vessels 



Length : 125 feet to 200 feet 
Beam: (various) 
Draft: (various) 
Displacement : 1, 000 tons 
(approx. ) 



The estimated numbers of instruments and instrument systems 
contained in the descriptions have been based upon the following 
considerations: (1) That, from the TENOC Report, NASCO Report, 
and personal communications, the following oceanogr aphic ships 
exist and/or are proposed for future construction, and (2) that 
some of the proposed ships will replace some of the older, existing 
ships . 

1. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 

5 Existing Class I hydrographic ships 
10 Existing Class II and III hydrographic ships 
8 Proposed Class I oceanographic ships 
2 Proposed Class II oceanographic ships 
7 Proposed Class III oceanographic ships 

2. U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office 



2 Existing oceanographic ships (AGS 30, 50) 

4 Existing inshore oceanographic ships (AGS 18 Class) 

2 Existing large hydrographic ships (AGS 15, 16) 

3 Proposed oceanographic ships (AGOR SCB 185) 
7 Proposed hydrographic ships (AGS SCB 214) 

4 Proposed hydrographic ships (AGS SCB 193) 

5 Proposed AGC (3,000 tons) 

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 



27 Existing oceanographic-type research vessels, including 
chartered vessels 

16 Proposed coastal vessels 

12 Proposed short-range, offshore vessels 



353 



3 Proposed extended-range, ocean vessels, including 1 sub- 
marine 

4. U. S. Navy Research Laboratories 

4 Existing research vessels (EPCE type) 

3 Proposed oceanographic ships (AGOR SCB 185) 
1 Proposed VC-Z conversion 

5. Scientific Community 

a. Lamont Geological Observatory 

1 Existing 750-ton oceanographic vessel (VEMA) 

2 Proposed oceanographic ships (AGOR SCB 185) 

b. University of Washington 

1 Existing 300-ton oceanographic vessel (BROWN BEAR) 
1 Proposed oceanographic ship (AGOR SCB 185) 

c. Scripps Institution of Oceanography 

1 Existing 2, 100-ton oceanographic ship (ARGO) 

2 Existing 900-ton oceanographic vessels (HORIZON and 
BAIRD) 

1 Existing 550-ton oceanographic vessel (HUGH SMITH)* 

1 Existing 400-ton oceanographic vessel (STRANGER) 

2 Existing 200-ton oceanographic vessels (ORCA and 
PAOLINA T) 

2 Proposed oceanographic ships (AGOR SCB 185) 
1 Proposed AGC (3, 000 tons) 
* On loan from Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Honolulu. 

d. Oregon State College 

1 Existing oceanographic vessel (ACONA) 

1 Proposed oceanographic ship (AGOR SCB 185) 

e. University of Miami 

1 Existing 135-ton oceanographic vessel (GERDA) 
1 Proposed oceanographic ship (AGOR SCB 185) 



354 



f. Hudson Laboratories 

1 Existing Z, 800-ton oceanographic ship (GIBBS) 

1 Existing 750-ton oceanographic vessel (ALLEGHENY) 

1 Proposed AGC (3,000 tons) 

g. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 

1 Existing 3, 100-ton oceanographic ship (CHAIN) 

1 Existing 565-ton oceanographic vessel (ATLANTIS) 

2 Existing 300-ton oceanographic vessels (CRAWFORD 
and BEAR) 

2 Proposed oceanographic ships (AGOR SCB 185) 

h. Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas 

1 Existing 400-ton oceanographic vessel (HILDAGO) 
1 Proposed oceanographic ship (AGOR SCB 185) 

i. University of Southern California 

I Existing 580-ton oceanographic vessel (VELERO IV) 

In addition, New York University, Chesapeake Bay Institute, 
and Narragansett Marine Laboratory, as well as some of the above 
institutions, have various smaller vessels that are equipped for 
oceanographic data collection and could possibly use some of the 
described instruments, or portions thereof. 



355 



INDIVIDUAL INSTRUMENTS/ EQUIPMENTS AND INSTRUMENT 
SYSTEMS FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC SURVEY VESSELS 



Table of Contents 
I. Individual Instruments/Equipments Priority Page 

a. Hydrographic Precision Scanning I 359 
Echo Sounder 

b. Current Meter for Conducting 2 361 
Coastal and Oceanic Subsurface 

Current Surveys 

c. Shipboard Wave Meter 3 363 

d. Muiti-Purpose, Constant Tension 4 365 
Heavy-Duty Oceanographic Winch 

e. Sub Sea Floor Strata Profiler 5 368 

f. Small Craft, Shallow Water Echo 6 369 
Sounding Instrument 

g. Shipboard Gravity Meter for 7 371 
Survey Use 

h. Marine Electron Resonance 8 373 

Magnetometer 
i. Self-Contained, Deep-Diving 9 ^ 

Oceanographic Sensing Instrument 
j. Surface Navigation and Buoy 10 ^ ' ' 

Location Transponder 
k. Shipboard Dye Detector Probe for 11 -^ ' • 

Oceanographic Investigation 
1. Deep Sea Plankton Sampler 
m. Shipboard Gamma Ray Detector of 13 ^""^ 

Nuclear Waste in the Sea 
n. Oceanographic Radioactive Water 14 ^°^ 

Sampler 
o. Underwater Camera 15 

p. Sea Floor Sampling System 16 

q. Sea Floor Geothermal Probe 17 



12 380 



385 
387 
389 



II. Instrument Systems 

3 Q 1 

a. Shipboard Oceanographic Survey 1 ^ 

System 

3Q 3 

b. Precision Navigational Control System 2 ^ 

for Oceanographic Survey Operations 



357 



Priority Page 

Master Oceanographic Ship- 3 3% 

board Data Logging and 

Processing System 

Towed Subsurface Instrument 4 398 

Systenn 

Air -Sea Surface Interface 5 400 

Environmental Data Recording 

System 

Marine Seismic Receiving Systenn 6 402 

Underwater Television Systemi for 7 403 

Sea Floor Investigation 



358 



I. a. HYDROGRAPHIC PRECISION SCANNING ECHO SOUNDER 



Primary Use: 

For use on oceanographic survey ships in conducting underway 
precision developmental (detailed) types of bathymetric surveys in 
deep oceanic areas. This instrument is needed to obtain a high reso- 
lution, stabilized, echo- sounding picture, including an automatically 
plotted contoured chart of the sea floor topography, extending a cer- 
tain distance (about 2 miles in 4, 000 fathoms of water) perpendicu- 
lar to and on each side of the ship's track. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. To perform reliably at ship's speeds of to 18 knots and in 
sea states through 5. 

b. Operating Depth Range: 

(1) Automatic contour plotting (sweep width) to 6, 500 fa- 
thoms. 

(2) Single-ping and regular echo-gram recording operation 
to 6, 500 fathoms. 

c. Recording Accuracy: 1 fathomi over full range of each scale. 

d. Transducer(s): 

(1) Type: narrow beann, 1° to 3 , at the 10 db point. 

(2) Array: multiple series of transducers faired in to ship's 
hull, electronically stabilized, and so installed as to scan the sea 
floor for a specified distance on either side of the ship's track. 

(3) Transducer(s) should be located at a point alpng ship's 
hull so as to have minimum cavitation interference. 

(4) Should be capable of scanning up to 30 on either side of 
ship's track. 

(5) Should incorporate a feature for "plug-in" of a portable/ 
towed transducer. 

e. Stabilizer: 

(1) Maximum stabilization angle of 60 . 

(2) Constant stabilization to 1/2 of arc from the vertical. 



359 



(3) Minimum lag in stabilization action, easy accessibility 
for maintenance. 

(4) Alarm system to detect malfunctions. 

f. Receiver -transmitter : 

(1) Frequency: 10 - 18 kc. 

(2) Transmission: Pulsed CW emission and reception. 

(3) Frequency Control: Precise intermediate frequency (IF). 

(4) Scale Range: Several and concurrently shifted. 

(5) Phasing: Automatic phase detection. 

(6) Pinging: Single or continuous. 

(7), Output: Output suitable for audible depth indication and 
use with an external precision recorder. 

g. Recording: 

(1) Data Display: To present travel-timie data to a display 
which automatically connects horizontal and vertical components and 
displays data from successive sweeps as contours at pre-selected in- 
tervals varying between 5-100 fathoms. 

(2) Data Recording: Output data to be compatible to present 
and planned data reduction methods. 

(3) Must record continuous bottom profiles in addition to 
plotting "contours." 

(4) "Alternate" Recorder: 

(a) Paper Width: 18 inches. 

(b) Time Accuracy: 1 part/million. 

(c) Paper Speeds: 24 and 72 inches/hour and also geared 
to own ship's speed for various chart scales. 

(d) Marking area of recorder paper to have accessibility 
for ease of immediate reading of trace. 

(e) Adjustable for setting correction for ship's draft. 

(f) Provision for a gating circuit. 

(g) Means for a numerical depth print-out. 

(h) Means for changing vertical scale of recording, 
(i) Automatic depth phase recording on trace, 
(j) A reflectivity meter should be built into the system 
to provide a continuous recording of the reflectivity of the sea floor. 



360 



Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Navy (hydrographic-oceanographic survey ships, basic 
research ships, and applied research ships) - 19 to 25. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 2 to 6. 

c. Certain activities \^ithin scientific coinmunity - 10 to 15. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 2. 
Total: 33 to 48. 

Recommendation Where System Should Be Researched and Developed^ 

U. S. Industry. 
Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program : 

Individual instruinent priority 1. 

I.b. CURRENT METER FOR CONDUCTING COASTAL AND 
OCEANIC SUBSURFACE CURRENT SURVEYS 



Primary Use : 

This is a precision instrument to be utilized on oceanographic 
survey vessels for conducting subsurface current studies and sur- 
veys in coastal and oceanic areas with the ship anchored or "lying- 
to. " It miust measure and record precisely the direction and speed 
of the subsurface currents. 

Requirements and Specifications : 

a. To perform reliably and accurately on survey ships which 
are anchored or "lying-to- 

b. To be operable in depths varying from to 6, 500 fathoms 
with no adverse effects thereto due to hydrostatic pressure. 

c. To be so designed as to be utilized individually or in mul- 

361 



tiple groupings on one cast. 

d. To be so designed that the adverse effects of platforms and 
sensor motions (horizontal and vertical accelerations) are elimin- 
ated or minimized considerably. 

e. To be designed to include four (4) interchangeable, modular, 
depth-sensor units: (1) 0-600 feet, (2) 0-6, 000 feet, (3) 0-15,000 
feet, (4) 0-39, 000 feet. 

f. Depth accuracy for each module to be * 1/4% of full scale. 

g. Current range and accuracy: 

(1) Speed: 0.05 knot -8.0 knots; ±0.05 knot accuracy at 
readout. 

(2) Direction: 000-360 ; ±10 accuracy at readout. 

(3) Instrument output should be linear with respect to the 
current measured over full range of interest. 

(4) Time response: 95% response to speed step-function 
from zero to 1 knot in 1 second or less. 

h. In designing this instrument, consideration shall be given to 
utilizing this instrument on other than research or survey ships, i.e., 
on ships conducting special current studies such as certain fleet 
units, commercial auxiliaries, oil exploration activities and the like. 

i. Shipboard monitoring components: 

(1) Computer /recorder capable of averaging current over 
varying time intervals as well as providing instantaneous values. 

(2) Visual analog and digital tape readout. 

(3) Electric or electronic sensor signals must be such as 
to permit the Master Shipboard Data Logging and Processing Sys- 
tem to accomplish (1) and (2) above where this data logging and pro- 
cessing system is installed. Where this system is not installed, 
separate computing and recording equipment must be available to 
accomplish (1) and (2) above. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, hydrographic- 
oceanographic survey ships) - 50 to 250. 



362 



b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 15 to 30. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 20 to 40. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 15 to 50. 

Total: 100 to 370. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Qceanographic Program: 

Individual instrument priority 2. 

I.e. SHIPBOARD WAVE METER 



Primary Use: 

This instrument will be utilized on oceanographic survey ships 
to measure and record the wave spectra in the oceanic areas for 
general survey and other purposes. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. For use on board oceanographic survey ships in oceanic 
areas with ship "lying-to" or underway at slow speed (0-3 knots). 

b. It is desirable that this instrument operate without the 
necessity of immersing any sensors in the water, in order to re- 
duce danger of deterioration of sensors or damage to the instru- 
ment. 

c. The instrument will be capable of being operated from in- 
side a shipboard laboratory and will require no work on deck, ex- 
cept for preliminary calibrations and rigging the instrument for 
operation. There is to be no requirement to work on deck while 
measurennents are being taken. 

d. The instrument should be so designed as to require mini- 

363 



mum installation on the ship. In particular there shall be no re- 
quirement for ship drydock availability to install the gear. It is 
highly desirable that the instrument be capable of being moved from 
one ship to another with a mini:num of effort. 

e. In high waves considerable spray is to be expected. The in- 
strument is to be so designed to withstand and minimize the effect 
of the spray. The instrument should be able to withstand total im- 
mersion. 

f. Amplitude: The instrument is to be capable of measuring the 
relative displacement of the sea surface from mean sea level with an 
allowable error of not more than *5%. It must be able to do this 
continuously with minimum phase lag and small time constant. 

g. Wave Height Range : The instrument must be able to sense 
displacements from mean sea level of ±20 feet, giving a total wave 
height of 40 feet. Resolution should be such that wave heights of 1 / 2 
foot or greater will be measured. 

h. Period -Length: The instrumient should be capable of sensing 
all variations in relative sea surface height which have periods be- 
tween 2 and 25 seconds. In terms of lengths, waves of from 20 to 
2, 500 feet should be sensed by the instrument. Should the sensor use 
as its operating principle one which averages readings over a small 
area of sea surface, the area involved should be less than 5 feet in 
diameter . 

i. Duration: The instrument should be capable of measuring the 
relative height of the sea surface as a continuing function of time. 
Although measurements of 1/2 hour duration will be required ordin- 
arily, special problems will require records of many hours duration. 

j. Recording and Analysis : 

(1) Visible: A visible, strip chart record of wave height, as 
function of time, is required. This recording should be normalized, 
and should be of such a scale as to permit manual digitizing to the 
accuracy of the instrument at 1/2 second intervals. 

(2) In addition to visual recording, the wave data must be 
amenable to spectrum analysis on board ship. 

(3) Electric or electronic sensor signals must be such as to 
permit the Master Shipboard Data Logging and Processing System 



364 



to accomplish (1) and (2) above where this data logging and pro- 
cessing systenn is installed. Where this system is not installed, 
separate computing and recording equipment must be available to 
accomplish (1) and (2) above. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 20 to 30. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to 15- 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to 15. 

d. U. S. Air Force Ocean Range Vessels - 6 to 8- 

e. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 2. 

f. U. S. Coast Guard - 15 to 30. 

Total: 63 to 100. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance of Interest to U. S. National Oceanographic 
Program : 

Individual instrument priority 3. 

I. d. MULTI-PURPOSE, CONSTANT TENSION, HEAVY-DUTY 

OCEANOGRAPHIC WINCH 



Primary Use: 

This winch will be used primarily to handle the majority of 
oceanographic instruments and will be utilized in most of the 
oceanographic survey operations. Some of these major types of 
operations include: 



365 



a. Conducting "ocean- station" operations with ship "lying-to," 
in oceanic areas, during which a multiple number of instruments 
and sensors will be lowered to interim or maximum depth. 

b. Conducting deep or shallow ocean-floor dredging with either 
light or heavy loads. 

c. Conducting "bottom coring" operations. 

d. Conducting "towed operations," at varying speeds, utilizing 
various oceanographic instruments either singly or in multiple 
groupings. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. To be utilized for underway and stopped ("lying-to") opera- 
tions. 

b. To perform reliably at slow ship speeds (0-3 knots) under 
heavy deep-sea dredging loads and at high ship speeds (10-15 knots) 
under light trawling or towing loads. 

c. Cable Reels: 

(1) Should be designed so as to facilitate rapid removal and 
change of cable reels. 

(2) The "non-conducting" wire reel should have a capacity 
equivalent to 40,000 feet of 5/16 inch wire. 

(3) The "conducting" wire reel should be constructed of non- 
ferromagnetic material to reduce eddy losses and to mininnize noise. 

(4) The "conducting" wire reel shall be capable of providing 
a number of electrical pick-offs, varying from 1 to 12. 

(5) The "conducting" wire reel shall have a capacity equiva- 
lent to 40,000 feet of 0.3 inch diameter "conducting" cable. 

d. The design shall incorporate a "winding machine" feature for 
controlled laying of the cable on the storage reel during in-haul. This 
feature must be adjustable to accommodate wire and cable sizes 
varying from 0.1 to 0.9 inch diameter. 

e. There shall be a provision for constant tension control, i. e. , 
fine control of the load's vertical motion. This constant tension 
should be *2% or better of the load at any given instant. This 



366 



feature should be readily removable or by-passed when not re- 
quired. A cable load indicator must also be included. 

f. It shall incorporate controlled torque for shockless stopping 
and starting. 

g. It shall be capable of ascent-descent rates of up to 150 
meter s /minute. 

h. The operating depth range of this equipmient shall be to 
6, 500 fathoms (0 to 39, 000 feet). 

i. It shall be capable of performing with an in-haul dynamic 
load of 8, 000 lbs. , and of withstanding a "break-load" of ZO, 000 
lbs. 

j. It shall include an emiergency retrieval system. 

k. Although the largest and the highest priority winch is des- 
cribed here, it should be the basis of a series of standard-type, 
var ying-sized winches. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 15 to 30. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 6 to 15. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to ZO. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - Z. 

Total: 33 to 67. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Reseoirched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 



367 



Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 
Individual instrument/equipment priority 4. 

I.e. SUB-SEA FLOOR STRATA PROFILER 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized by oceanographic survey ships in determining 
the types, characteristics, and discontinuities in the upper layer 
sediments which cover the sea floor. In those oceanic areas where 
the sedirnent carpet is thin, it will be utilized to provide pertinent 
informiation concerning the basement rock structure. 

Requirements and Specifications : 

a. To perform reliably on oceanographic survey ships with the 
ship stopped ("lying-to") or underway at ship speeds of 0-10 knots. 

b. The instrument shall be designed to perform reliably in 
ocean areas varying in depth from to 6, 500 fathoms. Within this 
depth of water range, it shall be capable of penetrating sediments 
to at least 2, 000 feet in depth. 

c. The transducer (s): 

(1) Shall include a fixed active transducer (or other sound 
source) attached to the ship's hull, and/or 

(2) It shall have an active streamilined transducer (or other 
sound source) capable of being towed at a depth suitable for maximium 
sediment penetration. 

d. Recorder: 

(1) Shall afford maximum accessability for immediate read- 
ing and marking of traces. 

(2) In addition to a selection of fixed recorder paper speeds, 
it shall provide variable paper speeds to conform to own ship's 
speed. 

(3) It shall permit direct navigational position data on the 
trace. 

(4) This recorder shall be located with and controlled by the 

368 



Master Shipboard Data Logging and Processing System wherever 
that system is available. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 20 to 30. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to 15. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 15 to 30. 

Total: 45 to 75. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry and the Scientific Community. 

Relative Innportance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 

Individual instrument/equipment priority 5. 

I.f. SMALL CRAFT> SHALLOW WATER ECHO SOUNDING 

INSTRUMENT 



Primary Use: 

To be portable and to be utilized primarily by those small 
craft carried on board oceanographic survey ships for the purpose 
of conducting detailed, controlled shallow water bathymetric sur- 
veys in continental shelf areas and rivers throughout the world. 

Requirements and Specifications : 

a. To be portable and utilized primarily in those small boats 
and launches which are carried on board oceanographic survey ships. 

b. To perform reliably at boat/launch speeds of 0-12 knots and 
in water depths of 0-250 fathoms, with an accuracy at readout of 



369 



±0.5 fathom (3 feet) or better over the entire operating range. 

c. Power Supply: 

(1) Should be capable of both a. c. and d. c. operation. 
(Z) Should be equipped with a frequency meter and voltage 
regulator . 

d. Transducer (s): 

To include two (2) transducers of different frequency ranges, 
for the purpose of obtaining fine resolution of bottom detail as well 
as reliable performance under severe environnnental conditions. 
These transducers are to be enclosed within the same streamlined 
housing. 

e. This system should include a streamlined housing for the 
dual transducer plus a streamlined sword-arm for supporting the 
transducer housing assembly. The transducer housing, the sword- 
arm, and associated support arms should be streannlined, light 
weight, of simple design, rugged, and easy to rig and unrig. Addi- 
tionally, the entire assembly should be designed to permit installa- 
tion on either side of the small craft/launch, at the bow or stern, 
and with a capability of positioning the transducer housing at any 
depth between Z-10 feet below the surface of the water. 

f. Rec ording : 

(1) To provide a graphic recording of the bottom, in feet 
and in fathoms. 

(2) Scales: 

(a) 0-100 feet. 

(b) 0-600 feet. 

(c) 0-1, 500 feet. 

(3) Recorder design should emphasize ruggedness, simpli- 
city, compactness, ease of maintenance, and ease of annotating the 
recording trace. 

g. The transducer housing and sword-arm should be designed 
so that they can readily and easily be shipped and unshipped by two 
men. The same applies to the power pack-recording unit. 



370 



Pote ntial Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and hydro- 
graphic-oceanographic survey ships) - 20 to 40. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 15 to 30. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to 20. 

d. U. S. Coast Guard - 10 to 20. 

e. U. S. Navy (Bureau of Ships) - Unknown. 

f. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 10 to 30. 

Total: 65 to 140. 

Recommendations Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 

Individual instrument/equipment priority 6. 



I.g. SURFACE SHIP AND SUBMARINE GRAVITY METER 

FOR SURVEY USE 



Primary Use: 

This is a precision instrument designed for survey use. It will 
permit the continuous measurement of gravity profiles from surface 
ships and submarines. 

Specifications and Requirements : 

a. This is primarily an imderway instrument and should per- 
form with accuracy and reliability for ship's speeds between and 
15 knots. 



371 



b. It should also perform effectively in sea states through 5 
and under the influence of long-period swells. 

c. It must be capable of measuring over an overall range of 
7,000 milligals without resetting; this range to cover 977 to 984 
gals. 

d. Individual readings must be accurate to ±2 milligals over 
the entire operating range. 

e. It must have a zero or a constant drift rate (not to exceed 

5 milligals) over periods of at least one nnonth, and have automatic 
input of corrections to readout. 

f. It must be rugged, easy to maintain, and of such size and 
weight as to permit installation aboard surface ships and submarines. 

g. It must be capable of making automatic corrections for hori- 
zontal accelerations, and must not be adversely affected by the 
average horizontal or vertical accelerations of the vessel. 

h. It must eliminate secondary vertical effects. 

i. Its readout must be compatible with Master Shipboard Data 
Logging and Processing System inputs, where navigational and other 
related data can be added to gravity data. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Navy (hydrographic -oceanographic survey and applied 
research vessels) - 10 to ZO. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey vessels - 2 to 3. 

c. U. S. Air Force (ocean range vessels) - 6 to 8. 

d. Scientific Community - 6 to 15. 

Total: 24 to 46- 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 



372 



U. S. Industry. 
Relative Importance to U« S. National Oceanographic Program: 
Individual instrument/equipment priority 7. 

I.h. MARINE ELECTRON RESONANCE MAGNETOMETER 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships for the purpose 
of obtaining continuous profiles of the earth's total magnetic inten- 
sity. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. To be designed primarily for underway operations and 
secondarily for stopped operations. 

b. To perform reliably at ship's speeds of 0-15 knots in sea 
states of through 5. 

c. To be designed with emphasis on simplicity, ruggedness, 
compactness, and minimum maintenance requirements. 

d. To be designed primarily for survey type of operations with 
primary emphasis on installation in the survey surface ship, but 
with consideration of and possible application to survey use from 
aircraft. 

e. Sensors: 



Data 



(1) Total magnetic intensity 

(2) Depth of sensor below 
surface of water 



Range: 20, 000-100, 000 gammas 
Accuracy: iO.Ol gamma 
Range: Underway Mode: 

0-1, 000 feet 
Accuracy : Underway Mode: 

±1/4% full scale 
Range: Lying -to Mode: 

0-6, 500 fathoms 



373 



Accuracy: Lying-to Mode: 
±1/4% full 
scale 
The depth sensor modules should be interchangeable. 

f. Data recording and Readout : 

(1) Visual analog at the instrument. 

(2) Data from this instrument must be an input into the Mas- 
ter Shipboard Data Logging and Processing System. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, hydrograph- 
ic-oceanographic survey ships) - 20 to 40. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to 20. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to 20. 

d. National Aeronautics and Space Agency - Unknown. 

Total: 40 to 80. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 

Individual instrument/equipment priority 8. 



I.i. SELF-CONTAINED, DEEP-DIVING OCEANOGRAPHIC 

SENSING INSTRUMENT 



Primary Use: 

This instrument shall be designed for utilization fronn oceano- 
graphic survey ships to allow the measurement and recording of cer- 
tain key oceanographic data simultaneously with other underway or 



374 



stopped operations. Emphasis shall be placed on simplicity and 
rapidity of data collection. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. For use on oceanogr aphic survey ships with ship stopped 
("lying-to") . It may also be utilized in multiple drops, all posi- 
tioned and later retrieved by one underway vessel, within a given 
area. 

b. To be designed as a "free" descent/ascent deep-diving 
instrument, capable of performing reliably to depths of 6, 500 
fathoms. 

c. The instrument should be designed to sink to any pre-pro- 
grammed depth, at a uniform rate compatible with the time res- 
ponse of attached sensors, recording certain key data during the 
descent. Upon reaching the pre- specified depth, a mechanismi or 
weight would be released allowing the instrument to rise uniformly 
to the surface, recording the data during the ascent. It would then 
be retrieved by maneuvering the ship and hoisting it on board. 

d. The vehicle shall be so designed that it is compact, light 
weight, and easy to handle on board ship and in the water. It 
shall incorporate a provision to aid in the vehicle's location upon 
surfacing, day or night. 

e. The following modular data sensors shall be included: (1) 
temperature, (2) salinity, (3) sound velocity, (4) oxygen, (5) depth. 

f. The sensor ranges and accuracies desired are: 



Sensor 

(i) Temperature 

(2) Salinity (two inter- 
changeable modules) 



(3) Sound velocity 



o o 

Range: -2 to 35 C 

Accuracy : ±0.02°C. 
Range: to 25%o 

25 to 45%o 
Accuracy : ±0.01%o 
±0.01%o 
Range: 4, 500 to 5, 500 feet per 

sec ond 
Accuracy: ±1.0 foot per second 
absolute at readout 



375 



(4) Oxygen 



(5) Depth (four inter- 
changeable modules) 



Range: to 10 milliliter/ 

liter 
Accuracy: ±0.1 milliliter/ 

liter 
Range : to 600 feet 

to 6, 000 feet 
to 15, 000 feet 
to 39, 000 feet 
Accuracy : ±0.25% of full 
range for each 
module 



g. The sensor time responses desired are: 

(1) Temperature: 95% response to a step function of 0.02 C. in 1 sec- 
ond. 

(2) Salinity: 95% response to a step function of O.Ql%o in 1 second. 

(3) Sound velocity: 95% response to a step function of 1.0 foot per 
second in 1 second. 

(4) Oxygen: 95% response to a step function of 0. 1 milliliter per liter 
in 1 second. 

(5) Depth: 95% response to a step function of 1 fathom (6 feet) in 1 
second. 

h. Recording : 

(1) Within the instrument, there shall be continuous analog 
recording of all five variables simultaneously on magnetic tape. 

(2) On deck, after the instrument has been retrieved, this 
data must be capable of immediate, direct input into the Master 
Shipboard Data Logging and Processing System. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 20 to 40. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to 200. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to 20. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 30 to 100. 



376 



Total: 70 to 3b0 . 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 

Developed: 

U. S. Industry • 
Relative Imiportance to U. S. National Oceanogr aphic Program: 
Individual instrument priority 9. 

I.J. SURFACE NAVIGATION AND BUOY LOCATION 

TRANSPONDER 



Primiary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships during miscellan- 
eous oceanogr aphic operations for three purposes: (1) To permit 
seaward extension of existing shore navigation control stations in 
certain areas designated for specific survey assignments (hydro- 
graphic-oceanographic) , (Z) To aid in the location and "homing in" 
on deep-sea anchored buoys and/or other devices, and (3) To 
provide a system for establishing reference grids in extended ocean 
areas lacking electronic navigational aids for conducting special 
research and/or survey operations. 

Requirements and Specifications : 

a. Buoy-Mounted Transceiver Unit: 

(1) Transceiver unit to be mountable on various size buoys 
and at a sufficient height above the surface of the water so as to 
permit maximum range performance. 

(2) To consist of a low-powered transceiver unit which would 
be activated by the servicing ship's interrogation pulse and then 
transmit a signal back automatically on the same frequency. The 
transceiver should be tr ansitorized, compact, light-weight, rugged, 
and provide for reliable unattended operation. 

(3) Transceiver should be designed so that it can be activ- 
ated, if possible, by existing survey/research surface ship's radar/ 
radio systems and also by existing aircraft systems which might be 
utilized in oceanographic investigations and surveys. In brief, it 

377 



should be capable of being attuned to and broadcast back on a pre- 
selected frequency band. 

(4) Transceiver unit should contain its own power supply 
and this should have an assured 6-lZ month life unattended, in this 
intermittent type of interrogation. 

(5) Transceiver unit to shut down automatically when inter- 
rogation has ceased. 

(6) Transceiver to perform reliably at ranges varying from 
10-50 miles. 

b. Shi pboard/Airborne Transceiver Unit : 

(1) The instrument to be designed for operation from either 
an oceanographic research/ survey ship or from an aircraft (scien- 
tific or military). 

(Z) For reasons of flexibility and economy, existing radar/ 
radio systemis as now installed in research/survey ships and 
scientific/military aircraft should be utilized, if feasible, for the 
shipboard/airborne transceiver unit. 

Potential Us ers and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and hydro- 
graphic-oceanographic survey ships) - 20 to ZOO. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to ZO . 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to ZO. 

d. U. S. Coast Guard - 10 to ZO . 

e. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 10 to 100. 

Total: 60 to 360- 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 
Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 
Individual instrument/equipment priority 10. 

378 



I.k.. SHIPBOARD DYE DETECTOR PROBE FOR 
OCEANOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATIONS 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships for the direct 
detection and evaluation (quantitative) of certain dyes which are 
used in tagging water masses for the purposes of studying dif- 
fusion, turbulence, and ocean circulation. 

Requirennents and Specifications: 

a. To be utilized by oceanographic survey ships when stopped 
("lying-to") and when underway. 

b. Instrument design should stress simplicity, ruggedness, and 
light weight in construction. 

c. The sensor (dye) should have its wave length sensitivity 
peaked to correspond to the wave length of rhodamine-type dyes. 
This will reduce the effect of spurious, natural background fluor- 
escence. 

d. To be utilized in coastal and oceanic areas and in water 
depths of 0-6, 500 fathoms. 

e. Sensors, range, and accuracy: 
Sensor 

(1) Depth Range: 0-6, 500 fathoms 

Accuracy: 1/4% full scale of each 
module 
NOTE: Depth modules: 0-600 feet, 0-1, 000 feet, 0-6, 000 feet, 
0-39, 000 feet. 

(2) Rhodamin2 Range: 500 parts/million fo 

0. 01 parts/billion 
Accuracy: 0.01 part/billion 

(3) Time response: (a) Depth : 95% response to a step function of 
1 fathom (6 feet) in 1 second at mid-range. 

(b) Rhodamine dye concentration : 95% response 
to a step function of 0. 1 part per billion in 1 second. 



379 



f . Recording and Readout : 

(1) To provide for visual analog. 

(2) The data sensed by this instrument is to be an input 
into the Master Shipboard Data Logging and Processing System. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Navy (applied research, basic research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 20 to 40. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to 20. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to 20. 

d. Bureau of Cominnercial Fisheries - 2 to 14. 

e. Atomic Energy Commission - 10 to 20. 

Total: 52 to 114. 

Recommendation Where Instrumient Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanogr aphic Program: 

Individual instrument/equipnnent priority 11. 

I. 1. DEEP SEA PLANKTON SAMPLER 



Primary Use: 

This is an instrument designed for "underway" operations from 
an oceanographic survey ship at moderate speeds. Its purpose is to 
permit quantitative sampling of a variety of sizes of plankton, at 
selected depths. 



380 



Requirements and Specifications; 

a. To be designed for "underway" operation and to perform 
reliably at ship speeds of 0-15 knots and at operating depths of 

to 6, 000 feet. 

b. Net opening to be adjusted prior to lowering in water. 

c. Net to be designed so as to be opened and/or closed on sig- 
nal from the ship. 

d. Net screen (mesh) size must be capable of being adjusted re- 
nnotely fronn the ship, with an end view of achieving a minimum of 
six (6) screen changes per cast. 

e. Water volume flow through net to be measured to an accuracy 
of ±1 percent. 

f. This instrument should provide for attaching standard modu- 
lar tennperature and depth sensors to the net frame to measure and 
continuously transmiit this data to a recorder topside. The charac- 
teristics of such standard sensors should be: 

(1) Depth Sensor: 

0-6,000 feet; ± 1 / 4% of full range 

Time Response: 95% response to a step function of 6 
feet in 1 second. 

(2) Temperature: 

-2° to 35°C. ; ±0.1° C. 

Timie Response: 95% response to a step function of 
1 C. in 1 second. 

g. Data Readout: 

(1) Proper form and type for direct input into the Master 
Shipboard Data Logging and Processing System. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Navy (oceanographic survey ships, basic research 



381 



ships, and applied research ships) - 19 to 22- 

b. Certain activities within scientific community - 12 to 20. 

c. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 8- 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 2 to 20- 

Total: 41 to 70. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. Nat ional Oceanographic Program: 

Individual instrument/equipment priority 12. 

I.m. SHIPBOARD GAMMA RAY DETECTOR OF NUCLEAR 

WASTE IN THE SEA 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships for identifying 
and measuring abnormal gamma ray concentrations in the ocean 
areas, such as would result from nuclear powered vessel refuse 
and special concentrations from other sources, such as nuclear 
waste dumping grounds and experimental nuclear tests conducted at 
sea. 

Requirements and Specifications : 

a. To perform reliably in depths of water varying from 0-6, 500 
fathoms, in both coastal and oceanic regions. 

b. Sampling operation to be conducted with the ship stopped 
("lying-to") and when underway. 

c. Sensor module should contain, for example, a pressure pro- 
tected 6 in. by 9 in. sodium iodide or plastic scintillating crystal 



382 



with its associated photomultiplier s and preamplifiers. It should 
also include: 

(1) A device for indicating the depth of the module with an 
accuracy of ±1/4% full range. 

(2.) A discriminator analyzer element to discriminate 
gamma ray photon energy. The range of this element should be 
not less than 100 energy categories (channels). 

(3) A counting rate range selective from extreme sensitiv- 
ity downward by at least 5 orders of magnitude and to incorporate 
the following: 

(a) Should measure en\dronmental gamma ray radia- 
tion in the ocean. 

(b) Should incorporate a multi-range system for 
special circumstances. 

(c) Should range fromi below the natural background 
of the ocean to 5 orders of magnitude higher gamma intensities. 

(4) Accessory equipment for analyzing a liquid or solid 
sample on shipboard, including a well-shielded scintillating crystal 
and electronic equipment connecting this to the shipboard pulse 
analyzer . 

d. Shipboard Recording and Data Readout : 

(1) The data from this system should be one of the "inputs" 
into the Master Shipboard Data Logging and Processing System. 

(2) This should include: (a) a multi-channel pulse height 
analyzer with direct dial readout, (b) visual analog readout and 
magnetic tape recording, (c) background storage and direct sub- 
traction accessory. 

Potential Users and Estimiated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and'oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 20 to 40. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to 20. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to 20. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 2 to 8. 

383 



e. Atomic Energy Commission - 10 to 20. 

Total: 52 to 108. 

Recomimendation Where Instrumient Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanogr aphic Program: 

Individual instrument/equipmient priority 13. 

I.n. OCEANOGRAPHIC RADIOACTIVE WATER SAMPLER 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships for the purpose of 
collecting sea water samples in order to trace and investigate radio- 
activity background and anomalies. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. To be utilized when the ship is stopped ( "lying-to"). 

b. The sampler and associated gear to be constructed of non- 
contaminating material. 

c. The sampler to contain a plastic liner of about 15 gallon 
capacity. 

d. The sampler must be of a non-contaminating type which can 
be opened and closed at any desired depth by remote operation from 
shipboard. This may or may not require the need for the sampler to 
withstand hydrostatic pressure. 

e. To be designed so that one to two men can conduct the sampling 
operation, utilizing standard hydrographic wire and equipment. 

f. To be designed to permit operation in multiples of four or more 
samplers per cast. 



384 



g. The system must include approximiateiy 15-gallon size 
shipping containers for shipment of samples to laboratories for 
analysis and also include spare plastic liners to replace those which 
are used. 

h. Analysis of water samples to be performed either on ship- 
board, if facilities are available, or at shoreside laboratories. 

i. This 15-gallon size sampler is the first and highest priority 
of a series of sampler sizes, which should increase by an order of 
two, three, and/or four. 

Potential Users and Estimiated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, survey ships) 
20 to 40. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to ZO. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to 20. 

d. Bureau of Comimercial Fisheries - 2 to 10. 

e. Atomic Energy Com-nission - 20 to 40. 

Total: 62 to 130. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanogr aphic Program: 

Individual instrument/equipment priority 14. 

I. o. UNDERWATER CAMERA 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships for the purpose 

385 



of obtaining close-up photographs, both single-frame and stereo, 
of the detailed topography of the sea floor. It will also be employed 
for photogrammetric mapping of the sea floor. 

Requirements and Specifications : 

a. To be utilized primarily for stopped ("lying-to") operations 
but also for slow-speed operations with ship underway at 0-5 knots. 

b. To be operable in coastal and oceanic waters, at depths of 
0-6, 500 fathoms. 

c. Film capacity: Approximately 100 to 150 feet of 70mm. filna. 

d. Photographic distance: 

(l) Single-frame photographs: should accept object distances 
of Z-30 fee"t~ 

(Z) Stereo photographs: should accomimodate close (Z feet) 
and long (35-50 feet) object distances. 

e. The camera instrument must include, or have attached there- 
to, a device which measures and indicates at all times to an observer 
on deck the precise height of the camera unit above the sea floor. 

f. A deep-water, synchronized illuminating device must be in- 
corporated in this instrument in order to light adequately the photo- 
graphic field. 

g. The instrument must incorporate variable, preprogrammed 
shutter operation to provide for both continuous and timie- series 
studies. 

h. The camera unit must be capable of taking both horizontal 
and vertical underwater photographs. 

i. The camera and its associated devices should provide and 
photograph the following minimum supporting information in the 
corner of each frame: (1) date/time, (Z) location, (3) camera atti- 
tude, and (4) camera direction. 

j. In addition, a turbidity meter shall be incorporated into the 
system for on-deck indication of operational photographic conditions 



386 



and/or for general environmental knowledge. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They Ma y 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and 
oceanographic survey ships) - 20 to 40. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to ZO . 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to 20. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 2 to 8. 

Total: 42 to 88. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 

Individual instrument / equipment priority 15. 

I. p. SEA FLOOR SAMPLING SYSTEM 



Primary Use: 

This is primarily a series of interchangeable bottom samp- 
ling devices designed for utilization by oceanographic survey ships 
in the collection of various samples of the sea floor. 

Specifications and Requirements : 

a. The system shall be designed for utilization by oceano- 
graphic survey ships "lying-to" and/or underway with slight "head- 
way. " 

b. The system shall be operable in water depths varying 
from 0-6, 500 fathoms. 



387 



c. The system shall include, but not be restricted to, the fol- 
lowing interchangeable sampling devices: (1) small "grab" samp- 
lers, (2) short corers (0-15 feet), (3) long corers (0-100 feet), 

(4) light-weight dredge, (5) heavy-weight dredge, (6) long in situ 
sampling device, (7) large volume interface sediment sampler 
(capacity 1 cubic foot), (8) short in situ sampling device. 

d. The in situ sampling devices indicated above shall be 
capable of obtaining an undisturbed sample of the water /bottom inter- 
face, including retention of ambient pressure at sampling depths of 

1 to 20 feet for the long and up to 6 inches for the short in situ 
devices. 

e. Although certain types of corers and samplers now exist, 
they are considered to be in need of improvement and consequently, 
new and radical scientific and engineering techniques are needed to 
develop an overall improved Sea Floor Sampling System. 

f. The various attachments associated with this system, if 
tended by a wire, shall be so designed that they can be used with the 
Multi-Purpose Heavy Duty Oceanographic Winch described separately 
in this Oceanographic Survey Ship instrument system. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Whi ch They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Navy (for oceanographic survey ships, basic research 
ships, and applied research ships) - 19 to 22. 

b. Certain activities within scientific community - 12 to 20. 

c. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 8 to 15. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 2. 

Total: 41 to 59. 

Recommendation Where System Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 



388 



Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 
Individual instrument/equipment priority 16. 

I.q. SEA FLOOR GEOTHERMAL PROBE 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships, with the ship 
stopped ( "iying-to"), to measure the heat-flow characteristics and 
values across and within the sea floor sediments. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. To be utilized during stopped ("lying-to") operations. 

b. To perform reliably and accurately in water depths of to 
6, 500 fathoms. 

c. Instrument should be simple in design and construction, 
rugged, and easy to transfer from one ship to another for reinstal- 
lation. Modular sensors could be attached to the long and short 
sediment corers of the Sea Floor Sampling System. 

d. Data to be measured: 

Data 

Heat Flow Range: to 10 microcal./cm. /sec. 

Accuracy: 0.05 microcal. /cm. / 
sec. 
Temperature gradi- Range: to 0.6 'CT. /m. 
ent Accuracy: 0.001 C./m. 

Temperature Range : to 5° C. (0 to 20 feet) 

Accuracy : 0.001° C. 
Range : 0-10° C. (0-100 feet) 
Accuracy : 0.001° C. 

Depth of probe Range: to 20 feet 

(corer) in sea to 100 feet 

floor Accuracy: 0. 1 foot (or measured 



389 



mechanically or visually 
on core barrel) 



e. Data Recording and Readout: 



Data to be displayed and recorded on Master Shipboard 
Data Logging and Processing System; or, if more practicable, re- 
corded internally at the probe. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units They May Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (applied research, basic research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 20 to 30. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to 15. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to 20. 

Total: 40 to 65. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Innportance to U. S. National Oceanogr aphic Program: 

Individual instrument priority 17. 



390 



II. a. SHIPBOARD OCEANOGRAPHIC SURVEY SYSTEM 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships incorporating the 
most up-to-date techniques for collection, storage, reduction, and 
possible transmission of oceanographic data. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. For utilization on oceanographic survey ships with the ship 
in any of the following modes of operation: (1) stopped ("lying-to"), 
(2) at anchor, and (3) underway at slow speeds (0-3 knots). 

b. To perform efficiently, effectively, and safely in sea 
states of through 5. 

c. To be operable in water depths of 0-6, 500 fathoms. 

d. To be able to simultaneously accommodate any or all of the 
sensor modules listed in subparagraph e. following. 

e. Sensor - Range - Accuracy: 
Sensor 



(1) Depth (4 modules) 



(Z) Temperature 

(3) Sound Velocity 

(4) Light Absorption 

(5) Density 

(6) Subsurface Currents 



Range: 0-600 feet 

0-2, 400 feet 

0-6, 000 feet 

0-39, 000 feet 

Accuracy: ±.25% of full scale 

for each range 
o o ^ 

Range: -2 to 35 -C 

Accuracy: ±0.01°C. 

Range: 4, 500-5, 500 feet/ sec . 

Accuracy: ±1.0 foot/sec. 

absolute at readout 

Range: 0-100% 

Accuracy : ±1.0% 

Range: 1.00000-1. 08000 

Accuracy: ±0.00001 

Range: 0-8 knots 

0-360° 



391 



Accuracy: ±0, 1 knot or better 
±10° 

(7) In Situ, Modular Ion 
Analyzer 

(a) Oxygen Range: 0- 10 milliliter s/liter 

Accuracy: ±0.1 milliliter /liter 

(b) Salinity (two inter- Rang e: 0-25%o 
changeable modules) 25-45%o 

Accuracy: ± . 1 %o 
±0.01%o 

(c) Nitrate-Nitrogen Range: 0-50 microgram atoms/ 

liter 
Accuracy: ±0. 1 microgram 
atoms/liter 

(d) Phosphate-Phosphorus Range: 0-5 microgram atoms/ 

liter 
Accuracy: ±0.01 microgram 
atoms /liter 

(e) Silicates Range: 0-ZOO microgram atoms/ 

liter 
Accuracy: ±0. 1 microgram 
atoms /liter 

(8) Total Magnetic Intensity Range: 20, 000- 100, 000 gammas 

Accuracy: ±0.1 gamma 

Note: Sensor Time Response: All sensors should have a 95% response 
to a step function in a period of 1 second. 

f. Recording and Readout: 

The system shall be designed so that the above data will be read 
directly into the Master Shipboard Data Logging and Processing Sys- 
tem either continuously (time- series) and/or intermittently. 

g. If multi-conductor electric cable is employed, this cable and 
the various sensors associated with this system shall be compatible 
and useable in conjunction with the Multi-Purpose Constant Tension, 
Heavy Duty Oceanographic Winch, described elsewhere. 

h. Sensors shall be constructed in modular form, with simpli- 
city so that they can be easily repaired and/or replaced at sea. 



392 



Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May- 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - ZO to 40. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to ZO- 

c. Certain activities withm scientific community - 1 to 20. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - Z to 10. 

e. U. S. Coast Guard - 10 to ZO- 

Total: 5Z to 110- 

Recommendation Where Instrumen t Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program : 

Instrument systetn priority 1. 

II. b. PRECISION NAVIGATIONAL CONTROL SYSTEM 
FOR OCEANOGRAPHIC SURVEY OPERATIONS 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized by oceanographic survey ships for obtaining 
precise navigational positioning incidental to routine oceanographic 
surveys and/or special oceanographic investigations. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships in the conduct 
of routine oceanographic surveys and special oceanographic investi- 
gations. 

b. To be utilized in both coastal and oceanic operations, day 



393 



and night, ani to have an all-weather capability. 

c. The system operation must be reliable, i.e. , have an on- 
the-air time in excess of 95% and signals must be free of any am- 
biguity. 

d. To be readily adaptable to automatic plotting of position on 
a plotting sheet. 

e. To be designed to support a dual-range operational capability 
as follows: 

(1) Short range (0-ZOO miles); accuracy ±50 feet. 

(Z) Long range (0-5,000 miles); accuracy ±1/2-1 mile. 

f. Shipboard system to be designed ennphasizing modular con- 
struction, compactness, ruggedness, and ease and simplicity of 
operation and miamtenance. In any case, ship's crew should be able 
to operate and service the system at sea without extensive specialized 
training. If feasible, both short and long range systems should be 
incorporated into one console. 

g. "Position" information obtained fromi both of these systems 
must be capable of being read automatically into the Master Ship- 
board Data Logging and Processing System simultaneously and in 
conjunction with any environmental data. 

h. Provision also shall be miade for direct "read-in" of "posi- 
tion" information from both the short and long range system into the 
Hydrographic Precision Scanning Echo Sounder System. 

i. Geographic Coverage: 

This system(s) must be worldwide, oceanwide; however, the 
short range system coverage may be limited by shore station site 
availability. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Shipboard Units Which 
They May Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, hydrographic- 
oceanographic survey ships) - 20 to 40. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to 20. 
394 



c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to ZO. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 10 to 15. 

e. U. S. Coast Guard - 10 to ZO . 

Total: 60 to 115. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 

Instrument system priority Z. 

II. c. MASTER OCEANOGRAPHIC SHIPBOARD DATA 
LOGGING AND PROCESSING SYSTEM 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships. In view of 
the many ships scheduled to be employed in oceanwide research and 
survey programs, it is imperative that the maximum quantity of 
data possible be processed on board ship. This data processing 
system, through being sufficiently versatile to handle a variety of 
data inputs, should provide the required on-board data analyzing, 
logging, processing, and storage capability. This system will 
expedite the availability of "smoothed" field data for utilization by 
either the scientific leader or survey party chief "in the field" in 
order to achieve optimum results. 

Requirements and Specifications : 

a. To be utilized and perform reliably under the following 
modes of survey type of operations: (1) ship stopped ("lying-to"), 
(2) ship anchored, and (3) ship underway at speeds 0-18 knots. 

b. System to function reliably in sea states through 5. 

c. The system should employ solid state circuitry wherever 



395 



possible to reduce size, weight, and heat generation. 

d. It should be versatile enough to record information from a 
large variety of sensors and transducers, in both digital and analog 
form, and to include such key information as time, position, course, 
speed, ship, and cruise number on all data records. 

e. It should employ modular construction, plugboard system pro- 
gramming, and stored program system control. 

f. It should incorporate, but not be limited to, the following 
major components to achieve the above: 

(1) A miultichannel, high quality, analog magnetic tape re- 
corder, having nnodular read-write electronics for direct and FM 
recording. 

(2) Input commutators: 

(a) A 100 channel simple sequential commutator having a 
variable sampling rate up to 100 samples per second. This commuta- 
tor also should have a switching miode wherein sequential groups of 

10 channels can be selected. 

(b) A multichannel simiultaneous sample hold and multi- 
plex commutator having a variable sampling rate up to 12,000 per 
second. 

(c) A commutator control unit to permit combined or in- 
dependent use of the two commutators. 

(3) Analog to digital converters: 

(a) A 12 bit bipolar A-D converter having a variable sam- 
pling rate up to 12,000 samples per second. (Small aperture, 50 
microsecs. ) 

(b) A 12 bit bipolar voltage to frequency type A-D con- 
verter having a variable sampling period in the range of 10 msec, 
to 1 sec. 

(4) A small scale digital computer having the following char- 
acteristics: (1) 12 microsecond add time, (2) 4,096 words of random 



396 



access memory, (3) two independent serial by word input/output 
channels at least one of which can be used in an automatic buffer 
mode at a word rate of 60 kc . , (4) at least one on-line digital mag- 
netic tape unit, (5) punched paper tape input/output at not less than 
110 characters per second, and (6) an on-line monitoring typewriter. 

(5) A system programnning board having the following char- 
acteristics: (1) 500 audiofrequency jacks, (2) a removable 1,000 
hole plugboard. 

(6) A 30 by 30 inch combined digital-analog X-Y plotter with 
punched paper tape input. 

(7) Several independent analog display units to monitor 
while recording. 

(8) Z50 inches of standard 19 inch rack for miounting special 
instrumentation. Racks are to be equipped with power outlets and 
signal lines running to system programming board. 

(9) Air conditioning and humidity control. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 20 to 25. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 5 to 8. 

c. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 2. 

d. Certain activities within scientific community - 2 to 6. 

e. U. S. Coast Guard - 5 to 10. 
Total: 34 to 51. 

Recommendation Where System Should Be Researched and Developed : 

U. S. Industry. 
Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 



397 



Instrument systein priority 3. 



II. d. TOWED SUBSURFACE INSTRUMENT SYSTEM 



Primary Use: 

This device is designed for utilization on oceanographic survey 
ships for underway operations to obtain horizontal profiles of certain 
key oceanographic variables. It is to be a streamlined, compact 
platform to which will be attached modular sensors and other special 
miniaturized instruments capable of being towed submerged at 
moderate speeds. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. The platform with associated instruments shall be capable 
of being towed from an oceanographic survey ship at any constant 
depth within a depth range of 0-Z,000 feet at any ship's speed ranging 
from 3 to 15 knots. In addition, a feature should be incorporated in 
the vehicle design to permit continuous, controlled variation of the 
platform's depth over the entire operating depth range or any incre- 
ment thereof. 

b. The towing wire angle shall not exceed 25 from the vertical. 

c. The platform and associated instruments shall be compact, 
.streamlined, and not excessively heavy or bulky in order to allow 

rapid and adequate deck stowage and/or to permit smooth entry into 
or hoisting out of the water. 

d. The following sensors shall be included: 

Sensor 

Temperature Range: -Z to 35 C. 

Accuracy: ±0.01°C. 
Salinity (two inter- Range: to 25%o 

changeable modules) 25 to 45%o 

Accuracy: ±0.01%o 
±0.01%o ' 
Sound Velocity Range: 4, 500 to 5, 500 feet/ 

second 



398 



Depth (two inter- 
changeable modules) 



Accuracy : ±1 foot/sec absolute 

at readout 
Range: to 600 feet 

to Z, 000 feet 
Accuracy: ± 0. 25% of full scale 



Sensor Time Response: Ail sensors, except depth, should have a 
95% response to a step function in a period of 1 second. The depth 
sensor should have a 95% response to a step function of 1 fathom 
(6 feet) in a period of 1 second. 

e. Data Recording and Readout : 

Temperature, salinity, sound velocity, and depth data shall 
be transmitted from the sensors into the Master Shipboard Data 
Logging and Processing System. 

f. This platform should be able to be rigged from and towed 
by the Multi-purpose, Constant Tension, Heavy Duty Oceano- 
graphic Winch where it is available. 

g. If this unit can be mass-produced cheaply, it may have 
widespread commerciai fishing application. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships ) - 20 to 30. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey vessels - 10 to 15' 

c. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries vessels - 2 to 20- 

d. Certain activities within the scientific community - 10 to 20- 

Total: 42 to 85. 

Recommendation Where Equipment Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 



399 



Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 

Instrunnent systein priority 4. 

II. e. AIR-SEA SURFACE INTERFACE ENVIRONMENTAL 
DATA RECORDING SYSTEM 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized by oceanographic survey ships primarily for 
underway operations, and secondarily for stopped operations, to 
sample and record the key environmental data found at and/or near 
the air-sea interface. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. To be designed and constructed primarily for underway 
operations at ship's speeds of 0-15 knots. 

b. A strict requirement is that the sensors be designed and lo- 
cated so as to measure the environment immediately at the interface 
or as close thereto as possible, without being adversely affected by 
own ship's motion and air turbulence over the ship projections as 
the ship moves through the water. 

c. Sensors: Ranges and Accuracies: 



Sensor 
Sea surface temperature 

Sea surface salinity 
(two interchangeable 
modules) 

Sea surface oxygen 

Air temperature 

Relative humidity 

or Dew point 



Range: -2° to 35 C. 
Accuracy: ±0.1°C. 
Range: to 25%o 

25 to 45%o 
Accuracy: ±0 . l%o 

±0 . 1 'foo 
Range: to 10 milliliter s/liter 
Accuracy: *0. 1 milliliter /liter 
Range: -40° to 70°C. 
Accuracy : ±0.01°C. 
Range: to 100% or 

-40° to 50°C. 
Accuracy: ±5% or ±0. 1 C. 



400 



Barometric pressure 
Wind speed and direction 

Incident radiation 
Reflected radiation 



Range: 950 to 1,050 millibars 
Accuracy: ±0.1 millibar 
Range: Speed: to ZOO knots 

Direction: to 360° 
Accuracy: Speed: ±0.5 knots 

Direction: ± 5 
Range: to 40 Langleys /minute 
Accuracy: ±5% overall range 
Range: to 100 (U. S. Weather 

Bureau special scale) 
Accuracy: ±5% overall range 



The system should include provision for a towed, submerged, con- 
stant depth device to measure wave spectra and transmit this data 
to the Master Shipboard Data Logging and Processing System for 
correlation with other recorded data. 

Sensor Time Response: All sensors should afford a 95% response to 
a step function in a period of 1 second. 

d. Recording and Readout: 

Above data must be a direct and immediate input into the 
Master Shipboard Data Logging and Processing System, on a con- 
tinuous and/or intermittent recording basis. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 20 to 30. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to 15. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 10 to 20. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 2 to 8. 

e. U. S. Weather Bureau - 10 to 20. 
Total: 52 to 93. 



401 



Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanogr aphic Program: 

Instrument system priority 5. 

II. f. MARINE SEISMIC RECEIVING SYSTEM 

Primary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships to measure and 
record the various characteristics of the structure of the sea floor as 
applicable to acoustical propagation studies of the water volume, the 
bottom sediments, and the underlying structures. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

a. To perform reliably on oceanographic survey ships, in sea 
states of through 5, with ship stopped ("lying-to"). 

b. To be operable in coastal and oceanic regions, in water depths 
of to 6, 500 fathoms. 

c. To be designed so that the equipment is portable, compact, 
rugged, sinnple, requiring minimum maintenance, and readily and 
easily transferable fromi one ship to another. 

d. The receiving hydrophone must be so designed as to permit 
reliable detection of shots as far as 100 nautical miles away. 

e. Receiving hydrophone frequency: 

(1) Range: to 10 kc s . 
(Z) Accessory Filters : 

(a) Filters to permit the selection of high frequency 
band (usually greater than 4 kcs.) for the resolution of thin-bedded 
strata. 



402 



(b) Filters to permit the selection of low frequency 
band (usually lower than 500 c.p. s. ) for maximum penetration of 
the sediments. 

f. Data Recording and Readout: 

(1) Data to be directly read into the Master Shipboard Data 
Logging and Processing System. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 20 to 40. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 10 to ZO. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 5 to 10. 

d. U. S. Geological Survey - 2 to 4 . 

e. Comimercial oil companies - Unknown- 
Total: 37 to 74. 

Recom mendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program : 

Instrument system priority b. 



II. g. UNDERWATER TELEVISION SYSTEM FOR SEA FLOOR 

INVESTIGATIONS 



Primary Use: 

To be utilized on oceanographic survey ships in coastal and 
oceanic areas to obtain continuous observations of and to investi- 
gate the sea floor topography. 



403 



Requirements and Specifications : 

a. To be operable in water depths of to 6, 500 fathoms, with 

the ship stopped ("lying-to") or underway at slow speeds (0 to 5 knots). 

b. The system must include a device for indicating the precise 
height of the camera above the sea floor. 

c. The design of this system must include a provision for "taping' 
all of its coverage for re-run at a later time. 

d. The camera carrying unit must contain, or have attached to it, 
an illuminating device which is capable of adequately lighting the 

TV picture field at all depths and which has a duration of at least 
two hours of sustained operations. 

e. There must be provision for remiote focus and lens control 
from shipboard. 

f. The camera carrying unit must be streamlined, rugged, com- 
pact, and capable of being handled readily and easily on board ship 
during operations. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require: 

a. U. S. Navy (basic research, applied research, and oceano- 
graphic survey ships) - 15 to 30. 

b. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - 5 to 15. 

c. Certain activities within scientific community - 5 to 15. 

d. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - 2 to 8. 

Total: 27 to 68. 

Recommendation Where Instrument Should Be Researched and 
Developed: 

U. S. Industry. 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanogr aphic Program: 

Instrument system priority 7. 

404 



APPENDIX F 

U. S. NAVY HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE REQUIREMENTS 

FOR 
OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENT SUIT FOR 
SHIPS OF OPPORTUNITY 

Primary Use : 

This is a special oceanographic "instrument suit" for 
utilization on certain "ships of opportunity" to collect much 
needed oceanographic data. These ships of opportunity include, but 
are not restricted to: (1) Certain U. S. Navy combatant fleet units 
such as aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, amphibious ships, 
mine sweepers, and submarines, (2) U. S. Navy Radar Picket 
Ships (YAGR's and DER's), (3) certain U. S. Navy auxiliary units 
(oilers, refrigerator ships, cargo ships, ice breakers), (4) units 
of Military Sea Transportation Service, (5) units of U. S. Merchant 
Marine, (6) U. S. Air Force Ocean Range Vessels, (7) larger 
units of U. S. Fishing Fleet. The installation and operation of 
this "instrument suit" on the above indicated platforms is pre- 
dicated on a not-to-interfer e basis with the ship's primary mission. 

Requiremients and Specifications: 

a. This "instrument suit" is primarily designed for utilization 
by ships "underway, " as during long transits between ports, ex- 
tended operations in certain geographic areas, and involving 
special operations related to the primary nnission of the ship. 

b. This "instrunnent suit" to perform reliably and accurately, 
with minimum maintenance, at ship's speeds of to 18 knots and 
in sea states through 5. 

c. This "instrument suit" to be so designed and constructed 
as to be capable of being installed and removed from one platfornn 
to another with minimum expenditure of time, effort, and money. 
In this connection, it should be compact, light weight, rugged, and 
reliable to withstand the severe treatment in shipment to, 
installation on, and removal from the various ship platforms. 

d. Components: 

(1) AN/UQN type of Sonic Sounding Set to record to 
6, 000 fathoms. 

405 



(2) Precision depth/graphic recorder for utilization with 
AN/UQN Sonic So\inding Set. 

(3) One electronic bathythermograph with associated winch- 
wire -boom -recorder /readout assembly. 

(4) An automatic recording sea-surface temperature probe. 

(5) A suitcase size meteorological instrument to record 
automatically key air -sea interface meteorological data, including 
total incident and reflected solar radiation. 

(6) Towed magnetometer with an all-weather capability. 

(7) An "interim" wave height measuring/recording device. 

In the design and fabrication of this "instrument suit, " consideration 
shall be given to two different applications: (1) installing all of the 
above in a small "van" for trans-shipment to and on-deck stowage 
on the particular ship, or (Z) integrating certain of the above 
components into already existing "instrument suits" of certain 
ships such as destroyers, etc. 

e. Accuracies and Range: 

(1) Sonic Sounding Set 

Range: to 6,000 fathoms 

Accuracy: As in present AN/UQN system 

(2) PDR/PGR 

Range: 400 fathom incremental presentation of to 

6, 000 fathom range 
Accuracy: 1 part per million (time) 

(3) Electronic Bathythermograph 

Range: (1) Depth: to 2, 500 feet 

(2) Temperature: -2 to 35° C. 
Accuracy: (1) Depth: ± 0. 25% of full range 
(2) Temperature: *0.1° C. 

(4) Sea Surface Temperature Recorder 

Range: -2 to 35° C. 
Accuracy: *0. 1° C. 

(5) Meteorological Suitcase - Type Package 

To be determined, but to include: (1) air-surface 
temperature, (2) barometric pressure, (3) relative humidity, 
(4) surface wind direction and speed, (5) total incident and re- 
flected solar radiation with following ranges and accuracies: 

Sensor 
Air— surface temperature Range: -40 to +70° C. 

Accuracy: ±0. 01° C. 

406 



Sensor 



Barometric pressure 



Relative humidity 



Range: 950 to 1, 050 millibar s 
Accuracy: * 0.1 millibar 

Range: to 100% 
Accuracy: ± 5% 



Surface wind: speed 

direction 



Range: to 200 knots 

to 360° 
Accuracy: ±0.5 knot 
±5° 



Radiation: incident 



reflected 



Range: to 40 Langleys /minute 
Accuracy: ± 5% overall range 
Range: to lOO (U. S. Weather 

Bureau special scale) 
Accuracy: ± 5% overall range 



(6) Magnetometer 

Range: 20, 000 to 100,000 gammas 
Accuracy: *0.0l gamma 

(7) Wave Meter 

Range: to 40 feet 
Accuracy: ±0.5 foot 

f. Modular construction should be used throughout the system 
to: (1) facilitate maintenance and repair, and (2) to permit special 
"tailor-made" assembling of sensors and recorders in order to 
augment the particular ship's existing instrumentation (such as in 
the case of fleet units which are already partially equipped). 

g. The recording of all data should be automatic insofar as 
possible. In addition, data readout and recording should be in such 
form that it can be a direct input into the archives of the National 
Oceanographic Data Center. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Navy - 25 to lOO 

b. U. S. Air Force Ocean Range Vessels - 4 to 8 

c. MSTS and U. S. Merchant Marine - 25 to 50 



407 



d. U. S Fishing Fleet - 2 to 5 

Total: 56 to l63 

Recommendation Where System Should Be Researched and Deve- 
loped: 

U. S. Industry 

Relative Importance to U. S. National Oceanographic Program: 

(1) Of intermediate imiportance and priority as related to the 
overall U. 5. National Oceanographic Program. 

(Z) Has a potential of increasing in importance as the National 
Oceanographic Program progresses, and it can be of valuable 
assistance to the Navy ASWEPS program. 



408 



APPENDIX G 

U. S. NAVY HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE REQUIREMENTS 

FOR 
SHIPBOARD OCEANOGRAPHIC SYNOPTIC SYSTEM FOR 
REGIONAL AND MOBILE OBSERVATIONAL NETWORKS 

(ASWEPS) 



Primary Use: 

This is a specialized oceanographic, synoptic, collecting- 
reporting instrument system; it is designed especially for the 
rapid collection and reporting by radio communications of key 
oceanographic data. It will be utilized by ocean station vessels, 
radar picket ships, and selected combatant fleet units. These 
three ship classes will be employed primarily as part of a regional 
observation network, and secondarily as part of a mobile network. 

Requirements and Specifications: 

1. For use onboard ocean station vessels, radar picket 
ships, and certain combatant fleet units, with the ship "lying-to" 
or underway at slow speeds (0 to 5 knots), and in sea states 

through 6. 

2. This system must include, but not necessarily be limited 
to, the following major components: 

a. Modular sensors 

b. Sensor housings 

c. Sensor electrical cable handling devices 

d. Monitoring and display consoles 

e. Accessory equipment to prepare the data for rapid, 
automatic, radio transmission 

3. The following sensors shall be included: 

Sensor 

Depth Range: to 2, 500 feet 

Accuracy: ±0.5% or better over full 
range 



409 



Sensor 

Temperature: Range: -2 to 35 C. 

Sea surface (See Accuracy: ^0.1° C. 

subparagraph 6 
below. ) 

Vertical profile Range: -2 to 35° C. 

Accuracy: ±0. 1° C. 

Sound velocity Range: 4, 500 to 5, 500 feet per second 

Accuracy: ±1.0 foot per second abso- 
lute at readout 

Conductivity (two Range: 10 to 40 millimhos per cm. 

interchangeable 30 to 60 millimhos 

modules) Accuracy: ± 0.01 millimho per cm. 

2 
* 0.01 millimho per cm. 

Spare sensor outlet (See subparagraph 5 below. ) 

4. Data Storage and Transmission: 

a. It is required that the data output from all sensors be 
recorded continuously and/or be sampled sequentially as sensors 
are lowered and raised. 

b. The following modes of data recording and display must 
be available: 

(1) Visual analog display on strip charts or X-Y 
recorders. 

(2) Continuous analog tape recording for subsequent 
reduction and analysis ashore. 

(3) Provision to permit the rapid radio transmission of 
the data collected to other fleet units at sea and/or to shore control 
centers. It is estimated that the reliable radio transmission range 
must be 2, 000 to 2, 500 miles. 

5. Spare sensor outlet: 

A further requirement of this system is that provision must 
be made for inclusion at a later date of at least one additional 



410 



sensor, which is yet to be determined. Cable handling devices, 
recorders, and transmission processing equipment all must allow 
for this contingency. 

6. Sea surface temperature sensor: 

This system must be capable of determining the water tem- 
perature immediately at the air-sea interface. 

7. General design criteria: 

a. Portability - This system must be so designed and con- 
structed as to pernnit rapid, economiical removal from one ship and 
relocation on another ship; need for such a transfer may arise, for 
example, when a ship comnnences yard overhaul. No drydock time 
shall be required to effect the relocation of this system. 

b. All-weather capability - It is required that this systemi 
be so designed, constructed, and installed as to permit satisfactory 
operation, without risk to operating personnel, in sea states through 
6 (wave heights to 20 feet).' 

c. A future requirement of this system will be, perhaps with 
certain modifications, that it be capable of operation aboard ships 
underway at speeds as high as 15 to 20 knots. 

d. Ship types - Inasmuch as it is planned that this system be 
installed principally on board ships, the following characteristics 
are considered representative of the smallest and largest ship 
types on which it is expected this system will be utilized: Displace- 
ment, 1, 200 tons to 4, 000 tons; length , 209 feet to 440 feet; beam , 

33 feet to 57 feet; draft , 15 feet to 27 feet; freeboard, 10 feet to 
30 feet. 

Potential Users and Estimated Number of Units Which They May 
Require : 

a. U. S. Coast Guard - 21 

b. U. 5. Navy - 45 

c. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries - Needs unknown 

d. U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey - Needs unknown 

e. Scientific Community - Needs unknown 

Total: 66 (approximately) 

411 



Recommendation Where System Should Be Researched and Deve- 
loped : 

U. S. Industry 

Relative Importance to Potential Users : 

a. U. S. Navy - Top priority for ASW purposes 

b. Other activities - Unknown 



412 



APPENDIX H 

REQUIRED INSTRUMENTS FOR FISHERIES RESEARCH 

by 

Dr. Julius Rockwell, Jr., and Fisheries Instrumentation 
Committee of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 

PREFACE 



The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries requires other instru- 
ments to meet its special needs in addition to those described in 
preceding appendices. The nature and purpose of descriptions, 
priorities, readouts for the National Oceanographic Data Center, 
modular construction, and additional general requirements as well 
as estimates of numbers required, have been covered in the preface' 
of appendix E (p. 349). 

The sensor modules (Section 1. 1100) represent the most vital 
and the least developed part of all systems. Existing telemetering 
devices may be adequate except for special applications. 

Two basic areas of instrumentation are covered: instruments 
or instrunnent systems for measuring and recording physical and 
chemical parameters, and those for sampling, collecting, or 
studying the biota. The list is not complete because in some areas 
the basic instrumentation problem of calibrating devices designed 
to collect quantitative biological samples has not been solved. 

The stated requirements of instruments to collect biological 
samples imply, in general, improvements and refinements of 
existing techniques rather than the development of entirely new 
approaches. For example, in Sections 1.3200 and 1.3300, sam- 
pling devices which consist of plankton or nekton nets, instrumenta- 
tion is intended to accomnnodate existing nets. While it is desirable 
to construct new collecting devices, the basic information of how 
animals react to them is lacking. The purpose of these devices is, 
in general, to obtain a quantitative estimate of living creatures and 
plants per unit volume of the water body. Research in this area is 
virgently needed before better collecting devices can even be 
suggested. Also, there is an equal need for an understanding of 

413 



the hydrodynamics of existing sampling devices. 

More than one modular form has been described for sensing a 
given characteristic of the water. The basis of separation has been 
use. It would be desirable if several of these could be combined at 
no extra cost. If a decided cost advantage would result by dividing 
the range of capability of a module still further, the Bureau should 
be consulted. 

It may be desirable from the manufacturer's standpoint to com- 
bine several sensors into one module -- such as the dissolved gas 
sensors (Section 1. 1160). It will not be mandatory to use separate 
modules for each sensor providing it can be demonstrated to be to 
the Bureau's advantage to combine them. 

The effect of one environmental factor on the sensor of another 
can be significant. The effect of depth is the most pronounced since 
it may subtly affect the operation of the electronic components, as 
well as the sensing element. (See pages 32-35.) In general, sensors 
should be self-compensating. 

It is suggested that a manufacturer having a capability for making 
a product very similar to one that appears on the list contact the 
Bureau to determine a group with which he can work, and the extent 
and nature of support he can expect without impairing his right to 
patent. 

The Bureau buys what is available and makes what is not availa- 
ble and will work with Industry to build a more serviceable instru- 
ment. 

The following general requiremients are applicable to most of 
these instruments and instrument systems. They must: 

1. Operate in severe environments, particularly ones of high 
humidity and salt corrosion and withstand storage tempera- 
tures of from -Z5 to 60° C. ; 

2. Resist vibration and shock; 

3. Have high reliability and long life; 

4. Provide for accurate calibration on board ship; 



414 



5. Be simple to operate and be easy to maintain; 

6. Be compact and portable; and, 

7. Meet requirements of NODC. 

The general number of items required by the Bureau is indicated 
subject to the availability of funds and tolerable costs. These figures 
do not include those that may be required by state and international 
agencies or by commercial fishing enterprises. 



415 



No. Category Page 

0000 FIELD EQUIPMENT 423-38 

SYSTEM COMPONENTS 423-28 

SENSOR MODULES 423-26 

TEMPERATURE 423 

SALINITY 423 

PRESSURE (DEPTH) 423 

DENSITY 423 

pH 423-24 

DISSOLVED GASES 424 

OXYGEN (O2) 424 

CARBON DIOXIDE (CO^). . . . 424 

HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H^S). . , 424 

NITROGEN (N^) 424 

LIGHT 424-25 

INCIDENT VISIBLE IRRADIANCE.425 

AMBIENT IRRADIANCE 425 

BEAM TRANSMISSION 425 

CURRENT 425-26 

COMMUNICATION MODULES. . . . 426-28 

DATA TELEMETERING 426 

CABLES 426 

BUOY LOCATION 

TRANSPONDER 426-27 

417 



1000 


1100 


1110 


1120 


1130 


1140 


1150 


1160 


1161 


1162 


1163 


1164 


1170 


1171 


1172 


1173 


1180 


1200 


1210 


1220 


1230 



No. 
1. 1231 

1, 1232 





2000 




2100 




2110 




2200 




2210 




2300 




2310 




2320 




2330 




3000 




3100 




3110 




3200 




3210 



1.3220 



Category Page 

BUOY OR INSTRUMENT 
CAPSULE- MOUNT ED 
TRANSCEIVER MODULES. . . 427 

SHIPBOARD OR AIRBORNE 
INTERROGATION MODULE- 427-28 

VEHICLES 428-30 

TOWED VEHICLES 428-29 

PARAMETER FOLLOWING 
DEVICE 428-29 

TETHERED VEHICLES 429 

SELF-PROPELLED ROBOT 
VEHICLE 429 

FREE VEHICLES 429-30 

LARGE SUBMERSIBLE. . .429-30 

SMALL, MANNED, PRESSURE 
RESISTANT VEHICLE 430 

DRONE 430 

SAMPLING DEVICES 430-32 

WATER 430 

MICRO WATER-SAMPLER. . . 430 

PLANKTON. 430-31 

LOW SPEED PLANKTON 
SAMPLER FRAME 430-31 

HIGH SPEED PLANKTON 
SAMPLER FRAME 431 



418 



No. Category Page 

1.3300 NEKTON 431-32 

1.3310 HIGH SPEED NEKTON NET. .431-32 

1.4000 BIOTA OBSERVATION 432-33 

1.4100 ECHO RANGING DEVICES 432 

1.4110 FISH DETECTOR - SHIP- 
BOARD MOUNTED 432 

1.4120 FISH DETECTOR - GE^R 

MOUNTED 432 

1.4130 WHALE DETECTOR - 

TETHERED 432 

1.4200 WEIGHING DEVICES 432 

1.4210 SHIPBOARD WEIGHING 

MACHINE 432 

1.4300 SPECIAL TELEVISUAL DEVICES. 432-33 

1.4310 FISHERIES RESEARCH 

UNDERWATER TELEVISION. . . 433 

1.5000 SYSTEMS 433-37 

1.5100 OCEANIC BUOY SYSTEMS. . . . 433-34 

1.5110 BUOY SYSTEM 433-34 

1.5200 FIXED MONITORING SYSTEMS. . . .434 

1.5210 FIXED MONITORING SYSTEM 

FOR SHALLOW WATER 434 

1.5300 FISH COUNTING 434 

1.5310 FISH CENSUS DEVICE 434 



419 



No. Category Page 

1. 5400 TAGS AND TAGGING 

EQUIPMENT 434-35 

1. 5410 MICRO- MINIATURE SONIC OR 

OTHER TAGS 434-35 

1.5420 ENVIRONMENT MEASURING 

TAGS 435 

UNDERWATER FISH TAGGER. . . 435 

FURSEAL TAGGER AND TAGS. . . 435 

AUTOMATIC CHEMICAL ANALYSER. . 435 

EXPENDABLE SYSTEMS 435 

BATHYTHERMOGRAPH 435 

THERMOGRAPHS 435 

TELEMETERING SYSTEM 436 

THERMISTOR CHAIN 436 

CURRENT METER 437 

FISHING GEAR 437-38 

TRAWLS 437-38 

INSTRUMENTS FOR GEAR 
PERFORMANCE STUDIES. . . . 437-38 

LABORATORY EQUIPMENT 438-39 

PLANKTON ANALYSIS 438 

PLANKTON SEPARATOR AND 
COUNTER 438 



420 





5430 




5440 




5500 




5600 




5610 




5620 




5700 




5800 




.5900 




.6000 




.6100 




.6110 


2, 


.0000 


2 


. 1000 


2 


. 1100 



2.1200 EGG SEPARATOR AND COUNTER. . .438 

2. 1300 SEDIMENT PARTICLE SIZE 

ANALYSER 438 

2. 1400 SORTING DEVICE FOR BENTHIC 

ORGANISMS 438 

2.2000 MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS 438-39 

2.2100 ANNUAL RING RECORDER 439 

2.2200 AUTOMATIC FISH MEASURING 

MACHINE 439 



421 



1.0000 FIELD EQUIPMENT Numbers 

- required 

1. 1000 SYSTEM COMPONENTS (Seep. 415.) 

1. 1100 SENSOR MODULES 

1. 1110 Temperature (3 modules). 
Range and accuracy: 

(1) -2° to 45° C. ±0. 1° C. at depths 

to 500 m (47) 

(Z) -2° to 35° C. ±0.01° C. at depths 

to 500 m (554) 

(3) -2° to 35° C. ±0.01° C. at depths 

to 12, 000 m (121) 

Response: 95% in 0.5 second. 

1. 1120 Salinity (3 modules). 

Range and accuracy: 

(1) to 45%o ±0. 2%o at depths to 500 m. .• . .(46) 

(2) 25 to 40%o ±0. 01%o at depths to 500 m. . (537) 

(3) 25 to 40%o ±0. 01%o at depths to 12, 000 m.(120) 
Response: 95% in 0.5 second including flushing time. 
Temperature compensation: -2 to 45 C. 

1.1130 Pressure (depth) (4 modules). 
Range and accuracy: 

(1) to 50m. ±0.25% (25) 

(2) to 500 m. ±0.5% (542) 

(3) to 2, 500 m. ±0.5% (125) 

(4) to 12,000 m. ±0.5% (56) 

Response: 95% in 1 second. 

Temperature compensation: -2 to 35 C. 

1. 1140 Density (2 modules) (In situ directly as opposed to compu- 
tation from temperature, salinity, and pressure). 
Range and accuracy: 

(1) 0.9800 to 1.0320 g. /cm. -^ ±0.0001 at 

depths to 500 m (48) 

(2) 1.0200 to 1.0400 g. /cm. ^ ±0.00002 at 

depths to 2, 500 m (112) 

Operating environment: -2 to 35 C. 

1. 1150 pH (2 modules). 

Range and accuracy: 

423 



(1) to 8 pH units ±0.03 at depths to 500 m. . (29) 

(2) 6 to 14 pH units ±0.03 at depths to 

500 m. (56) 

Response: 95% in 1 second including flushing time. 
Operating environment: -2 to 45 C. ; Salinity 
to 45%o- 

1 / 
1.1160 Dissolved Gases— 

1. 1161 Oxygen (3 nnodules). 

Range and accuracy: 

(l)0tol5ml./l. ±0.02at depths to 50 m. . (47) 

(2) to 10 ml. /I. ±0.02 at depths to 500 m. , (535) 

(3) to 10 ml. /I. ±0.02 at depths to 

2, 500 m (118) 

Response: 95% in 1 second including flushing time. 
Operating environment: -2 to 45 C. ; Salinity to 
45%o. 

1.1162 Carbon Dioxide (44) 

Range and accuracy: 

to 4 ml. /I. ±0. 01 at depths to 500 m. 
Response: 95% in 1 second including flushing time. 
Operating environment: -2 to 45° C. ; Salinity to 



45% 



'00. 



1.1163 Hydrogen Sulfide (19) 

Range and accuracy: 

to 5 ml. /I. ±0. 5 at depths to 500 m. 
Response: 95% in 1 second including flushing time. 
Operating environment: -2 to 45° C. ; Salinity to 



45% 



'00. 

1.1164 Nitrogen (17) 

Range and accuracy: 

to 5 ml. /I. ±0. 02 at depths to 500 m. 

Response: 95% in 1 second including flushing time. 

o o 

Operating environment: -2 to 45 C. ; Salinity to 

45%o. 
1 . 11 70 Light. 



1/ Two or more may be combined in one module if economically 
desirable. 

424 



1. 1171 Incident visible irradiance (to monitor ambient 

visible irradiance at surface during submarine irra- 
diance measurements) (62) 

Range and accuracy: 

to 1 g. cal. /cm. ^/min. ±0.1% (for visible light 
only) 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Remote controlled filter -changing mechanism. 

(2) Equipped with a cosine collector. 

(3) Gimbal-mounted. 

Operating environment: Exposed marine atmosphere, 
tropical to polar. 

1. 1172 Ambient irradiance (to measure visible irradiance in 

situ at depth) (73) 

Range and accuracy: 

0.001 to l.lg. cai./cm. /min. ±2% at depths 

to 500 m. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Detectors shall be provided with cosine collec- 
tors and be capable of being oriented in any 
direction. 

(2) Provision in some designs to measure the 
spectral distribution of light. 

Operating environment: -2° to 45 C. 

1. 1173 Beam Transmission (to measure the absorption and 

scattering of light in water). (207) 

Range and accuracy: 

to 100%/m. ±0.05% at all wave lengths. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Capable of employing a variety of interference- 
type filters which may be changed while sub- 
merged. 

(2) Capable of operation in full sunlight. 

(3) Design to provide adequate flushing when in 
motion. 

(4) Can be towed up to 15 knots. 

(5) Path lengths adjustable (a) 5 to 50 cm. 
(b) 50 to 200 cm. 

1. 1180 Current (2 modules). 

Range and accuracy: 

425 



(1) to 4. m. /sec. ±0. 1 at depths of to 500 

m (131) 

(2)0tol.0m./sec. ±0.03at depths to 

2, 500 m (38) 

Direction: Accurate to ±5 . 
Operating environment: -2 to 45 C. 

1.1200 COMMUNICATION MODULES. 

1. 1210 Data Telemetering Module. (96) 

Purpose: To accept the output from up to six standard 
data sensors and transmit this information to the 
surface monitoring and recording unit. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Operating environment: 

(a) Temperature: -2 to 50 C. 

(b) Depth: Maximum of 12,000 m. 

(c) Cable length: Maximum of 18,000 m. 

(2) The total underwater system including the sensors 
shall not require more than one 3-conductor cable 
excluding the strength member. This cable shall 
supply the required power. 

(3) The total system may have up to 20 telemetering 
modules on one cable. 

1. 1220 Cables (A family of improved steel cables which contain 

electrical conductors) (76,000 m.) 

Purpose: To serve as towing, trawling, and support 

cables for research survey and commercial fishing gear 
and to serve as electrical conductors for instruments 
and equipment. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Must be compatible with anticipated uses in tele- 
metry, television, control, lighting, fish shocking, 
and power supply. 

(2) Must be able to withstand severe conditions of 
pressure, temperature, tension, torsion, shock, 
chafing, abrasion, vibration, and repeated bending 
over small radius sheaves. 

(3) Must have life expectancy greater than presently 
available cable. 

1. 1230 Buoy Location Transponder. 

426 



Purpose: 

(1) For position fixing in making oceanographic 
measurements. 

(2) For locating free floating or anchored buoys, 
instrument capsules, and nets. 

1. 1231 Buoy or Instrument Capsule-mounted Transceiver 

Module (135) 

Specifications and requirements: 

(1) The unit shall transmit a coded identification 
signal whenever it is activated by a coded inter- 
rogation signal. 

(2) The unit shall not respond to any signal that does 
not contain its own particular code. 

(3) The transmitter shall turn itself off when trans- 
mission is completed. Duration of transmission 
shall be no longer than required by the interroga- 
tor for obtaining its bearing. 

(4) It shall be possible to change the code by replac- 
ing a plug-in unit within the module. 

(5) The range shall be at least 50 miles when used 
with the shipboard or airborne interrogator. 

(6) The module shall contain internal batteries or 
other power supply sufficient for at least 30 days 
of continuous receiver and intermittent trans- 
mitter operation. Provision shall be available to 
increase life of power supply to at least 6 months. 
No maintenance shall be required during this 
period. 

(7) Only nonspillable or dry batteries shall be used. 

(8) The module shall be capable of normal operation 
without maintenance after being submerged to a 
maximum depth of 2, 500 meters for at least 30 
days. 

(9) The module shall operate reliably over the tem- 
perature range of -25° to 50° C. 

(10) The maximum weight of the module complete 

with antenna and internal power source shall not 
exceed 40 pounds, exclusive of pressure case, if 
any. 

1. 1232 Shipboard or Airborne Interrogation Module. • • (25) 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) This module shall allow the operator to interro- 

427 



gate selectively, identify, and determine the bear- 
ing of each buoy or capsule-mounted module. 

(Z) It shall operate from internal, non-spillable, re- 
chargeable batteries. 

(3) It shall operate reliably over a temperature range 



of -25° to 50° C. 



(4) Maxinnum weight including batteries shall not 
exceed 30 pounds. 



1.2000 VEHICLES. 



1.2100 TOWED VEHICLES. 

1.2110 Parameter Following Device (three models for 3 depth 
ranges) . 

Purpose: To provide a vehicle that will follow constant 
value of a given parameter, and carry special sensor 
modules and other equipment. 
Specifications ^nd requirements: 

This device is to be used on an electrically conducting 
cable and will be towed from a vessel at speeds up to 
15 knots. 

(1) Depth: 

(a) to 50 m. (8) 

(b) to 500 m (27) 

(c) to 2, 500 m (16) 

(2) The device shall contain any or all of the standard 
or special sensor nnodules. Continuous surface 
monitoring of the outputs of these modules is re- 
quired. 

(3) The parameter being followed shall be selectable 
from the surface. It shall also be possible to vary 
the level of the parameter being followed within the 
full range of the respective sensor module, pro- 
viding the depth capability is not exceeded. 

For example, the device shall be capable of 
following one tennperature level and upon command 
from the sxirface proceed directly to any other 
temperature level that the operator selects. It shall 
then follow this new level. If the operator desires 
to stop following the tennperature level, he may by 
turning a switch command the device to follow any 
other parameter for which there is a sensor 
module. Similarly, the level of the new parameter 

428 



being followed shall be continuously variable 
from the surface. 

(4) Accuracy in following any level of any parameter 
shall be limited only by the accuracy of the stan- 
dard sensor modules and the response time of the 
entire system. 

(5) Utility of the system is directly dependent upon 
fast vehicle response time. 

(6) The device shall position itself by controllable 
vanes or fins and/or by a winch aboard ship. 

(7) Provision shall be made for the attachment of 
detection, observation, and sampling devices. 
The effect of these attachments upon the guidance 
or positioning system should not imipair the 
unit's ready response to variables. 

1.2200 TETHERED VEHICLES. 

1.2210 Self-Propelled Robot Vehicle (5) 

Purpose: To operate from ships of opportunity to carry 
sensing elements for vertical profiles while the ship 
is underway without necessity for special installation 
of heavy winch and boom on board. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Must have a streamlined body which can be towed 
(or powered through cable) astern of ship travel- 
ing at speeds 15 to 20 knots for distanc"fes up to 

4, 000 miles. By guidance system and with power 
supplied through cable, vehicle could be made to 
dive without heavy strain on cable, or to move 
forward of ship and sink to depth requir'ed as 
ship passed over. It miight also be operated con- 
tinuously at constant or varying depth below ship 
throughout trip. 

(2) It miust be capable of operation from surface to 
depths of 300 m. 

1.2300 FREE VEHICLES. 

1.2310 Large Submersible Research Vessel (4) 

An oceanographic research vessel capable of independent 
operation from the surface to at least 300 meters for 
observing the behavior of organisms in relation to their 



429 



environment. For this purpose we envision a boat of 
approximately 40 meters, with an Albacore -type hull, 
a sail, a subnnerged speed of 20 knots, and capable of 
dives of at least 8 to 10 hours at full speed for a large 
part of the diving time. The ability to operate more or 
less continuously underwater would greatly increase 
the usefulness of such a vessel. It would have viewing 
ports, water and plankton sampling devices, television, 
several kinds of acoustical gear, a suit of modular 
sensors with readouts onboard, and remote manipu- 
lators. A converted Navy submarine would not be suita- 
ble. 

1.23Z0 Small, Manned, Pressure Resistant Vehicle. .... (10) 
There is also need for a much smaller vehicle for two 
or three men, which could operate from a mother ship. 

1.2330 Drone (8) 

An instrumented surface or subsurface vessel which 
could either be programmed to a search pattern or 
commanded from a mother ship or shore, to operate 
at depths of up to 500 m. 

1. 3000 SAMPLING DEVICES . 

1. 3100 WATER. 

1.3110 Micro Water -sampler (26) 

Purpose: A device for obtaining a small water sample 

from a thin stratum. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Capacity: 10 to 50 ml. 

(2) Filling time less than 10 sec. 

(3) Must sample a stratum of 2 cm. or less without 
drawing in water from strata above or below that 
being sampled. , 

(4) Positioning of this sampler above the bottom to 
within ±2 cm. is necessary. 

1.3200 PLANKTON. 

1.3210 Low Speed Plankton Sampler Frame (75) 

Purpose: To provide opening and closing capability and 
environment sensor carriage for standard 1 -meter, 
1/2-meter, and other conventional plankton nets. 

430 



Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Contain a mechanism which will open and close 
net on command. 

(2) Permit installation of conventional flowmeter. 

(3) Permit simultaneous use at intervals along the 
towing wire. 

(4) Opening and closing of nets, when more than 
one net is used in series, should be simultan- 
eous to within ±1 min. per 100 m. of towing 
cable length. 

(5) The opening and closing events on each net shall 
be automatically recorded. 

(6) The opening-closing commands may be given 
either from the vessel and/or by preprogramming. 

(7) Operate down to 2, 500 m. and from 1/2 to 3 
knots. 

1.3220 High Speed Plankton Sampler Frame (75) 

Purpose: To collect at high speed a quantitative plank- 
ton and larval sample at a specified depth and to 
measure the environmental parameters encountered. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Net to open and close on signal fronn ship. 

(2) Mouth openings of from 2 to 20 cm. diameter to 
be provided either adjustably or interchangeably 
before tow. 

(3) To accept all or any of the environmental para- 
meter sensors. 

(4) To measure volume of water filtered to within 

±5%. 

(5) So constructed to permit simultaneous use at 
intervals along towing wire. 

(6) To operate down to 500 m. and from 5 to 15 
knots. 

1.3300 NEKTON 

1.3310 High Speed Nekton Net (50) 

Purpose: To improve present designs of collecting 

nets which will quantitatively sample nekton. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Range: to 500 m. 

(2) To fish at desired depth controllable to within 

3 m. 



431 



(3) Operating speeds 5 to 18 knots desired. 

(4) Include standard sensing modules. 

(5) Include a water meter device. 

1.4000 BIOTA OBSERVATION . 

1.4100 ECHO RANGING DEVICES. 

I. 4110 Fish Detector - Shipboard Mounted (37) 

Purpose: To detect schools and individual fishes at greater 
ranges than presently attainable and permit determina- 
tion of size and species of individual fishes and abun- 
dance. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Manual and automatically trained transducers. 
(Z) Transducer stabilized for roll of ship. 

(3) 360° transducer with PPI scope and chart recorder. 

(4) Range: to 100 m. , to 1, 000 m. , to maximum. 

(5) Spectrum) analyser circuit for target evaluation. 

1.4120 Fish Detector - Gear Mounted (26) 

Purpose: To determine the catching efficiency of fishing 

gear, particular ly trawls. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Remote recording via conducting cable. 

(2) Automatic 360 scanning normial to axis of trawl. 

(3) Range: to 100 m. 

(4) Operating depth: to 500 m. 

1.4130 Whale Detector - Tethered (1) 

Purpose: To count migrating gray whales. 

1.4200 WEIGHING DEVICES. 

1.4210 Shipboard Weighing Machine (4 modules). 

An accurate, rapid weighing machine for use on shipboard 
to weigh objects of the following groupings: 

(1) to 50 g (25) 

(2) to 500 g (22) 

(3) to 5 kg (17) 

(4) to 50 kg. , all within ±1% with printed and 
punched tape readout (16) 

1.4300 SPECIAL TELEVISUAL DEVICES 

432 



1.4310 Fisheries Research Underwater Television. (1) 

Purpose: To provide positive visual information regarding 
behavior of fishes, environmental conditions, reaction 
of fish to fishing and sampling gear, performance of 
fishing and samipling gear unrestricted by seasonal, 
light, turbidity, or weather conditions. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Miniaturized camera and monitoring unit. 
(Z) Depth range: 

(a) to 500 m. 

(b) to 2, 500 m. 

(c) to 12, 000 m. 

(3) Remote focus, iris, and scanning controls. 

(4) Electronic visible or infrared lighting system with 
intensity, interruption, frequency, and on-off 
duration controls. 

(5) Independently battery powered for 24-hour period. 

(6) Fitted with device to allow camera to travel along 
track line attached to moving and stationary fishing 
gear, sampling gear, or seabed. 

(7) Adaptable to separate electrical or combination 
electrical-towing cable. 

1. 5000 SYSTEMS. 



1.5100 OCEANIC BUOY SYSTEMS. 

1.5110 Buoy System (Continuous or intermittent recording for 

storage and/or transmission upon interrogation) . • • (119) 
Purpose: To provide for the collection, recording, stor- 
age, and/or transmission of important meteorological 
and oceanographic data utilizing moored buoys. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) For anchoring in depths of 10 to 12, 000 m. 

(2) Designed to operate unattended for 1 to 6 months. 

(3) Designed to transmit data to a shore station upon 
interrogation to 3,000 (nautical) miles away or 
upon interrogation by ships or airplanes to 100 
(nautical) miles away. 

(4) Subsurface sensors located at a maximum of 20 
different levels down to 500 m. 

(5) 3 to 6 different standard sensor modules at each 
level. 

(6) Sensors on or above the buoys to measure sea 

433 



surface temperature, air temperature, barometric 
pressure, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, in- 
cident radiation, and reflected radiation. (Sensors 
for the latter two parameters must provide data 
which meet specifications of the U. S. Weather 
Bureau. ) 
(7) Output must be compatible with automatic data pro- 
cessing (NODC). 

1.5Z00 FIXED MONITORING SYSTEMS. 

1.5210 Fixed Monitoring System (shallow waters) (continuous or 

intermittent recording for storage and/or transmission upon 

interrogation) (135) 

Purpose: To provide for the collection, recording, storage, 
and/or transmission of meteorological and oceanographic 
data. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) For use in depths from to 10 m. 

(2) Designed to operate unattended from 24 hours to 1 
month. 

(3) Designed for continuous or intermittent recording 
and storage of data. (Transmission of data upon 
interrogation over distances of 100 miles would be 
optional. ) 

(4) Subsurface and surface sensors should meet the 
same requirements as for buoy system (Item 1.5110). 

(5) Output must be comipatible with automatic data 
processing (NODC). 

1.5300 FISH COUNTING. 

1 • 5310 Fish Census Device. (23) 

A television camera or a photographic camera positioned 
forward of the codeijd of a trawl to observe the fish that 
pass through the net and an electric shocker at the mouth 
of the net to insure that each fish would pass through as it 
was overtaken. 

1. 5400 TAGS AND TAGGING EQUIPMENT 

1.5410 Micro-miniature Sonic or Other Tags (for monitoring 

movements aquatic animals (7,013) 

Purpose: To study the migration, spawning habits, distri- 

434 



bution, and behavior of animals, such as tuna, men- 
haden, salmon, herring, sardines, shrimp, seals, and 
sea lion. 
Specifications and requiremients; 

(1) Small lightweight tags with minimum drag. 

(2) Tags to be a self-contained, acoustic transducer 
having a detection range of 2 km. and a life of 10 
to 30 days. (Present tags are too large, and lack 
longevity. ) 

1.5420 Environment Measuring Tags (17,502) 

To register minimia or maxima characteristics of envir- 
onment, such as depth and temperature. 

1.5430 Underwater Fish Tagger (10) 

A system that would permit television observation of fish 
in a trawl and which would shoot a single dart tag into 
the fish in target position when triggered from the ship. 

1.5440 Fur Seal Tagge r and Tags (1) 

A tagging device and suitable tag for fur seal studies. 
Such would inject a numbered and sealed radioactive slug 
coated with a biological marker (perhaps tetracycline) sub- 
cutaneously. It should be a magazine or hopper fed, gas 
operated, hand held, highly portable, gun-type instrument 
delivering a visually coded cylindrical slug approximately 
2. 5 by 17 mnn. 

1.5500 AUTOMATIC CHEMICAL ANALYSER (24) 

Purpose: To provide an automatic system for chemical 
analysis of sea water aboard research vessels. (Such 
systems exist for laboratory use for other purposes, 
but none have been developed to analyse sea water sam- 
ples at sea. ) 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Automatic system to analyse and readout results. 

(2) Provide quantitative analysis of the following: 
Inorganic phosphate, total phosphorus, oxygen, 
nitrite, nitrate, silicate, particulate iron, and 
certain vitamins. 

(3) Accuracy: to customary laboratory accuracy. 

1.5600 EXPENDABLE SYSTEMS. 



435 



1.5610 Bathythermograph. (18,014 

expendable units) 

Purpose: A ship and/or airborne system is needed for 

nnaking temperature-depth, and possibly other measure- 
ments while underway at high speeds utilizing expenda- 
ble sensing units. 

Possible method: Drop over side of ship a sensing vehicle 
with buoyed radio-telemetry unit which would remain 
on surface. After short interval, vehicle would sink at 
suitable rate through water sending information fronn 
depth and temperature sensor to telemetering buoy 
through gradually uncoiled wire or by sonic means. Sig- 
nals from buoy would be received and recorded by sys- 
tem aboard ship or aircraft. Entire expendable unit 
would sink after pre-determined time. (System would be 
analogous to radiosounde for atmospheric data.) 

Range and accuracy: 

(1) Temperature: -Z° to 35° C. ±0.1°. 

(2) Depth: to 300 m. ±1. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Sinking rate: 1 mi. /sec. ±0. Z. 

(Z) Response time of sensors: 95% in 1 second. 

(3) Range of radio transmiission: 5 miles. 
Cost of expendable units: Not to exceed $30. 

1.5620 Thermographs. (316) 

Purpose: There are several different types of thermographs 
available but there is a need for one which is quite 
small, light, and above all, inexpensive. 
Range and accuracy: -2 to 30 C. 0.5. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Duration: 200 to 400 days. 

(2) Depth: to 400 m. 

(If these units could be produced for less than $100 each, 
preferably less than $50, they could be thrown over- 
board on the fishing banks relying on fishermen to re- 
trieve them for a suitable reward as with tagged fish.) 

1.5700 TELEMETERING SYSTEM (20) 

Develop a telemetering system which does not require an 
insulated cable. Multiplexing on the uninsulated trawl 
wire or improved sonic modulation might be investigated. 



436 



1.5800 THERMISTOR CPiAIN (cheaper and lighter than existing 

models) (12) 

Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Depth: to 200 m. 

(2) Operable to 15 knots. 

(3) Standard depth sensing module at end of chain. 

(4) Readout same as existing model. 

(5) Range and accuracy: -2° to 35° C. ±0.02°. 

1.5900 CURRENT METER (47) 

Purpose: To measure from shipboard, anchored buoy, or 

bottom mount the velocity of low currents. 
Range and accuracy: 

(1) Speed: to 30 cm, /sec. ±1. 

(2) Direction accurate to ±5 . 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Two types: 

(a) Self-contained data storage. 

(b) Telemetering. 

(2) For use singly or attached in series on a cable. 

(3) Depth: To 12, 000 m. 

(4) Temperature: -2° to 45° C 

1.6000 FISHING GEAR. 
1.6100 TRAWLS. 

1. 61 10 Instruments for Gear Performance Studies . 

Purpose: To provide foundation for analysis leading to 

design of most effective capturing devices. 
Instruments to measure: 

(1) Strain on netting and lines (immediate commercial 
application). (21) 

(2) Vertical and horizontal net openings (21) 

(3) For hydrofoil and conventional trawl-door stu- 
dies: angle of attack, angle of inclination, drag, 
and separation distance (lift) (19) 

(4) Water velocity at the trawl (21) 

(5) Speed over bottom (21) 

(6) Total distance traveled (20) 

(7) Distance between points on trawl (20) 

Specifications and requirements: 

(1) Instantaneous readout on shipboard through use of 

437 



trawl cables containing electrical conductors. 

(2) Usable to depth of 2, 500 meters. 

(3) Should be resistant to extreme shock and vibration. 

(4) Temperature range: -24 to 50 C. on deck and -2 
to 35° C. when in use. 

(5) Limits of measurements: 

(a) Angles: to 45° and to 90°. 

(b) Distance between points: to 100 and to 200 m. 

(c) Speeds: 0-5, 0-10, and - 15 knots. 

(d) Tension: to 3 kg. , to 25 kg. , to 250 kg. , 
and to 1,000 kg. 



2.0000 LABORATORY EQUIPMENT. 



2. 1000 PLANKTON ANALYSIS. 



2.1100 PLANKTON SEPARATOR AND COUNTER (21) 

Purpose: A device to separate and count a sample of 

living and/or dead plankton organisms on the basis of 
size, density, and shape. 

2.1200 EGG SEPARATOR AND COUNTER (16) 

Purpose: To enumerate on the basis of size the abundance 
of living and/or dead eggs of vertebrate or inverte- 
brate animals in fresh or salt water samples. 
Specifications and requirements: 

(1) To accommodate a variety of egg sizes and shapes 
ranging in size from 0. 1 to 10 mm. in maximum 
dimension. 

(2) Capable of use on shipboard. 

2.1300 SEDIMENT PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSER (13) 

Manufacture a device to analyse the sediment sample 
according to particle size distribution. (A prototype has 
been developed by Dr. T. J. Van Andle of Scripps Insti- 
tution of Oceanography.) 

2.1400 SORTING DEVICE FOR BENTHIC ORGANISMS (15) 

A device that could be used aboard a vessel for sorting 
bottom organisms from sediments. This device might 
incorporate an electrical current or high density fluids. 

2.2000 MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS . 
438 



2.2100 ANNUAL RING RECORDER (6) 

Mollusk studies often require that large numbers of shells 
be read to locate annual rings and their distance from some 
reference point recorded. There is a need for a device 
which will be positioned by an operator but the distances 
will be automatically digitized and punched on cards. 

2. 2200 AUTOMATIC FISH MEASURING MACHINE (43) 

A device that would receive fish from a hopper, weigh 
and measure each one and give data readout preferably 
on magnetic tape, and may take scale sample in identi- 
fiable sequence to correspond with measurement. 



439 



APPENDIX I 



OCEANOGRAPHIC BIBLIOGRAPHY 



The following bibliography consists of three parts: a list of books, a list of journals 
in which articles on oceanography appear, and a list of other bibliographies of oceanogra- 
phy. These lists are not complete, merely suggestive of what is available. Original 
articles on technical aspects may be found in the journals. References to others may be 
found in the reference list of the article of the journals and in many of the books. 



List of Books 



ALBERS, VERNON MARTIN. 

1960. Underwater acoustics handbook. 
Pennsylvania State University Press, 
University Park, Pennsylvania. 

290 pp. , illus. 

BARNES, H(arold). 
1959. Apparatus and methods of oceano- 
graphy. Part One: Chemical. Inter- 
science Publishers, New York. 341 pp. 
A book of techniques. 

1959. Oceanography and marine biology; 
a book of techniques. MacMillan Com- 
pany, New York. 218 pp., illus. 

Popular style for reading public to 
learn how knowledge of the sea is 
obtained. 

BASCOM, WILLARD. 

1961. A hole in the bottom of the sea; 
the story of the Mohole project. 
Illustrated by the author and Russell 
F. Peterson. Doubleday & Co., Inc., 
Garden City, New York. 352 pp. , illus. 

BIGELOW, HENRY B(ryant), and W. T. 
EDMONDSON. 
1947. Wind waves at sea, breakers and 
surf. U. S. Hydrographic Office Publi- 
cation 602. U. S. Government Printing 
Office. 177pp., illus., maps. 

BRUUN, ANTON F. (Editor). 
1956. The Galathea deep sea expedition 
(1950-1952). Translated from the Danish 
by Reginald Spink. George Allen and 
Unwin Ltd., London. MacMillan Company, 
New York. 296 pp., illus. $6.00. 
Narrative of expedition adventure, 
techniques of deep-sea research, and 
animal life found in the oceans. 



CARSON, RACHEL L(ouise). 
1961. The sea around us (revised 
edition with chapter on recent 
oceanographic research). Oxford 
University Press, New York. 
237 pp. , illus. 

A famous best seller concerning 
many of the basic questions and 
theories about the oceans. 

COKER, R(obert) E(rvin). 
1954. This great and wide sea 
(revised). The University of North 
Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North 
Carolina. 325 pp., illus. $6.00. 
General. 

COMMITTEE ON MERCHANT 
MARINE «< FISHERIES. 
1960. Oceanography hearings. 
Special Subcommittee on oceanogra- 
phy. House of Representatives, Eighty- 
Sixth Congress, Second Session on 
HR 9361, HR 104012, HR 12018 
held 17, 19, 20, 24, and 25 May, 
1960, Parts I and II. 217 pp. 

The testimony of authorities in the 
field of oceanography from govern- 
ment agencies and private institu- 
tions concerning the present status 
of oceanography in the government. 
The document also contains many 
penetrating questions and answers 
on the workings of the government 
agencies . 



441 



COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE & 
ASTRONAUTICS. 

1960. Ocean sciences and national 
security. Report of the Committee 
on Science 8i Astronautics, House of 
Representatives, Eighty-Sixth Con- 
gress, Second Session, Serial h, 
July 1, 1960. Union Calendar No. 
920, House Report No. 2078. 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 180 pp. 

A very comprehensive compilation 
of the present and future status of 
ocean sciences in the United States. 

COUSTEAU, CAPTAIN J(acques) Y(ves), 
and FREDERIC DUMAS (Assisted by 
James Dugan). 
1953. The silent world. Harper & 
Bros. , New York. 266 pp. , plates, 
col. plates. 

Popular narrative of daring exper- 
iences. 

COWEN, ROBERT C. 

1960. Frontiers of the sea; a story of 
oceanographic exploration. Introduction 
by Roger Revelle. Drawings by Mary 

S. Cowen. The Doubleday & Company, 
Inc., Garden City, New York. 307 pp. 
$4.95. 

DAVIS, CHARLES CARROLL. 
1955. The marine and fresh-water 
plankton. Michigan State University 
Press, East Lansing, Michigan. 
562 pp. , illus. , tables, maps. 

Technical with keys and b81 figs. , 
good for identification. 

DEFANT, ALBERT. 
1958. Ebb and flow; the tides of earth, 
air, and water. Tr. by A. J. Pomerans. 
The University of Michigan Press, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan. 121 pp., illus. 
$4.00, Ambassador, $5.50. 

A concise semi-popular volume 
discussing theories and nnechanisms 
of tides . 

1961. Physical oceanography. Volumes 
I & II. Pergamon Press, New York. 

1, 351 pp. , illus. , fold maps in pockets. 
$35. 00. 



DUNBAR, CARL O. 

1960. Historical geology (revised). 
John Wiley & Sons. 567 pp. 

EKMAN, SVEN. 
1953. Zoogeography of the sea. 
Translated from the Swedish by 
Elizabeth Palmer. Sidgwick & 
Jackson Ltd., London. 417 pp., 
illus . 

Technical for layman, but inter- 
esting to student. Organizes 
knowledge of distribution of marine 
animals into comprehensive animal 
geography. 

ENGEL, LEONARD, and Editors of 
Life, Time, Inc. 

1961. The sea. Time Incorporated, 
New York. 190 pp. $5.00 est. price. 

A popular style, well illustrated, 
brief coverage of many aspects. 

GAUL, ROY D. , DAVID D. KETCHUM, 
JACK T. SHAW, and JAMES M. 
SNODGRASS (Editors). 

1962. Marine sciences instrumenta- 
tion. Volume I. Plenom Press, 
New York. 354 pp. 

A collection of Instrumentation 
Papers presented at the Marine 
Sciences Conference held Septem- 
ber 11-15, 1961 at Woods Hole, 
Massachusetts. Sponsored by the 
Instrument Society of America and 
the American Society of Limnology 
and Oceanography and papers from 
the Marine Sciences Sessions of the 
1961 Instrument Society of America 
Synnposia held at Toronto and Los 
Angeles. 

GORSLINE, D. S. (Editor). 
1962. Proceedings of the First Nation- 
al Coastal and Shallow Water Research 
Conference. Sponsored by National 
Science Foundation and Office of Naval 
Research. 897 pp. , includes a biblio- 
graphy on marine biodeterioration 
(pp. 318-333), a directory of marine 
scientists, and papers from laboratories. 



442 



GUNTHER, KLAUS, and KURT DECKERT. 
1956. Creatures of the sea. Translated 
by E. W. Dickes. Charles Scribner's 
Sons, New York. 222 pp. , illus. 
A general popular review of man's 
knowledge of the deep sea and deep- 
sea organisms. 

HARDMAN, SIR WILLIAM A. 
1923. Founders of oceanography and 
their work; an introduction to the 
science of the sea. Edward Arnold 
& Company, London. 340 pp. , illus. 

HARDY, SIR ALISTER C(lavering). 

1956. The open sea; its natural his- 
tory: the world of plankton. Collins, 
London. 335 pp., illus., color illus., 
graphs, tables, maps. 

Semipopular . 

1959. The open sea; its natural his- 
tory: Part II. Fish and fisheries; 
with chapters on whales, turtles, 
and animals of the sea floor. Ibid. 
322 pp. , illus. , color illus. 

Popular style but full of scienti- 
fic facts and terminology. 

HARVEY, E. NEWTON. 
1952. Bioluminescense . Academic 
Press, Inc. , New York. 649 pp. , 
illus. 

Technical. 

HARVEY, H(ildebrande) W(olfe). 

1957. The chemistry and fertility of 
sea waters. The University Press, 
Cambridge, England. 234 pp., illus. 

HOUOT, GEORGES S. , and PIERRE 
HENRI WILLM. 
1955. 2, 000 fathoms deep. E. P. 
Dutton and Company, New York. 
192 pp. , map. 

An account of the F. N. R. N. S. 
II and F. N. R. S. III. data on the 
French bathyscaphes. 

INSTRUMENT SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 
1962. ISA transducer compendium. 
Plenum Press, 227 West 17th St. . 
New York 11, New York. 500 pp. 
$25.00. 

Detailed tabulations of transducer 
characteristics. Includes a chapter 
on Marine Sciences. 



INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE ON 
OCEANOGRAPHY. 
1961. Oceanographic ship operating 
schedules. Fiscal Year 1962. I. C. O. 
Publication #1, Room 1818, Bldg. 
T-3, 17th and Constitution Ave. , 
Washington 25, D. C. 21 pp. 

1961. National oceanographic program, 
Fiscal Year 1962. I. C. O. Publication 
#2, Room 1818, Bldg. T-3, 1 7th and 
Constitution Ave., Washington 25, 

D. C. 34 pp. 

1962. National oceanographic program, 
Fiscal Year 1963. I. C. O. Publication 
#3, Room 1818, Bldg. T-3, 1 7th and 
Constitution Ave. , Washington 25, 

D. C. 31 pp. 

1962. Oceanographic ship, operating 
schedules. Fiscal Year 1963. I. C. O. 
Publication #4, Room 1818, Bldg. T-3, 
17th and Constitution Ave. , Washing- 
ton 25, D. C. 31 pp. 

ISAACS, JOHN D. , and COLUMBUS 
O'D. ISELIN (Editors). 
1952. Oceanographic instrumentation. 
National Academy of Sciences - 
National Research Council. Publi- 
cation No. 309. 233 pp. 

Proceedings of a conference held 
at Rancho Santa Fe, California, 
21-23 June, 1952 under the 
sponsorship of the Office of 
Naval Research. 

JOHNSON, D(ouglas) W(ilson). 
1919. Shore processes and shoreline 
development. John Wiley & Sons, 
New York. 584 pp. , illus. , maps. 

JOHNSTON, JAMES, ANDREW SCOTT, 
and HERBERT C. CHADWICK. 
1924. The marine plankton. Introduc- 
tion by Sir William A. Herdman. 
University Press of Liverpool, 
Liverpool, England. 194 pp. , 
illus. , plates . 

The marine plankton, with spe- 
cial references to investigations 
made at Port Erin, Isle of Man, 
during 1907-14. 



443 



KUENEN, P(hiUp) H(enry). 
1950. Marine geology. John vViley 
& Sons, Inc., New York. 568 pp., 
charts, diagrams. 
Submarine geology. 

LATIL, PIERRE de, and JEAN 
RIVOIRE. 
1956. Man and the underwater world. 
Translated from the French by 
Edward Fitzgerald. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, New York. 400 pp., illus. 
Popular style, summarization of 
history of underwater exploration 
and development of means by which 
future exploration will be carried 
out. 

LOBECK, A(rmin) K(ohl). 
1939. Geomorphology, an introduc- 
tion to the study of landscapes. 
McGraw-Hill Company, New York. 
731 pp. , illus. , diagrams. 

MacGINITIE, GEORGE E. , and NETTIE 

MacGINITIE. 
1949. Natural history of "marine" 
animals. McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. 
New York. 473 pp., illus. 

Good general book covering ecology 
and all phyla of marine animals, 
including technical information. 

MARMER, H(arry) A. 
1926. The tide. D. Appleton & 
Company, New York. 282 pp., 
illus. 

Nontechnical style -- covers 
all aspects of tides. 

1930. The sea. D. Appleton & 
Company, New York. 312 pp. , 
illus. 

Popular description of oceans and 

oceanography. 

MARSHALL, NORMAN BERTRAM. 
1954. Aspects of deep sea biology. 
Hutchinson, London. 380 pp. , 
illus. by Olga Marshall, color illus. 
Technical -- mainly for biologists. 
General review of deep sea envi- 
ronment, food chains, organisms. 



MAXWELL, A. E. 

1957. The bathyscaph -- a deep 
water oceanographic vessel. A 
report on the 1957 scientific investi- 
gations with the bathyscaph, Trieste. 
U. S. Navy Jour. Underwater 
Acoustics, vol. 8, no. 2, April 
1958, p. 149-154. 

MINER, RAY WALDO. 
1950. Field book for seashore life. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. 
888 pp. , illus. , color illus. 
Handbook for identification of 
seashore life. Well detailed with 
scientific names. Technical. 

MOORE, HILARY B. 

1958. Marine ecology. John Wiley 
& Sons. Inc., New York. 493 pp., 
illus. 

Text book on all aspects of marine 
ecology. Technical. 

MURRAY, STR JOHN, and DR.. JOHAN 

HJORT and others. 
1912. The depths of the ocean; a gen- 
eral account of the modern science of 
oceanography based largely on the 
scientific researches of the Norwegian 
Steamer Michael Sars in the North At- 
lantic. MacMillari~&~Co. Ltd. , London. 
821 pp. , illus. 

Technical - narrative of findings of 
Michael Sars . 

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES - 

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. 
1959-1962. Oceanography 1960 to 
1970. A report to the Committee on 
Oceanography, National Academy of 
Sciences -- National Res'?arch Coun- 
cil. 12 volumes of 30-50 pages each. 

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATE 

CENTER 
1961. Oceanographic vessels of the 
world. Joint publication of IGY 
World Data Center A for oceano- 
graphy and the NODC. U. ^. Navy 
Hydrographic Office, Washington 
25, D. C. $4. 50. Published in 
loose-leaf form. Approx. 120 pp. 



444 



NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. 
1961. Specialized science informa- 
tion services in the United States. 
National Science Foundation. NSF 
61-68. 528 pp. Government Print- 
ing Officje, Washington Z5, D. C. 
$1. 75. 

A directory of selected special- 
ized information services in the 
physical and biological sciences. 

NAVY HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE. 
1960. Oceanographic instrumenta- 
tion; final report of the Committee 
on Instrumentation, second edition. 
Special publication No. 41. U. S. 
Navy Hydr ographic Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C. $1. 80. 

PETTERSSON, HANS. 
1954. The ocean floor. Yale Univer- 
sity, Mrs. Hepsa Ely Silliman 
Memorial Lectures, Vol. 33, 1952. 
Yale University Press, New Haven. 
181 pp., illus., maps. $3.00. 
Describes ocean floor and deep- 
sea life. 

PICCARD, AUGUSTE. 
1956. Earth, sky, and sea. Trans- 
lated from the French by Christina 
Stead. Oxford University Press, 
New York. 192 pp., illus. 



ROUNSEFELL, GEORGE A(rmytage), 
and W. HARRY EVERHART. 
1953. Fishery science, its methods 
and applications. John Wiley & Sons, 
New York. 444 pp. 

General for students, biologists, 
and administrators. 

RUSSELL, ROBERT C(hr istopher) 
H(amlyn), and D. H. MacMILLAN. 
1952. Waves and tides, with forward 
by Herbert Chatley. Hutchinson's 
Scientific & Technical Publications, 
London and New York. 348 pp. , 
illus. , plates. $6. 00. 

SEARS, MARY (Editor). 
1961. Oceanography; lectures pre- 
sented at the International Oceano- 
graphic Congress held in New York, 
31 August - 12 September 1959. 
American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, Publication 
No. 67, Washington, D. C. 654 pp. , 
illus. 

SCHENCK, HILBERT VAN NYDECK, 
and HENRY W. KENDALL. 
1957. Underwater photography 
(revised). Illustrated by John £. 
Johnson. Cornell Maritime Press, 
Cambridge, Maryland, ix. , 126 pp., 
illus . 



PICCARD, JACQUES, and ROBERT 
S. DIETZ. 
1961. Seven miles down. G. P. 
Putnam's Sons, New York. 249 pp. 
History of ultra-deep subnnersi- 
bles in oceanography including 
technical aspects. 



SHEPARD, F(rancis) P(arker). 
1959. The earth beneath the sea. 
Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore. 
275 pp. , illus. $5. 00. 

An up-to-date readable account 
of marine geology by a pioneer 
of the field. 



RICKETTS, EDWARD F. , and JACK 
CALVIN. 
1960. Between Pacific tides; an 
account of the habits and habitats of 
some five hundred common conspi- 
cious seashore invertebrates of the 
Pacific coast between Sitka, Alaska 
and Northern Mexico (revised by 
Joel W. Hedgepeth). Forward by 
John Steinbeck. Stanford University 
Press, Stanford, California. 502 
pp., illus. $5. 50. 

Semitechnical style. Organized 
by environmental area; outer 
coast; open coast; etc. Scientific 
infornnation and keys. 



SMITH, F. G. WALTON, and 
HENRY CHAPIN. 
1954. The sun, the sea, and tomor- 
row; potential sources of food, 
energy, and minerals from the sea. 
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 
210 pp. , illus . 

A survey of food and mineral 
resources in the ocean. 



445 



SPILHAUS, ATHELSTAN FREDERICK. 

1959. Turn to the sea. National 
Academy of Sciences -- National 
Research Council, Committee on 
Oceanography, 2101 Constitution 
Avenue, Washington 25, D. C. 
44 pp. , illus. 

A pamphlet which conveys in 
brief, simple, nontechnical 
terms the importance and excite- 
ment of studying the oceans. 

STEELE, GEORGE, and PAUL KIRCHER. 

1960. The crisis we face; automation 
and the cold war. McGraw-Hill Pub- 
lishing Co. , Inc. , New York, 220 pp. 

STOMMEL, HENRY. 
1958. The Gulf Stream: a physical and 
dynamic description. University of 
California Press, Berkeley, and 
Cambridge University Press, London 
(1959). 202 pp, xiii. $6.00. 

Review of our knowledge of Gulf 
Stream -- history, instruments, 
techniques, difficulties, the 
system of circulation theories, 
etc. 

SVERDRUP, H(arold) U(brik), 
MARTIN W. JOHNSON, and 
RICHARD H. FLEMING. 
1949. The oceans; their physics, 
chemistry, and general biology. 
(3rd printing , November 1949.) 
Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York. 
1, 087 pp. , illus. 

Scientific reference book. 

TRESSLER, DONALD KITELEY, 
and J. McW. LEMON. 
1951. Marine products of commerce; 
their acquisition, handling, biological 
aspects, and the science and techno- 
logy of their preparation and preser- 
vation (second edition revised and 
enlarged). Reinhold Publishing 
Corporation, New York. 782 pp. , 
illus. 

Source of information on econo- 
nomic uses of marine organisms 
and plants, fishing methods, etc. 



U. S. COAST GUARD. 
1953. Aids to navigation manual. 
CG-222. United States Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D. C. Approx. 1, 000 pp. 

U. S. NAVY ELECTRONICS 
LABORATORY. 
(No date) Welcome aboard, bathy- 
scaphe Trieste. Deep Submergence 
Research Group, U. S. Navy Elec- 
tronics Laboratory, Office of Naval 
Research, Code 416, Washington 25, 
D. C. 

An informative booklet explaining 
the mechanics of the bathyscaphe, 
the statistics, history, and future 
including several photographs. 

U. S. NAVY HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE. 
1955. Instruction manual for oceano- 
graphic observations (second edition). 
Navy Hydrographic Office Publication 
No. 607. 210 pp. $12.00. 

VAUGHN, T. W. , and others. 
1937. International aspects of oceano- 
graphy. National Academy of Sciences, 
Washington 25, D. C. 225 pp. 

VON ARX, WILLIAM S(telling) 
(Editor). 

1957. Proceedings of the sympo- 
sium on aspects of deep-sea re- 
search, February 29 - March 1, 
1956. National Academy of Sciences 
-- National Research Council, Pub- 
lication No. 473. Washington 25, 

D. C. 181 pp. $1. 75. 

VON ARX, WILLIAM S(telling). 
1962. An introduction to physical 
oceanography. Addison- Wesley 
Publishing Company, Inc., 
Reading, Massachusetts, and 
London, England. 422 pp. 

WALFORD, LIONEL ALBERT. 

1958. Living resources of the 
sea; opportunities for research 
and expansion. The Ronald Press 
Co., New York. 321 pp., maps. 
$6.00. 



446 



ZoBELL. CLAUDE E. 
1946. Marine microbiology; a 
monograph on hydrobacteriology. 
Chronica Botanica Co, , VValtham, 
Massachusetts. 240 pp. , illus. 
Popular and technical. 



Journals 
(Where indicated, prices are for annual subscriptions by libraries in the United States.) 



AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS 
AND SCIENCES. 
1948- Bulletin. 8 times a year. 
Boston 46, 
Membership. 



280 Newton St. 
Massachusetts. 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE 
ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 
Science. Weekly Journal. 1515 
Massachusetts Avenue N. W. , 
Washington 5, D. C. $8. 50. 

AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY. 
ASF Newsletter. Bi-monthly. 
Box 483, McLean, Virginia. 

AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY. 
Special Publications. Irregular. 
Box 483, McLean, Virginia. 

AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY. 
1870- Transactions. Quarterly. 
Box 483, McLean, Virginia. 
$10. 00. 

AMERICAN GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 
1956- The Geotimes. 8 times a year. 
2101 Constitution Avenue, N. W. , 
Washington 25, D. C. $2.00. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS, 
INC. 

1929- Journal of the Acoustical 
Society of America . Monthly. 
335 E. 43th Street," New York 17, 
New York. $16. 00. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS, 
INC. 

1930- Review of Scientific Instru- 
ments. Monthly Journal. 335 E. 
45th Street, New York 17, New 
York. $9.00. 



AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. 
1879. Analytical Chemistry. Monthly 
Joui-nal. 1155 Sixteenth St. N. W. , 
Washington 6, D. C. $5.00. 

AMElilCAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION. 
1806- Journal of Geophysica l 
RescarcTT . Monthly. 5241 Broad 
Branch Road, N. W. , Washington 
15, D. C. $6.00. 

AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION. 
1919- T ransact ions. Bi-monthly. 
1515 Massachusetts Avenue. 
N. W. , Washington 5, D. C. 
$10. 00. 

AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL 
SOCIETY. 

1948- Weatherwisr'; magazine a liout 
weather. Bi-monthly. 3 Jay St. , 
Boston 8, Massachusetts. $4.00. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF 
ICHTHYOLOGISTS AND HERPE- 
TOLOGISTS. 

1'113- Copeia. Quarterly Journal. 
34th Street and Girard Avenue. 
Philadelphia 4, Pennsylvania. 
$9.00. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF LIMNOLOGY 
AND OCEANOGRAPHY. 
1956- Limnology and Oceanography . 
Quarterly Journal, c/o Dr. George 
H. Lauff, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan. Membership 
$10.00. 

ATLANTIC FISHERMAN. 
National Fisherman . Monthly. 
Goffstown, New Hampshire. $4.00. 



447 



ECOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 
1897- Eco logy; all forms of life in 
relatiorfTo environment . Quarterly 
Journal. Duke University Press, 
Box 6667, College Station, Durham, 
North Carolina. $7. 50. 

FISHERIES RESEARCH BOARD OF 
CANADA. 

1934- Journal . Bi-monthly. Queen's 
Printer, Ottawa, Canada. $5.00. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 
1889- Bulletin. Monthly. Mt. Royal 
and Guilford Avenues, Baltimore 2, 
Maryland. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 
1943- Int erim Proceedings . 3 times 
a yearT'Mt. Royal and GuUford 
Avenues, Baltimore 2, Maryland, 

GULF AND CARIBBEAN FISHERIES 
INSTITUTE. 

19i8- Proceedings. Annual. Marine 
Laboratory, University of Miami, 
1 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami 
49, Florida. $2.00. 

INDO-PACIFIC FISHERIES COUNCIL. 
1958- Proceedings. Irregular. 
IPFC Secretariat, FAO Regional 
Office for Asia and the Far East, 
74 Soi Rajjataphan, Makkasan 
Circle, Bangkok, Thailand. 
$1. 00 per issue. 

INSTITUTE OF THE AERONAUTICAL 
SCIENCES, 

1950- N ational Telemetering ConTer - 
ence Papers. Annual. 33 W.'st 39th 
Street, New York 18, New York. 
$6. 50. 

INSTRUMENT SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 
1954- I. S. A. Journal. Monthly 
Pem-Sherato~n Hotel, 530 William 
Penn Place, Pittsburgh 19, Pennsyl- 
vania. $2.50. 



INSTRUMENT SOCIETY OF AMERICA. 
1950- Proceedings . Irregular. Penii- 
Sheraton Hotel, 530 William Penn 
Place, Pittsburgh 19, Pennsylvania. 

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE 
STUDY OF THE SEA. 
Fiches d'identification du zooplancton , 
A. F. Hos^ et fils, Copenhague. 
2. 00 kr. per vol. 

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE 
STUDY OF THE SEA. 
1926- J ournal du Con3eil . 3 times a 
year. A. F. Host et fils, Copenhague. 
(Current bibliography in each issue.) 
$7.20. 

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE 
«TUDY OF THE SEA. 
Rapports et proces-verbaux dcs 
reunions. Annual. A. F. Hoot et 
fils, Copenhague. $8.00. 

INTERNATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC 
FOUNDATION. 

1955- Bulle tin. Irregular. 439 
Anastasia Avenue, Co."al Gables 
34, Florida. Membership. 

MACMILLAN AND COMPANY, LTD. 
1869- Nature . Weekly. St. Matin's 
St. , London W. C. 2, England. 
155s. 

MCGRAW-HILL PUBLISHING CORP.. 
INC. 

1930- Electronics . Weekly Trade 
Journal. 330 W. 4'?nd Street, 
New Yo-k 36, New York. $6.00. 

MILLER-FREEMAN PUBLICATIONS, 
INC. 

1933- Pacific Fisherman. Monthly, 
plus yearbook. 500 Howard St. , 
San Francisco 5, California. $3.00. 



448 



NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 
OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA. 
1915- Proceedings. Monthly. 
Journals Division, University of 
Chicago Press, 5750 Ellis Ave., 
Chicago 37, Illinois. $12.50. 

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 
1899- National Geographic Magazine . 
Monthly. Sixteenth and M Streets, 
Washington 6, D. C. $8.00. 

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OCEANO- 
GRAPHY. 
1949- National Oceanographic Coun- 
cil (U. K. ) . Annual Report. Warmley, 
(Surrey), England. 

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA 
CENTER. 

Newsletter. Monthly. National 
Oceanographic Data Center, 
Washington 25, D. C. Free. 

NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 
1933- Bulletin . Bi-monthly. 101 
Park Avenue, New York, New York. 

NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 
1895- Zoologica (Scientific Contri- 
butions). Irregular. The Zoological 
Park, New York 60, New York. 



U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, 
U. S. DEPT. OF THE INTERIOR. 
Circular . Irregular. Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D. C. 

U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, 
U. S. DEPT. OF THE INTERIOR. 
Research Reports . Irregular. 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C. 

U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, 
U. S. DEPT. OF THE INTERIOR. 
Special Scientific Reports - Fisheries. 
Irregular. Washington 25, D. C. 
Free from Office of Information. 

U. S. NATIONAL BUREAU OF 
STANDARDS. 
1928- Journal of Research. Month- 
U. S. Government Printing 



ly- 

Office, 



Washington 25, D. C. 



U. S. NAVAL ELECTRONICS 
LABORATORY. 
Professional Contributions. 



Irregular. NEL, 
California. 



San Diego, 



UNITED STATES NAVAL INSTITUTE. 
1874- Proceedings. Monthly. Anna- 
polis, Maryland. $5.00. 



SEARS FOUNDATION FOR MARINE 
RESEARCH. 
1942- Journal of Marine Research. 
3 times a year. Bingham Oceano- 
graphic Laboratory, Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut. $3.00. 

SHEFFIELD PUBLISHING COMPANY. 
1961- Undersea Technology. Bi- 
monthly Trade Journal. 640 Wash- 
ington Bldg., Washington 5, D. C. 

SWEDISH GEOPHYSICAL SOCIETY. 
1949- Tellus , Quarterly Journal of 
Geophysics. Lindhagensgaton 124, 
Stockholm, Sweden. $6.00. 

U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, 
U. S. DEPT. OF THE INTERIOR. 
Bulletin. Irregular. Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D. C. 



UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS. 
1893- Journal of Geology . Bi- 
monthly. 5750 Ellis Avenue, 
Chicago 37, Illinois. $10.00. 

UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII PRESS. 
1947- Pacific Science. Quarterly. 
Honolulu 14, Hawaii. 

WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE. 
Transactions of the North American 
Wildlife Conference. Annual. Will 



Building, 
$3.00. 



Washington 5, D. C. 



WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC 
INSTITUTION. 

Annual Reports. Woods Hole, 
Massachusetts. 



449 



WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC 

INSTITUTION. 

Contributions. Irregular. Woods 

Hole, Massachusetts. 



WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC 

INSTITUTION. 
1959- Oceanus. Irregular. Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts. 



List of Bibliographies 



ARCTIC BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

1953-1960. Edited by Maria 
Tremaine. Prepared for and in 
cooperation with Department of 
Defense, under the direction of 
the Arctic Institution of North 
America, vols. 1-9. 

DEES, LOLA T. 
1961. United States Fish and Wildlife 
Service. Publication in Limnology, 
1940-1960. United States Depart- 
ment of Interior, Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, Fishery Leaflet 51Z. 
7 pp. 

1961. United States Fish and 
Wildlife Service. Papers on 
physical and chemical oceano- 
graphy. United States Depart- 
ment of Interior, Fish and Wild- 
life Service, Bureau of Commer- 
cial Fisheries, Fishery Leaflet 515. 
14 pp. 

GRIER, MARY C. 
I94I. Oceanography of the North 
Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and 
Bering Strait: a contribution toward 
a bibliography. University of 
Washington Publications Library 
Series, University of Washington, 
Seattle 5, Washington. 290 pp. , 
xxii. 

Includes a 14-page list of 
journals, 2,929 references, 
and an index. 



HAHN, JAN. 
1960. A reader's guide to oceanogra- 
phy. Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution, Woods Hole, Massachu- 
sett -. 8 pp. 

A referenced list of publications 
concerning the field of oceanography 
-- general, seashore, expeditions, 
photography, charts, bottom, cur- 
rents, waves, weather, marine re- 
sources, instruments, and lists of 
technical books . 

INTERAGENCY COMMITTEE ON 
OCEANOGRAPHY. 
Popular bibliography on oceano- 
graphy (in preparation by ICO). 
May be obtained when ready from 
I. CO. Office, ONR Code 104, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

MACY, PAUL T. , and IDA K. 
JOHNSON. 
1962. Aquatic biology and oceano- 
graphy; a selected list of books 
(revised). U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, Fishery Leaflet 162. 
(MS. in progress). 

RYTHER, J. H. (Chairman), C. S. 
YENTSCH, and G. H. LAUFF. 
1959. Sources of limnological 
and oceanographic apparatus and 
supplies. American Society of 
Limnology and Oceanography. 
Special Publication No. 1. Re- 
printed from Limnology and 
Oceanography, vol. 4, No. 3, 
July 1959. pp. 357-365. 



SHIMADA, BELL M. 
1951. An annotated bibliography 
on the biology of Pacific tunas. 
United States Department of the 
Interior, Fish and Wildlife Ser- 
vice, Fishery Bulletin 58, vol. 52. 
58 pp. 



450 



APPENDIX J 

INFORMATION ON CONTACTING GOVERNMENT 
CONTRACTING AGENCIES 



PROPOS>iL PROCEDURES 



1. The purpose of the Government-Industry Oceanographic Instru- 
mentation Symposium was to acquaint Industry with critical parts 
of the National Oceanographic Program which require new thinking 
and technique development. Representatives of Industry were pro- 
vided with the technical aspects of current instrumentation prob- 
lems, and with general background information on oceanography 
necessary for the successful solution of these problems. 

2. Since the ultinnate fruit of a symposium of this nature must be 
harvested in accordance with Government Procurement Regulations, 
the following specific information is pertinent: 

a. Presentations and general specification handouts (appendices 
E, F, G, and H) are considered guidelines to stimulate think- 
ing on instrument design, development, and production by 
Industry. 

b. Bid sets for survey, and applied and basic research instru- 
ment requirements will be promulgated at a later date. 

c. Those organizations which have not forwarded an up-to-date 
statement of capability (to cognizant governmental activities 
and to the National Oceanographic Data Center) are urged to 
do so at their earliest opportunity. 

d. Those organizations interested in any or all of the instru- 
ments and systems outlined during the Symposium are urged 
to express this interest to the cognizant governmental acti- 
vity(s) in order to be considered for bid sets on these items 
as they are issued. 

3. The following are the cognizant activities: 

S\irvey instruments and systems : The Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office, and U. 5. Coast 



451 



and Geodetic Survey. In addition, the U. S. Navy Hydrographic 
Office is the cognizant activity for "ASWEPS " and " Ship-of- 
Opportunity " instrumentation. 

Basic Research instruments and systems ; The Office of Naval 
Research. 

Applied Research instruments and systems : The Bureau of Ships 
and the Bureau of Naval Weapons. 

Other specific instrumentation requirementj : Directly to the 
agency or activity presenting a specific requirennent during this 
Symposium. 

4. At the request of the Interagency Committee on Oceeuiography's 
Pajiel on Facilities, Equipment, and Instrumentation, the National 
Oceanographic Data Center has activated a file on proposals for the 
development of oceanographic instruments which are sent to various 
Government agencies by Industry. This file is to be a central de- 
pository for proposals which can be reviewed by Government agencies 
interested in oceanographic instrumientation development. It is the 
aim of the Interagency Committee to establish one file which will 
be dependable and complete. 

The file will be privileged in that Government members only will 
have access to it. Industry's proposals are submitted as their own 
property; thus could not be released to other members of Industry. 

Copies of proposals prepared by Industry may be addressed to 
Director , National Oceanographic Data Center , Washington 25, D. C . 



FURTHER INFORMATION 

General Procvirement Information on Guided Missile Programs, 
Rockets, and Target Drones . Office of the Secretary of Defense, 
Central Military Procurement Information Office, Washington 25, 
D. C. Available from the U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D. C. Price 15 cents. 32 pp. 

Inventions Wanted by the Armed Forces and Other Government 
Agencies . Cumulative List. National Inventors' Council. U. S. 
Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C. Available from 
National Inventors' Council. 104 pp. 

Bureau of Naval Weapons Research Problems . Available from Chief, 
452 



Bureau of Naval Weapons, Department of the Navy, Washington 25, 
D. C. Att: Code RREN-1. 78 pp. 

Navy Research and Development Problems . Department of the Navy, 
Office of Naval Material, Washington 25, D. C. Available from Chief 
of Naval Material, Department of the Navy, Washington 25, D. C. 
Att: Code M42. 38 pp. 

Coordination of Information on Current Federal Research and Deve- 
lopment Projects in the Field of Electronics . An analysis of agency 
systems for storage and retrieval of data on ongoing work and of 
views of private companies on indexing and communication prob- 
lems. Prepared for the Committee on Government Operations 
United States Senate and its Subcommittee on Reorganization and 
International Organizations (Pursuant to S. Res. 26, 87th Congress) 
September 20, 1961. Available from the U. S. Government Printing 
Office, Washington 25, D. C. at $1 per copy. 292 pp. 

Revised Guide for the Submission of Research Proposals . U. S. 
Atomic Energy Commission. Division of Research, Division of 
Biology and Medicine, and Division of Reactor Development. 



453 



APPENDIX K 



BIOGRAPHIES OF CONTRIBUTORS 



VERNON E. BROCK, Laboratory Director, Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, Biological Laboratory, Building 75, Naval Weapons Plant, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Born in Fillmore, California, June 24, 1912, Mr. Brock ob- 
tained a B.A. at Stanford University in 1935, and his M. A. there 
in 1944. 

He served as a field investigator for the Committee on the 
Evidence of Depletion of the California Sardine in 1936. He served 
the Fish Commission of Oregon as Fisheries Biologist (1936 to 1940), 
and as Chief Biologist (1940 to 1943). He was Product Administrator 
and Analyst Officer for Fishery Coordination, U. S. Department of 
Interior, from 1943 to 1944. From 1944 to 1958 he was director of 
the Division of Fish and Game of the Territory of Hawaii. From 1958 
to 1961 he served in the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, as Assistant Director of the Pacific 
Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (from 1958 to 1959), and as area 
director from 1959 to 1961 when he left to assume his present 
responsibilities. 

He is a member of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, the Society of Ichthyologists and Herptologists, 
Wildlife Society, American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists, 
and the Society of Systematic Zoologists. He is a widely recognized 
authority on tropical fishes and has published many scientific papers 
in the field of oceanograph.y and fisheries. He has specialized in 
ecology and population studies of tropical marine fishes, systematics 
of fishes, and the early development of life histories of fishes. 

In addition to his present advisory role, Mr. Brock represents 
the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in the development and coor- 
dination of the national oceanographic program. The Washington 
Laboratory carries out fishery-oceanographic research programs 
in the Atlantic, and, as its director, he is responsible for develop- 
ment of a fishery and oceanographic research plan for a high seas 
survey of the equatorial Atlantic from the South American to the 
African Coasts. 

REAR ADMIRAL LEONID AS D. COATES, Chief of Naval Research, 
Office of Naval Research, Washington 25, D. C. 



455 



Rear Admiral Coates was born on October 24, 1907, in Fresno, 
California. He was graduated from the U. S. Naval Academy and 
was commissioned Ensign on June 5, 1930, and through subsequent 
promotions attained the rank of Rear Admiral to date from August 
1, 1956. 

He was assigned successively to the USS New York, USS Texas, 
USS Pennsylvania, and the USS Saratoga, until 1933 when he was 
ordered to the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, Florida. He was de- 
signated a Naval Aviator in 1934. He served in Scouting Squadron 
10-S, then attended postgraduate school at Annapolis from 1936 
to 1938, continued at the California Institute of Technology to receive 
an M.S. (aeronautical engineering) in 1939. He served with Fighting 
Squadron 3 (USS Saratoga) and Patrol Squadron 74 (Norfolk, Virginia). 
He was transferred to the Patrol Plane Design Section of the Bureau 
of Aeronautics in 1941, and became Section Head and continued duty 
there until 1946, when he became Bureau of Aeronautics Representa- 
tive for Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc. In 1947 he was Aircraft 
Material Officer, Commander Air Force, Pacific Fleet, Pearl 
Harbor. In 1949 he returned to the Bureau of Aeronautics, as Deputy 
Director of the Aircraft Division. He went to Harvard University in 
1950 for the Advanced Management Program, returned to Bureau of 
Aeronautics as Director of the Guided Missile Division until 1951 when 
he became Deputy Assistant Chief for Research and Development. 
He served at Jacksonville, Florida, as Overhaul and Repair Officer 
at the Naval Air Station from 1952 to 1954. He then was assigned as 
Deputy and Assistant Chief of Naval Research, Navy Department. 
In 1956 he became Air Force Maintenance and Material Officer of 
Commander Air Force, U. S. Atlantic Fleet, and, in 1957, Assis- 
tant Chief of Bureau of Aeronautics (Research and Development). In 
1959 he was Deputy Chief of that Bureau and Director of Develop- 
ment Planning for the Chief of Naval Operations. 

Rear Admiral Coates has the American Defense Service Medal, 
American Campaign Medal, the World War II Victory Medal, and 
the National Defense Service Medal. He is a member of the Insti- 
tute of Aeronautical Sciences, the U. S. Naval Institute, and the 
Armed Forces Communication and Electronics Associations. 

MR. B. KING COUPER, Head, Oceanographic Section, Applied 
Science Branch, Bxireau of Ships, Navy Department, Washington, 
D. C. , and Coordinator for Oceanography, TENOC Program. 

Mr. Couper obtained his B.S. at Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology and his M.S. at the University of California (Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography). 

He has been employed by the Woods Hole Oceanographic 

456 



Institution, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and the U. S. Navy 
Hydrographic Office, prior to his assumption of duties with the 
Bureau of Ships in 1951. During World War II he served on active 
duty with the Navy in the Pacific Theater and in Washington, D. C. 
He was a member of Joint Task Force I during the Bikini Cross- 
roads. He holds a rank of Commander in the U. S. Naval Reserve. 

JAMES M. CROSSEN, Instrument Technician, Instrumentation 
Laboratory, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Biological 
Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Crossen was born in Boston, Massachusetts, January 
1926. After leaving the service (as a Navy Quartermaster at the 
end of World War II), he attended and was graduated from the Am- 
erican Television Institute of Technology in radio and television 
engineering. At the Air Force Cambridge Research Center, 
Bedford, Massachusetts, he worked on prototype transformers and 
other electro-mechanical devices. In 1952 he joined the engineer- 
ing staff at Sanders Associates, Nashua, New Hampshire, he was 
attached to the Sonobuoy "Project Tinkertoy. " He took further 
training in Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Warfare and is 
currently a Departmental Radiological Officer. In 1955 he became 
a Program Leader of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries where 
he is responsible for the planning, design, and development of 
instruments for obtaining fishery biology data. He was responsible 
for the development of underwater television and related equip- 
ment used in making several films of fish behavior in trawls. 
Among other instruments, he invented an automatic photoelectric 
fish egg counter. 

LIEUTENANT COMMANDER R. P. DINSMORE, U. S. Coast 
Guard, Chief, Aerology and Oceanography Branch, U. S. Coast 
Guard Headquarters, Washington 25, D. C. 

LCDR Dinsmore was born October 20, 1925, in Catonsville, 
Maryland, attended Baltimore Polytechnic Institute from 1940- 
43, and obtained his B.S. from the U. S. Coast Guard Academy, 
New London, Connecticut, in 1946. He had general duties on 
board Coast Guard weather ships, salvage vessels, and buoy 
tenders, 1946-49. He took graduate studies at the Scripps Insti- 
tution of Oceanography from 1949-51. He was then Assistant 
Oceanographer , U. S. Coast Guard until 1953 (International Ice 
Patrol and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) and Instructor 
in Science and Meteorology, U. S. Coast Guard Academy, until 
1957. He served as Commanding Officer, U. S. Coast Guard 



457 



Oceanographic Unit (International Ice Patrol) Woods Hole, Massa- 
chusetts, which he left in I960 to assume his present responsibil- 
ities . 

HAROLD W, DUBACH, Deputy Director, National Oceanographic 
Data Center, Washington Z5, D. C. 

A native of Missouri, he attended colleges in Missouri and Iowa 
and was graduated from Baker University with an A.B. (chemistry), 
in 1942. For graduate work, he attended the University of Chicago 
(meteorology) and the Johns Hopkins University (oceanography). 

During World War II he served as a Weather Officer in the 
U. S. Alaskan-Aleutian Theater as Forecaster, and he is now a 
member of the Air Force Reserve, holding the rank of Major. 

He served as a Research Meteorologist in the Weather Bureau's 
Thunderstorm Project from 1946 to 1948. His professional career 
in oceanography began in 1948 with his appointment as an oceano- 
grapher at the U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office. At the Hydrographic 
Office he occupied numerous responsible positions. In I960 he was 
selected to complete arrangements for the establishment and organ- 
ization of the National Oceanographic Data Center and served as 
Acting Director until July 1961. 

He has authored several papers and publications on oceanography 
and meteorology and has presented several papers and talks to 
professional societies including meetings of the American Meteor- 
ological Society, American Geophysical Union, and the American 
Society of Computer Machinery. 

He is a member of the American Meteorological Society and 
the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. 

HOWARD H. ECKLES, Chief, Branch of Marine Fisheries, Divi- 
sion of Biological Research, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Mr. Eckles was born in Porterville, California, July 3, 1920, 
and was graduated from the University of California at Santa Bar- 
bara as a B.S. in 1942. From 1942 to 1946 he served the U. S. 
Navy as a Lieutenant. From 1946-48 he attended Stanford Univer- 
sity. From 1948-53 he was a Fishery Research Biologist with the 
United States Fish and Wildlife Service in California. He then 
assumed his present responsibilities. 

He is a member of the American Fisheries Society and the 
American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists. 

His main interests lie in fishery research biology and oceano- 
graphy. He serves on a number of interagency committees and 
represents the Bureau in many aspects of oceanographic work. 

458 



CAPTAIN RAYMOND D. FUSSELMAN, Deputy Hydr ographer , 
Navy Hydrographic Office, Washington Z5, D. C. 

Captain Fusselman was born in West Farmington, Ohio, on 
September 30, 1910. He was graduated from the U. S. Naval Aca- 
demy and was commissioned Ensign on June 14, 1934. He attained 
the rank of Captain to date from July 1, 1952. He served on board 
the USS Raleigh and on the USS Selfridge (DD-357), and commanded 
the USS Wadsworth (DD-516), USS Wilts'ie (DD-716), and the USS 
Lenawee (APA-195). After a distinguished career during the last 
war as a shipboard commander, Captain Fusselman came into 
prominence in 1953 as Head, Underseas Warfare Research and 
Development Branch in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. 
Additional assignments have included Chief of Staff, Anti-Subma- 
rine Development Detachment, Key West; Commander, Amphi- 
bious Division 11; and Chief, Naval Mission Venezuela. In 
September 1957 he reported as Commanding Officer of the Office 
of Naval Research Branch Office, San Francisco, California, and 
in 1958 he was detached for sea duty as Commander, Destroyer 
Squadron 25. In April of I960 he assumed his duty which he was 
holding at the time of the Symposium. 

In addition to the Navy Cross and the Presidential Unit Cita- 
tion Ribbon, Captain Fusselman has received several area service 
medals, and the Cruz de Miranda, awarded by the Government of 
Venezuela, 

DR. SIDNEY R. CALLER, Biology Branch, Office of Naval Re- 
search, Navy Department, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Caller was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on November 
9, 1922. He received his B.S. at the University of Maryland in 
1944, his M.S. in 1947, and his Ph.D. (limnology) in 1948. At 
the Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Maryland 
he served as an assistant and later as an assistant zoologist. 
He was coUaborater with the Fish and Wildlife Service in 1947. 
Coming to the Office of Naval Research in 1948, he has served as 
Consultant on Human Ecology and Biophysics, Head of the Eco- 
logical Section of the Biological Branch, and Acting Head of the 
Biophysics Branch. Dr. Caller was in the United States Army 
from 1942-44. 

His organizational affiliations include the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science and the American Society of Linn- 
nology and Oceanography. The areas in which he has done research 
include chemical, physical, and biological investigations of acid 
ponds, polluted streams, development of microtechnique for cyto- 
logical studies of marine organisms, and research administration. 

459 



ANTHONY J. GOODHEART, General Physical Scientist, Instru- 
ment Division, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Mr. Goodheart was born August 14, 1922, attended the Uni- 
versity of Montana and the University of Minnesota, and has a 
degree in mathematics. During the war he served in the Navy as 
an Electronics Technician. He joined the Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey in 1946 as Mathemiatician in the Tides and Currents Division, 
and later became an Oceanographer in this particular department. 
He has directed field operations of tide stations, with arrange- 
ments for installation and maintenance. 

In his present capacity he coordinates and supervises the 
Division's activities involving oceanogr aphic instruments and 
instrumentation and also plans and develops systems and techni- 
ques for operational use, including research and development work. 

He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 

J. R. R. HARTER, Head, Television and Facsimile Unit, Elec- 
tronics Division, Bureau of Ships, Washington 25, D. C. 

Born in State College, Pennsylvania, May 17, 1917, he 
attended Pennsylvania State College. He also attended the Univer- 
sity of Connecticut and the University of Maryland Postgraduate 
School. During World War II he was Chief Instructor, Advanced 
Electronic Theory Department, United States Coast Guard Engin- 
eering and Maintenance School, Groton, Connecticut. At the 
close of the war he became Senior Research and Development 
Engineer for TV systems and equipment, Allen B. DuMont, 
Washington, D. C, on an experimental TV project. Since 1948 
he has been occupied principally with televisual communications 
engineering positions in the Bureau of Ships. In addition to his 
present duties, he is a consultant and specialist for underwater 
visual surveillance, techniques, systems, and equipment. 

He is a member of S. M. P. T. E. , I. R. E. , Panel Committee 
on Undersea Warfare of the National Research Council, and 
U. S.C. C.I.R. , Group XI. 

CAPTAIN CHARLES NELSON GRAN HENDRIX, USN, Deputy 
Chief of Staff for Plans and^ Operations, Joint Task Force 

EIGHT, Christmas Island.- 

1/ At the time of the Symposium, Captain Hendrix was attached 
to the Hydrographic Office as Special Projects Officer. In this 
capacity he served in the forefront of the planning and organiza- 
tion of the Symposium in the months preceding it, and coordin- 
ated the list of instruments (appendices E, F, and G) for the 
Hydrographic Office. 

460 



Captain Hendrix, born April 8, 1916, in Maryland, was 
connmissioned and graduated from the U. S. Naval Academy with 
a B.S. in 1939. He attended Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
and in 1951 received an M.S. in oceanography. He has served on 
battleships, destroyers, and submarines; he saw service in World 
War II and in the Korean War. He has served in the Office of 
Naval Research, with Commander Transport Division 13, with 
Commander Amphibious Squadron 5, with Commander Mine Force 
Pacific, as Commander Submarine Division 61, with the U. S. 
Navy Hydrographic Office, and with Joint Task Force EIGHT. 

Captain Hendrix is considered an expert in undersea warfare 
and is the senior naval field officer oceanographer in the Navy. 
In addition to serving and commanding submarines during the past 
22 years, he has studied nuclear physics and atomic power plants, 
participated in one of the first extended underwater cruises in a 
snorkel submarine, done extensive research in submarine opera- 
tions under the polar ice cap, and participated in AEC/DOD tests 
during atomic detonations in the Pacific. 

He has the following decorations: Two Silver Stars with Oak 
Leaf Cluster, Bronze Star with "V, " Navy Commendation Ribbon, 
Army Distinguished Unit Badge, Viet Nam Presidential Unit Cita- 
tion "Ribbon of Friendship, " Philippine Presidential Unit Citation 
Badge, and service ribbons for World War II, Korean, and UN 
with battle stars. 

DR. WOODROW C. JACOBS, Director, National Oceanographic 
Data Center, Washington 25, D. C. 

Dr. Jacobs was born September 11, 1908, in Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia. He obtained both his B.A. in 1930 and his Ph.D. in 1948 
at the University of California, Los Angeles, and his M.S. in 
oceanography and meteorology in 1934 at the University of Sou- 
thern California. From 1931-36 he was a meteorologist at the 
U. S. Weather Bxireau. From 1936-41 he was a forecaster at 
Pomona and assisted at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 
He then became Chief Civilian Meteorologist for Headquarters, 
U. S. Army Air Force from 1942-46, and then Head, Climatolo- 
gical Branch, U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C, from 
1946-48. He served as Director of Climatology for the Air Force 
Air Weather Sxirvey from 1948-61 which he left to assume his 
present duties. 

He has been a lecturer in Oceanography and Meteorology of 
the Graduate School of the U. S. Department of Agriculture from 
1942 to the present time, at the Massachusetts Institute of 



461 



Technology in 1950, and the University of Chicago in 1956. 

He has been a member of the Climatological Committee of the 
World Meteorological Organization, a delegate to the International 
Union of Geodesy and Geophysics in Brussels in 1951, in Rome in 
1954, and in Toronto in 1957. Also, he is a council member of the 
American Meteorological Society and the American Geophysical 
Union. 

His interests include marine meteorology, applied climatology, 
agricultural and industrial meteorology, atmiospheric radiation 
and energy transformation processes. 

GILBERT JAFFE, Director, Instrumentation Division, Navy Hydro- 
graphic Office, Washington 25, D. C. 

Mr. Jaffe was born in Buffalo, New York, December 6, 1925. 
He received both his B. S. and his M. S. from the University of 
Buffalo in 1949 and 1950, respectively. 

During World War II he served in the European Theatre of 
Operations with the 3rd Army Corps of Engineers, specializing 
in instrumentation for petroleum distribution. 

He has beeii with the Hydrographic Office for the past 12 years 
and has served as an oceanogr apher in charge of physical and 
chemical testing, as Head of the Laboratory and Instrumentation 
Section, as an instrumentation engineer in charge of the Instrumien- 
tation Branch, and, since 1957, in his present capacity as Director 
of the Instrumentation Division. 

At the Hydrographic Office, he has been responsible for estab- 
lishing and managing the engineering program for oceanographic 
instrumentation, as well as many innovations in oceanographic in- 
strvunent design. 

Mr. Jaffe is a senior member of the Instrument Society of 
America, a senior member of the Institute of Radio Engineers, a 
member of the Interagency Committee on Oceanography, Panel on 
Facilities, Equipment, and Instrumentation, as well as a member 
of many other governmental and non-governnnental comnnittees and 
panels. 

FEENAN D. JENNINGS, Head, Oceanographic Section, Geophysics 
Branch, Office of Naval Research, Washington 25, D. C. 

Mr. Jennings was born in Los Angeles, California, on August 

11, 1923. He served in the U. S. Navy from 1942-1946. Receiving 
his B.S. at New Mexico College of Agricultural and Mechanical 
Arts in 1950, he then studied at the University of California from 

1950-52. While at Scripps Institution of Oceanography he served 

462 



as an assistant oceanographer (1950-51), chemist (1952-53), 
research chemist (1953-55), and senior engineering oceanographer 
(1955-58). In 1958, Mr. Jennings joined the Office of Naval 
Research in his present capacity. 

He is a member of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science and the American Geophysical Union. 

His primary interests lie in physical oceanography, nuclear 
and atomic instrumentation, and chemical engineering. 

DR. J. LAURENCE McHUGH, Chief, Division of Biological 
Research, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Washington Z5, D. C. 

Dr. McHugh was born in Vancouver, British Columbia, 
Canada, on November Z4, 1911. He received his B.A. in 1936 
and his M.A. in 1938, both at the University of British Columbia. 
In 1950 he received his Ph. D. (zoology) from the University of 
California. 

From 1938 to 1948 Dr. McHugh was a member of the staff 
of the Pacific Biological Station of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada, Nanaimo, British Columbia. From 1941-46 he served 
as an infantry officer in the Canadian Army in England and in 
France. From 1946-51 he was a member of the staff of the 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography at La Jolla, California. From 
1951-59 he was Director of the Virginia Fisheries Laboratory 
at Gloucester Point, Virginia. He joined the Bureau of Commer- 
cial Fisheries, Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department 
of the Interior, as Chief, Division of Biological Research, in 
January 1959. In 1961 he was appointed United States Commi- 
sioner of the Inter -American Tropical Tuna Commission. 

His professional societies are: The American Fisheries 
Society, the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the 
International Oceanographic Foundation (Trustee), the American 
Institute of Fishery Research Biologists, Atlantic ^^stuarine 
Research Society (Past President), and Sigma Xi. 

Dr. McHugh is the author of some fifty publications on fish- 
ery biology, ichthyology, and biological oceanography. 

DONALD L. McKERNAN, Director, U. S. Bureau of Commer- 
cial Fisheries, Washington Z5, D. C. 

Born in Eugene, Oregon, on January 29, 1918, Mr. McKernan 
received his B.S. in fisheries in 1940 from the University of 
Washington (Seattle). 

From 1938-41 he served as laboratory assistant for the 
Bureau of Fisheries and from there went to the Washington 

463 



State Department of Fisheries as a research biologist. In 1945 
Mr. McKernan became Director of Research for the Fish Commis- 
sion of Oregon and served in that capacity until 1952 when he was 
appointed Assistant Director of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
Pacific Oceanic Fishery Investigations in Hawaii. From 1948-1949 
he was a teaching fellow at the University of Washington. After hold- 
ing the position, following 1952, of Administrator of Alaska Commer- 
cial Fisheries, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Mr. McKernan was 
appointed in 1957 to his present post. 

He is a member of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, the American Society of Limnology and Oceanogra- 
phy, the American Fisheries Society, and the American Institute 
of Fisheries Research Biologists. 

Mr. McKernan has specialized in fisheries management, marine 
biology, tuna biology, shellfish, and oceanography. 

He is a member of the Interagency Committee on Oceanography 
and is Chairman of its Panel on Equipment, Facilities, and Instru- 
mentation. 

DR. HUGH J. McLELLAN, Professor, Department of Oceanography 
and Meteorology, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, 
College Station, Texas. 

Dr. McLelian was born in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, on 
March 16, 1921, and he received his B.S. in 1941 and his M.S. in 
1947, both at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. In 
1956 he completed his Ph.D. (physical oceanography) at the Univer- 
sity of California at Los Angeles. He was a junior physicist of the 
National Research Council of Canada from 1941-1942, then entered 
the Canadian Army where he served until 1945 conning out as Cap- 
tain. From 1947-1956 he served as an associate oceanographer of 
the Atlantic Oceanographic Group for the Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada, and from 1956-1957 as a senior scientist. Since 1957 
he has been a research scientist of the Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal College of Texas. 

Dr. McLelian is a member of the American Society of Limno- 
logy and Oceanography, the American Geophysical Union, and the 
Canadian Association of Physicists. His main interest is physical 
oceanography. 

DR. ARTHUR E. MAXWELL, Head, Geophysics Branch, Office of 
Naval Research, Washington 25, D. C. 

Dr. Maxwell was born in Maywood, California, on April 11, 
1925. His educational background includes a B.S. from New Mexico 

464 



College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts in 1949, an M.S. from 
the University of California in 1952, and a Ph.D. (oceanography) 
from the University of California in 1959. In 1949 at the Scripps 
Institution of Oceanography he successively was assistant oceano- 
grapher and junior research geophysicist. He came to the Office 
of Naval Research in 1955 as Head Oceanographer , Geophysics 
Branch, and became Head of the Geophysics Branch in 1959. He 
served in the Navy from 1942-46. In 1958 he received the Civilian 
Meritorious Service Award of the U. S. Navy. 

He is a member of the American Miscellaneous Society, 
Committee of the National Academy of Sciences -- National Research 
Council, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
the Research Society of America, the Geochemical Society, and the 
American Geophysical Union. 

His principal interests include physical oceanography and 
geophysics, particularly the measurement and interpretation of 
heat flow through the ocean floor, and factors contributing to our 
understanding of the nature of the earth's crust. 

REAR ADMIRAL DONALD McGREGOR MORRISON, U. S. Coast 
Guard, Washington 25, D. C. 

Admiral Morrison was born December 4, 1906, at Glens Falls, 
New York. He attended the Universities of Chattanooga (Tenn. ) and 
Washington (Seattle), and was graduated from the U. S. Coast 
Guard Academy at New London, Connecticut, and commissioned 
Ensign on May 15, 1931. Through subsequent promotions he 
attained the rank of Rear Admiral on February 1, 1961. 

He served aboard the cutters Snohomish , Tallapoosa , Gre- 
sham, Seneca, Pontchartrain (1936 and 1937 on the International 
Ice Patrol), and Northland. During 1942 and 1943 he was assigned 
to the Cooper-Bessemer Corporation, Grove City, Pennsylvania, 
as machinery inspector for 180-foot buoy tenders, and the" Marine 
Iron and Shipbuilding and Zenith Dredge Companies, Duluth, 
Minnesota, to supervise the installation of machinery, tests, and 
trial runs. He was assigned Coast Guard representative in the 
Office of Inspector of Machinery, U. S. Navy, at the Fairbanks- 
Morse Corporation, and the training of personnel. He then became 
executive officer of the USS Cambria (APA-36) in the Pacific war 
campaigns of Majuro in the Marshalls, Kwajelein, and Eniwetok. 
In 1944 he helped place the USS General M. C. Meigs (AP-116) in 
commission and served as engineer officer in the Mediterranean, 
and later served as training and then as executive officer at Coast 
Guard Training Station, Groton, Connecticut. In 1945-46 he served 

465 



as Executive Officer and then as Commanding Officer of the Joseph 
T. Dickman (APA- 13) in the Pacific. He was Chief, Marine Engi- 
neering Section, Chief, Engineering Division in the 14th Coast 
Guard District, Honolulu, until 1949, and then Chief, Engineering 
Division and aide to Ernest Gruening, Governor of Alaska. He 
commanded the cutter Bibb (WPG-31) (195Z-54) on ocean station 
(weather patrol) duty in the North Atlantic. From 1955-58 he was 
Chief, Shore Units Division at Coast Guard Headquarters, until he 
became a special assistant to the Commandant, and then Chief, 
Operations Division of the 5th Coast Guard Office, Norfolk. In 
I960 he was ordered to San Francisco to assume the post of Deputy 
Comnnander, Western Area. 

He has the American Defense Ribbon with "A, '' Asiatic -Pacific 
Area, European-African-Middle Eastern Area, and World War II 
Victory Medal. 

ARTHUR L. NELSON, Supervisory Engineer, Naval Electronics 
Laboratory, San Diego 5Z, California. 

Mr. Nelson was born in 1915 in Texas, was graduated by 
the University of Arkansas (electrical engineering) in 1938, becanne 
a design engineer for the Radio Corporation of America, the 
Farnsworth Television and Radio Corporation, Aircraft Accesso- 
ries Corporation, and other companies, and started and operated 
his own Nelson Electric Corporation, Santa Monica, California. 

He has formerly been Planning Engineer, Patrick Air Force 
Base, Florida, in charge of long-range instrumentation in various 
missile tracking stations in the West Indies, and he was Senior 
Engineer at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography from 1956-59 
where he did graduate work in physical oceanography. Mr. Nelson 
now is an engineer with the U. S. Navy Electronics Laboratory, 
San Diego, California, where he is program manager of the bath- 
yscaphe Trieste. 

He is a member of the Instrument Society of America (Exe- 
cutive Committee of the Marine Science Division). 

REAR ADMIRAL CHARLES PIERCE, USC&GS (Ret.), (Rear Ad- 
miral Charles Pierce served as Deputy Director of the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey from August 1957 to August 1961). 

Born in Somerville, Massachusetts, he received his early 
education at local schools and was graduated by Tufts University 
in 1922 with a B.S. in Civil Engineering. The following year he 
entered upon duty with the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

During his 38 years of service with the Bureau, which includes 



466 



over 15 years of sea duty, Admiral Pierce has held many responsi- 
ble positions including field assignments along the coasts of the 
United States, Alaska, and the Philippines. During the years 1945- 
47 he initiated and organized the Airport Survey parties for the 
production of Airport Obstruction Plans. 

He served as Director of Coast Surveys of the Philippine 
Islands from 1947-50 with headquarters at Manila. He was Chief 
of the Coast and Geodetic Surveys Mission on the Phillipine Re- 
habilitation program with responsibility for establishing a 
counterpart Agency in the Republic of the Philippines. For this 
work he was awarded the Philippine Legion of Honor, Commander, 
by the Chief of Staff, Armed Forces of the Philippines. 

In the fall of 1956 he conducted a reconnaissance of the high- 
lands of Ethiopia which resulted in a connplete geodetic survey of 
over 100,000 square miles of rugged and sparsely inhabited terrain. 
He was U. S. delegate at the 12th General Assembly of the Inter- 
national Union of Geodesy and Geophysics held in Helsinki, Finland, 
in the summer of I960. His service at sea included various ship- 
board assignments including Commanding Officer of the largest 
ships in the surveying fleet, the Pathfinder and Pioneer . He served 
for 18 months in the Washington Office as Chief, Division of Geo- 
desy. 

He is past President and life member of the Army and Navy 
Club of Manila. He is a past President of the Washington Society 
of Engineers, Past President of the Washington Post of the Ameri- 
can Military Engineers, Past President of the Section of Geodesy, 
American Geophysical Union. 

Rear Admiral Pierce retired in August 1961, and, at this 
writing, is proceeding to the 8th Conference of the International 
Hydrographic Bureau, at Monaco, as U. S. candidate for the 
Directing Committee and as U. S. delegate. 

DR. WILLIAM S. RICHARDSON, Physical Chemist, Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. 

Dr. Richardson was born at Providence, Rhode Island, on 
October 27, 1923, served in the Navy from 1942-45, was gradu- 
ated by Brown University in 1947 (B. S. ), and received his Ph. D. 
(chemistry) from Harvard in 1950. From 1950-52 he was a 
fellow at the Mellon Institute. He is a member of the American 
Geophysical Union. 

His principal fields of interest are spectroscopy, polymer 
chemistry, eind oceanography. Dr. Richardson is an outstanding 
pioneer in the development of deep water anchored buoys for use 



467 



in obtaining time-series, oceanographic observations. 

DR. JULIUS ROCKWELL, JR., Coordinator, Government-Industry 
Oceanographic Instrumentation Symposium, Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Rockwell was born in Taunton, Massachusetts, July 25, 
1918, was graduated by the University of Michigan with a B.S. 
(zoology) in 1940, served in the United States Navy from 1940-46, 
mainly in shipboard engineering and deck capacities, and is now a 
Commander in the Naval Research Reserve (inactive). From 1946- 
54 he was employed by the Fisheries Research Institute of the 
University of Washington in various studies of Alaska salmon in 
Southeastern Alaska, in Bristol Bay, and on the high seas. He 
received his Ph.D. (fisheries) from the University of Washington 
(Seattle) in 1956. He is presently developing and evaluating auto- 
matic fish counting devices and an automatic scale reader. He 
has worked in a joint Air Force - Navy operations research prob- 
lem, and has participated in the Union College Character Research 
Project as a local research coordinator. Work has included human 
engineering, experimiental psychology (of fishes), and equipment 
design. 

He is a member of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, the American Society of Limnology and Oceano- 
graphy, the American Fisheries Society, and the American Insti- 
tute of Fisheries Research Biologists. 

MURRAY H. SCHEFER, Oceanographer , ASW Division, Bureau of 
Naval Weapons, Washington 25, D. C. 

Mr. Schefer was born January 1, 1918, at Hartford, Connecti- 
cut. He was graduated in 1938 with a B.S. from the College of the 
City of New York. In 1940 he received his M.S. from the State 
University of Iowa where he majored in inorganic analytical chem- 
istry. He served in the Army Air Force from April 1941 to January 
1946. The latter half of this period he served as an aerial navigator 
and navigation instructor. He is presently in the active reserve as 
a MATS navigator. 

In November of 1948 he joined the U. S. Navy Hydrographic 
Office. Dioring employ at the Hydrographic Office, he was assoc- 
iated with the oceanographic survey program. He served as Head, 
Oceanographic Survey Branch, and later as Deputy Director, 
Marine Surveys Division. In June 1961 he assumed his present 
assignment with the Bureau of Naval Weapons. 



468 



JOHN J. SCHULE, JR. , Director, Oceanographic Prediction Divi- 
sion, U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office, Washington 25, D. C. 

Mr. Schule received his B.A. (mathematics) at the St. Johns 
University, Brooklyn, New York. He took an Aviation Cadets 
course in meteorology at New York University, and studied oceano- 
graphy at the Johns Hopkins University. 

He had wartime service as a Weather Officer, U. S. Army Air 
Corps. He also served as Chief Meteorologist, American Overseas 
Airlines, Instructor in the Department of Meteorology at New York 
University, and as Instructor at the U. S. Air Force Weather Offi- 
cer's School. He has been with the Navy Hydrographic Office for 
the past 11 years, where his principal work is the development and 
operation of oceanographic prediction systems in support of Navy 
and other Department of Defense activities. Major areas have been 
in the fields of sea ice prediction, wave forecasting, optimum 
ship routing, and ASWEPS, an environmental prediction system 
for Antisubmarine Warfare operations. 

MR. JAMES M. SNODGRASS, Head, Special Developments Divi- 
sion, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, 
La Jolla, California. 

Mr. Snodgrass was born in Marysville, Ohio, May 3, 1908, 
received his A. B. at Oberlin College (1931), and studied at the 
University of Pennsylvania and at Harvard. He served as Assis- 
tant in Psychology, Oberlin College, 1931-37, as research asso- 
ciate. Fertility Clinic, Free Hospital for Women, Brookline, 
Massachusetts, 1937-40, and as Research Instructor of Psychology 
at Oberlin from 1940-46. He was a member of the technical staff, 
Division of War Research, Columbia University (1942-43), a 
Research Associate and Field Representative, Division of War 
Research, University of California (1943-46), and Chief Engineer, 
Motion Picture Sound Division, Dayton Acme Company (1946-48). 
He joined the Scripps staff in 1948 as an associate research bio- 
logist and was a member of the scientific staff on the Scripps 
Mid-Pac Expedition in 1950. In his present capacity he has been 
responsible for the design and development of many of the new 
instruments that are allowing many striking advances in the science 
of oceanography. 

He is a member of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, Acoustical Society of America, a Senior Member 
of the Instrument Society of America (Director of its Marine Sci- 
ences Division), American Institute of Biological Sciences (Spe- 
cial Consultant), and is active on the Air -Sea Interaction and New 



469 



Devices Panels of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on 
Oceanography. He is a member of the Editorial Board, Journal of 
Marine Research, the Eastern Pacific Oceanographic Conference 
Committee on Radio Transmission of Oceanographic Data, the 
Physiological Society of Philadelphia, the Committee on Radio Fre- 
quency Allocations for Scientific Research of the National Academy 
of Sciences, and Sigma Xi. 

His interests include electro-physiology, sonar, kinesiology, 
radio location, sound recording, deep-sea instrumentation, and 
acoustics. 

REAR ADMIRAL EDWARD CLARK STEPHAN, Oceanographer , 
U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office, Suitland, Maryland. 

Rear Admiral Stephan was born in Washington, D. C. , June 12, 
1907. He was commissioned Ensign by the U. S. Naval Academy 
following graduation on June 8, 1929. He subsequently advanced to 
the rank of Rear Admiral, August 1, 1956. 

Admiral Stephan has had the following duty: Staff of Commander 
Scouting Force; USS Lawrence; Submarine Training; USS Bass; 
Postgraduate School at Annapolis; First Lieutenant Submarine Base, 
New London, Connecticut; Command USS S-35 ; Command USS S-28; 
Postgraduate Course in Law; USS Griffin; Command USS Seawolf; 
Command USS Grayback; and Command USS Devilfish. 

Following the war, Adnniral Stephan has served on the Secretary 
of the Navy's Connmittee on Research and Organization; commanded 
Submarine Division 82; served as Reserve Coordinator on the Staff 
of Commander Submarines, Atlantic Fleet; and commanded Submar- 
ine Squadron 4 in Key West, Florida. He next had duty on the Sub- 
marine Desk with the Office of the Assistant Chief of Naval Operations 
until 1951 when he became Legislative Counsel, Office of the Judge 
Advocate General. In 1953 he commanded Transport Division 21, 
and subsequently Transport Squadron 2. In 1956 he reported to the 
Office of the Comptroller of the Navy and in June became Chief of 
Legislative Liaison, Navy Department. 

In 1958 he assumed command of the South Atlantic Force, where 
he remained until his appointment as Hydrographer in April I960. 
In January 1962 he was additionally designated Oceanographer of the 
Navy iinder the Chief of Naval Operations. 

For his participation in World War II, the Admiral was awarded 
the Navy Cross, three Silver Star Medals, American Defense Ser- 
vice Medal, Ajnerican Campaign Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign 
Medal, World War II Victory Medal, National Defense Service Medal, 
and the Ribbon for the Navy Unit Commendation awarded the USS Gray- 
back . 

470 



ALLYN C. VINE, Physical Oceanographer , Woods Hole Oceano- 
graphic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Vine was born in Garrettsville, Ohio, on June 1, 1914, 
received his B.A. from Hirann College in 1936, and his M.S. 
from Lehigh University (physics) in 1938. Since 1940 he has been 
an outstanding staff member of the Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution, where he has specialized in geophysics, underwater 
acoustics, and instrumentation. From 1947-50 he worked half- 
time in the Bureau of Ships in oceanography. 

In addition he has been Chairman of the Panel on Special 
Devices for Exploring the Oceans of the National Academy of 
Sciences Committee on Oceanography. In this capacity he has 
shown keen leadership in the field of oceanographic instrumenta- 
tion. 

Some of his other activities are: Trustee, Ocean Resources 
Institute, Trustee, International Oceanographic Foundation, mem- 
bership in the American Geophysical Union, the American Assoc- 
iation for the Advancement of Science, the American Physical 
Society, American Acoustical Society, Association of Applied 
Solar Energy, and the Arctic Institute of North America. 

DR. JAMES H. WAKEEIN, JR. , Assistant Secretary of the Navy 
(Research and Development), Department of the Navy, Washington 
25, D. C. 

Dr. Wakelin was born in Hoiyoke, Massachusetts, May 6, 1911. 
He received an A. B. (physics) from Dartmouth College in 193Z. 
During 1932-34 he attended Cambridge University, Cambridge, 
England, where he was granted a B.A. (natural sciences) in 1934 
and an M. A. in 1939. Dr. Wakelin received his Ph. D. (physics) 
from Yale University in 1940 where he specialized in the field of 
ferro-magnetism. 

During 1939-43 Dr. Wakelin was a senior physicist in the 
Physical Research Department of the B. F. Goodrich Company, 
Akron, Ohio, where he was concerned with the structure and 
physical properties of natural and synthetic rubber, and with 
x-ray diffraction and electron microscope studies of high polymers. 

From 1943-45 he was Ordnance Staff Officer to the Coordina- 
tor of Research and Development, Navy Department. During 1945- 
46 as a Lieutenant Commander, USNR, he was Head of the Chemis- 
try, Mathematics, Mechanics, and Materials Sections of the Plan- 
ning Division, Office of Research and Inventions, and was active 
in the planning and organization of the Navy's program to sponsor 
basic scientific research, now under the direction of the Office of 

471 



Naval Research. Following World War II, Dr. Wakelin helped 
establish the Engineering Research Associates, Inc., as Director 
of Research, and as Director of the Field Survey Group of PRO- 
JECT SQUID under ONR contract to Princeton University. 

In 1948 he became Associate Director of Research of the Tex- 
tile Research Institute in Princeton, and in 1951 was appointed 
Director of Research. In 1954 Dr. Wakelin established his own 
consulting business as a consultant on research planning and organ- 
ization to General Electric Company, Stanford Research Institute, 
American Radiator and Standard Sanitary Corporation, J. P. Ste- 
vens and Company, Inc., Frenchtown Porcelain Company, and 
Star Porcelain Company. He helped found the Chesapeake Instru- 
ment Corporation in 1954, established to conduct research and 
development for the Navy in the fields of underwater sound and 
acoustical devices. He was also a Research Associate with Tex- 
tile Research Institute working on the structure and physical pro- 
perties of high polymers under a program sponsored by the Office 
of Naval Research. 

On July 8, 1959, Dr. Wakelin became the first to hold the 
office of Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research and Develop- 
ment. On July 16, 1959, he was designated Chairman of the sub- 
committee of the Federal Council for Science and Technology 
fori 1 , to look into plans for meeting the Nation's needs in oceano- 
graphy. This subcomnnittee, on 22 January I960, was made a per- 
marent part of the Council and redesignated as the Interagency 
Committee on Oceanography. Dr. Wakelin has remained Chairman. 
In July I960, he was Head of the United States Delegation to the 
Intergovernmental Conference on Oceanographic Research which 
met in Copenhagen, Denmark. The Conference recommended the 
establishment, under UNESCO, of an intergovernmental Oceano- 
graphic Commission (IOC) to promote scientific investigations 
of the oceans. Dr. Wakelin was also Head of the United States 
Delegation to the First Session of the IOC held in October 1961 in 
Paris, France. 

Dr. Wakelin is a member of Sigma Xi, the American Physical 
Society, Americaji Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Textile Research Institute, Textile Institute of Great Britain, and 
'»as been a contributor of scientific papers to the Journal of Applied 
Physics, the Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, and Textile Re- 
search Journal in the field of high polymer physics. He is co- 
author, with C. B. Tompkins and W. W. Stifler, Jr., of "High- 
Speed Computing Devices, " published by McGraw-Hill Book Company 
in 1950. 

472 



DR. I. EUGENE WALLEN, Marine Biologist, Environmental 
Sciences Branch, Division of Biology and Medicine, Atomic Ener- 
gy Commission, Washington 25, D. C. 

Dr. Wallen was born in Afton, Oklahoma, October 4, 1921, 
obtained his B. S. in 1941, his M.S. (zoology) in 1946, both at 
Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, and his Ph.D. 
(limnology) at the University of Michigan in 1950. 

He served as a Navy Flier in World War 11 and is now a 
LCDR, active in the Naval Research Reserve. At Oklahoma 
Agricultural and Mechanical College he was an instructor from 
1948-49, Assistant Professor from 1949-53, Associate Profes- 
sor in zoology and Chairman of biological sciences from 1953- 
56. From 1956-57 he was Assistant Director of Science Teaching 
Improvement Program of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science and f-om 1957-59, a Training Officer for 
the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. In 1959 he joined the 
Division of Biology and Medicine in his present capacity. 

In this capacity he has the technical responsibility for research 
projects at Woods Hole, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries at Beaufort, Bermuda Biologi- 
cal Station, etc. , as well as at university campuses to encourage 
establishment of research programs, and to evaluate existing 
research projects. He arranged Commission support for the Inter- 
national Conference in Oceanography and has primary responsi- 
bility for the scientific work at Eniwetok Marine Biology Labora- 
tory. 

He is alternate member for AEC of the Interagency Committee 
on Oceanography of the Federal Council of Science and Technology. 
He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science and of the Oklahoma Academy of Science (Chairman, 
Scientific Section, 1954-56), and a member of the American 
Institute of Biological Sciences, the National Science Teaching 
Association, Phi Kappa Phi, the American Fisheries Society 
(Member, Water Pollution Committee, 1954-56), the American 
Society for Limnology and Oceanography, Sigma Xi (Local 
Treasurer, 1951-54), and the Wildlife Society. 

He has 27 published articles ajid many more Congressional 
Hearing reports and mimeographed articles. His fields of interest 
are pond and lake limnology, water pollution, science education, 
and oceaxLOgraphy. 

THEODORE J. WEHE, Prograjn Manager for Oceanography, 
Martin Company, Electronic Systems and Products Division, 



473 



Baltimore 3, Maryland. 

Mr. Wehe was born in Berwyn, Illinois, on December 3, 1927. 
He attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was graduated 
from Brown University with an A.B. in geology, and took graduate 
courses at the United States Department of Agricultxire Graduate 
School, George Washington University, and at American University. 

He began his oceanographic career in 1946 at Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution and participated as an oceanographic 
technician in Radiological Safety Section of JTF-1 during Able and 
Baker atonnic tests at Bikini. After working at the Mount Washing- 
ton Observatory as an icing observer, he returned to WHOI to exe- 
cute oceanographic surveys off the coast of North Carolina and in 
the Persian Gulf. From 1951-53 he was an assistant oceanographer 
at Narragansett Marine Laboratory and active in various surveys of 
Narragansett Bay and approaches. He joined the U. S. Navy Hydro- 
graphic Office in 1955 as an oceanographer and held positions of 
increasing responsibility from analyst of tides and currents, to 
Project Coordinator for Special Projects, and Special Assistant 
to the Special Projects Officer. In the latter capacity, he parti- 
cipated in and contributed to various programs, including the 
Government-Industry Oceanographic Instrumentation Symposium, 
and the proposed U. S. National Oceanwide Survey Program. 

He recently accepted a position as Program Manager for Ocean- 
ography, Martin Company, a division of the Majrtin Marietta Cor- 
poration. As such, he is responsible for developing and managing 
oceanographic research, systems, and instrumentation in and for 
the Electronic Systems and Products Division, and, additionally, 
for seeing that existing talents, capabilities, and experience in ASW 
and underwater acoustics at Martin are used to best advantage in 
the program. 

He is a member of AGU, AMS, and NSIA, and an associate 
member of ORSA. He has authored and co-authored a number of 
reports and has been editor of ajid/or contributor to others in- 
cluding "Mathematical Applications of Operations Research" by 
Dr. T. L. Saaty (McGraw-Hill, 1959). 

DR. J. LAMAR WORZEL, Assistant Director, Lament Geological 
Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York. 

Dr. Worzel was born in West Brighton, Staten Island, New York, 
Februciry 21, 1919. He received his B.S. in engineering physics 
in 1940 from Lehigh University. Upon graduation he joined the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution as a Research Associate where 
he was engaged in research on vmderwater sound eind photography. 

474 



He was made a Research Associate in Geophysics at the Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, in 
1946. He came to Columbia University in 1946 as a geodesist where 
he received his M.A. in 1948 and his Ph.D. in 1949. In 1948-49 
he worked as Research Associate in Geology at Columbia Univer- 
sity. He becamie Instructor in the Department of Geology, Colum- 
bia University in 1949, Assistant Professor in 1951, Associate 
Professor in 1952, and Professor in 1957. In 1950 he became Geo- 
physical Consultant for the Office of Naval Research. In 1951 he 
was made Assistant Director of the Lamont Geological Observatory 
of Colximbia University. 

He is Chairman, Special Study Group 20, International Union 
of Geodesy and Geophysics, and a member of the Panel of the 
Indian Ocean Expedition of the U. S. National Committee for 
SCOR. 

He is a member of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, the Geological Society of America, the American 
Physical Society, the Seismological Society of America, the Society 
of Exploration Geophysics, ajid the American Geophysical Union. 

His principal research has involved gravity at sea, seismic 
refraction at sea, underwater photography, soxind transmission of 
sea water, and oceanography. 

CHARLES S. YENTSCH, Research Associate in Marine Biology, 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Yentsch was born in Louisville, Kentucky, on September 
13, 1927. He obtained his B.S. at the University of Louisville in 
1950 and his M.S. at Florida State University in 1953. He was a 
Marine Biologist, Florida State University, from 1952-53, and 
a Biological Oceanographer at the University of Washington (Seattle) 
from 1953-55. He joined the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 
in 1955 where he has been acting in his present capacity in the study 
of marine phytoplajikton ecology. He served in the U. S. Navy 
from 1945-46. 

He is a member of the American Society of Limnology and 
Oceanography and the Americaji Phycological Society. 

Mr. Yentsch has published a number of articles in national and 
international journals on marine productivity and is well known 
in his field. He is also an authority on the instrumentation re- 
quired for the study of the biological processes in the sea. 



475 



APPENDIX L 

SOME ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 
USED IN OCEANOGRAPHY 



AEC: Atomic Energy Commission. 

ART: Airborne Radiation Thermometer. 

ASTM: American Society for Testing Materials. 

ASW: Anti- Submarine Warfare. 

ASWEPS: Anti -Submarine Warfare Environmental Prediction System. 

BCF: Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. 
BT: Bathythermograph. 
BUSHIPS: Bureau of Ships. 
BUWEPS: Bureau of Naval Weapons. 

CMR: Common Mode Rejection. 

CNO: Chief of Naval Operations. 

CSIRO: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organiza- 
tion (Australia). 



DECCA: A continous-wave, hyperbolic radio aid to navigation in 

which a receiver measures and indicates the relative phase 
differences between signals received fronn two or more 
synchronized ground stations. 

DOD: Department of Defense. 

DOG: Director, Office of Oceanography. The proposed office to be 

477 



established within the Natural Sciences Departnnent of UNESCO. 
DRAI: Dead Reckoning Analog Indicator. 
DRT: Dead Reckoning Tracer. 

EQUALANT I & II: Tropical Atlantic Investigation. 

FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. Established 1945 
at Quebec. Headquarters in Rome. Supported by the dues of 
nnennber countries. 

FLIP: Floating Instrument Platform, 

FM: Frequency modulation. 

HO: Hydrographic Office, 
HUK: Hunter -Killer. 
HYDRO: Hydrographic Office. 



lACOMS: International Advisory Committee on Marine Sciences. 
Organized November 1955 as part of UNESCO Natural 
Sciences program; also advisory to FAO. 

IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency. Organized 1956 in, New 
Yord. Headquarters in Vienna. 

lAPO: International Association of Physical Oceanography. One of 
the associations constituting the lUGG. Established 1919. 
No salaried enriployees or headquarters. Supported by 
UNESCO through lUGG. Meets concurrently with lUGG. 

IBM: International Business Machines. 



478 



IC£)S: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Founded 
1899/1902 as an association of fishing nations of northwest 
Europe. Headquarters at Charlottenlund, Copenhagen. Sup- 
ported by dues of member countries. 

ICO: Interagency Committee on Oceanography. 

ICSU: International Council of Scientific Unions. Founded 1919 

in Brussels. Headquarters at The Hague. Membership com- 
posed of national academies of science of 43 countries. Sup- 
ported by dues of members and by UNESCO. 

IGY: International Geophysical Year. 

IIOE: International Indian Ocean Expedition. 

IOC: The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. Estab- 
lished by UNESCO. 

IRE: Institute of Radio Engineers. 

ISA: Instrument Society of America. 

lUGG: International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. Founded 1919 
in Brussels. One of the constituent Unions of ICSU. Mem- 
bership connposed of geophysical organs of national acadenn- 
dies of science of various countries. Headquarters (secre- 
tary's address) in Paris, but meets every three years in 
various parts of the world. 1963 meeting to be in Berkeley. 
Supported by dues and by UNESCO. 

I. T. & T. : International Telephone and Telegraph. 



LGO: Lamont Geological Observatory. 
LORAN: Long Range Navigation. 



MAD: Magnetic Anomaly Detection. 



479 



Mil-E-Con: Military Electronic Conference (Sponsored by IRE). 
MOHO: The Mohorovicic discontinuity. 
MSTS: Military Sea Transport Service. 

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 

NASCO: National Academy of Sciences Committee on Oceanography. 

NEL: United States Navy Electronics Laboratory. 

NODC: National Oceanographic Data Center. 

NSIA: National Security Industrial Association. 



OMEGA: A long-range navigation system originally developed for 

totally submerged submarines, giving worldwide coverage 
with six to ten ground stations. 

ONR: Office of Naval Research. 

ORSA: Operations Research Society of America. 



RCA: Radio Corporation of America. 
RF: Radiofrequency. 
R/V: Research Vessel. 



SCOR: Special Committee on Oceanic Research. Set up by ICSU in 
August 1957 as a means of coordinating the oceanographic 
interests of lUGG (lAPO) and the various other ICSU unions, 
such as those for biology, geography, chemistry, and physics. 
Committees of national academies of science have been set 



480 



up to adhere to SCOR, and its support comes from these 
committees. 

SCUBA: Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. 

SINS: Ships Internal Navigation System. 

SIO: Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 

SNAP: Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power. 

SMPTE: Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. 

SVTP: Sound Velocity, Temperature, and Pressure unit. 

TENOC: Ten-year oceanographic program (Navy). 

TNT: Tr initrotoiulene - an explosive. 

TRANSIT: Program to develop and establish in being a system of 

near-earth satellites to provide a means for establishing 
locations (navigating) anyw^here on the surface of the 
earth (Kershner). 

TV: Television. 

UHF: Ultrahigh frequency. 

UN: The United Nations. A political organization of most of the 
nations of the world. It has set up specialized agencies such 
as UNESCO, FAO, and IAEA, open for membership to UN 
member nations desiring to cooperate in these special fields 
and also to non-UN members (such as Switzerland). 

UNESCO: The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural 
Organization. Established 1945 in London. Headquarters 
in Paris. Supported by dues from member countries. 
Established lACOMS and IOC. 

USCG; United States Coast Guard. 

481 



USC&GS: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

USN: United States Navy. 

USWB: United States Weather Bureau. 

VHF: Very high frequency. 

WHOI: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 

WMO: World Meteorological Organization. Established as IMO in 
1947 and becanne WMO in 1951. Headquarters in Geneva. 
Supported by dues from member countries. 



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Photograph by R. Baylor 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts 



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